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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222290/chronic-organ-failure-in-adult-sickle-cell-disease
#1
REVIEW
Elliott Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease is now a chronic adult illness characterized by progressive multiorgan failure, particularly involving the brain and kidney. The etiology is multifactorial; it includes hemolysis and nitric oxide deficiency. As patients age, most experience neurologic insult. Twenty-five percent of older adults have had a clinical stroke and at least half of the population have had a silent infarct, cortical atrophy, and neurocognitive impairment. Periodic screening with neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing is recommended...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222288/cardiovascular-complications-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#2
REVIEW
Mark T Gladwin
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disease in which homozygosity for a single point mutation in the gene encoding the β-globin chain produces hemoglobin S molecules that polymerize within the erythrocyte during deoxygenation; the result is sustained hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive events. As patients live to adulthood, the chronic impact of sustained hemolytic anemia and episodic vaso-occlusive episodes leads to progressive end-organ complications. This scenario culminates in the development of 1 or more major cardiovascular complications of SCD for which there are no approved or consensus therapies...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221436/prevalence-and-related-risk-factors-of-chronic-kidney-disease-among-adults-in-luxembourg-evidence-from-the-observation-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-oriscav-lux-study
#3
Ala'a Alkerwi, Nicolas Sauvageot, Illiasse El Bahi, Charles Delagardelle, Jean Beissel, Stephanie Noppe, Paul J Roderick, Jennifer S Mindell, Saverio Stranges
BACKGROUND: Evidence on stages of renal impairment and related risk factors in Luxembourg is lacking. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify potential correlates among the general population, using the recent definition suggested by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. METHODS: Data analysed from 1361 participants aged 18-69 years, enrolled in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, 2007-08...
December 8, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218312/potassium-homeostasis-oxidative-stress-and-human-disease
#4
Udensi K Udensi, Paul B Tchounwou
Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid and it plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal cell functions. Thus, potassium homeostasis across the cell membrane, is very critical because a tilt in this balance can result in different diseases that could be life threatening. Both Oxidative stress (OS) and potassium imbalance can cause life threatening health conditions. OS and abnormalities in potassium channel have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights the major factors involved in potassium homeostasis (dietary, hormonal, genetic, and physiologic influences), and discusses the major diseases and abnormalities associated with potassium imbalance including hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and Gordon's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome...
2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218066/arterial-stiffness-and-hypertension-which-comes-first
#5
Monica Ecobici, Claudiu Stoicescu
Arterial hypertension is one of the traditional risk factors involved in the development of cardiovascular events, while arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension. It seems that the risk factors involved in the pathology of uncontrolled hypertension are similar to those that contribute to the development of arterial stiffness. After evidence showed that arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with arterial hypertension, the importance of assessing arterial stiffness was recognized in a document drafted by the European Society of Hypertension in 2007...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217892/bowel-migration-of-dormant-chronic-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter-a-vexed-problem-not-avoided-by-flushing
#6
P Vincent, J Gopinathan, R Narayanan
Delayed bowel erosion by peritoneal dialysis catheter is rare with fewer than thirty cases having been reported in the literature. This complication is usually encountered when the catheter is kept dormant. Two cases have also been reported with catheters in active use. The risk factors for bowel erosion include immunosuppression, diverticulosis, and amyloidosis. An 80-year-old male with chronic kidney disease Stage 5 due to hypertensive nephrosclerosis underwent chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217888/nutcracker-syndrome-with-hypertension-as-an-unusual-initial-presentation
#7
N A Narkhede, A B Deokar, K P Mehta, N N Kamat
Hypertension has been rarely reported in patients with the nutcracker phenomenon (NCP)/syndrome. We describe a case of a young adolescent female patient where a computed tomography angiography (CTA) provided evidence of left renal vein dilatation, probably due to its compression through the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, during the evaluation of secondary hypertension. Blood levels of renin and aldosterone were within normal limits. Ultrasonography of the kidney showed minimal scarring on the left side...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217884/how-harmful-can-herbal-remedies-be-a-case-of-severe-acute-tubulointerstitial-nephritis
#8
P Beniwal, N Gaur, S K Singh, N Raveendran, V Malhotra
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a condition in which acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the histological finding of interstitial inflammation. Hyponidd is an ayurvedic drug containing Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre, Swertia chirata, etc., used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and polycystic ovarian disease as an insulin sensitizer. There are no case reports of AIN caused by this drug yet. We report a biopsy-proven case of AKI due to severe AIN associated with the use of hyponidd tablet in a 60-year-old male with DM and hypertension...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217578/a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-trpc5-ion-channels-suppresses-progressive-kidney-disease-in-animal-models
#9
Yiming Zhou, Philip Castonguay, Eriene-Heidi Sidhom, Abbe R Clark, Moran Dvela-Levitt, Sookyung Kim, Jonas Sieber, Nicolas Wieder, Ji Yong Jung, Svetlana Andreeva, Jana Reichardt, Frank Dubois, Sigrid C Hoffmann, John M Basgen, Mónica S Montesinos, Astrid Weins, Ashley C Johnson, Eric S Lander, Michael R Garrett, Corey R Hopkins, Anna Greka
Progressive kidney diseases are often associated with scarring of the kidney's filtration unit, a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). This scarring is due to loss of podocytes, cells critical for glomerular filtration, and leads to proteinuria and kidney failure. Inherited forms of FSGS are caused by Rac1-activating mutations, and Rac1 induces TRPC5 ion channel activity and cytoskeletal remodeling in podocytes. Whether TRPC5 activity mediates FSGS onset and progression is unknown. We identified a small molecule, AC1903, that specifically blocks TRPC5 channel activity in glomeruli of proteinuric rats...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217537/characteristics-and-performance-of-unilateral-kidney-transplants-from-deceased-donors
#10
Syed Ali Husain, Mariana C Chiles, Samnang Lee, Stephen O Pastan, Rachel E Patzer, Bekir Tanriover, Lloyd E Ratner, Sumit Mohan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The fraction of kidneys procured for transplant that are discarded is rising in the United States. Identifying donors from whom only one kidney was discarded allows us to control for donor traits and better assess reasons for organ discard. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file data to identify deceased donors from whom two kidneys were procured and at least one was transplanted...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217449/role-of-brachial-artery-ligation-bal-in-management-of-prosthetic-arterio-venous-graft-infections
#11
A R Chandrashekar, Chetan R Hoskatti, Sanjay C Desai, Rajendra B Prasad
CONTEXT: Arterio-Venous Graft (AVG) infections can present as major life-threatening hemorrhage or sepsis in a chronic kidney disease patient. Frequently all these patients present in critical condition which need prompt and expeditious management. Various procedures are described for management of infected grafts and its bleeding complications. However these procedures are associated with postop-operative bleeding and persistent infection. AIM: To study brachial artery ligation near the elbow joint in the management of an infected AV graft...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217441/impact-of-bmi-on-outcomes-after-mesenteric-revascularization-for-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia
#12
Neel A Mansukhani, Katherine E Hekman, Dustin Y Yoon, Irene B Helenowski, Andrew W Hoel, Heron E Rodriguez, William H Pearce, Mark K Eskandari, Tadaki M Tomita
OBJECTIVE: Historically, patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) are underweight with a low body mass index (BMI). However, with the recent obesity epidemic many of these patients now are overweight with a high BMI. We evaluated the impact of BMI on outcomes after mesenteric revascularization for CMI. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing open or endovascular mesenteric revascularization for CMI between January 2000 and June 2015 was performed...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217372/acute-peritoneal-dialysis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-an-8-year-experience-of-a-referral-hospital
#13
Aslihan Kara, Metin Kaya Gurgoze, Mustafa Aydin, Erdal Taskin, Unal Bakal, Aysen Orman
BACKGROUND: The aim of present study was to evaluate the indications, complications and outcomes of acute peritoneal dialysis (APD) in neonates at a referral university hospital during the previous 8 years. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included a total of 52 newborn infants who underwent APD in a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2008 and March 2016. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were extracted from patients' medical files...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217305/longitudinal-weight-change-during-ckd-progression-and-its-association-with-subsequent-mortality
#14
Elaine Ku, Joel D Kopple, Kirsten L Johansen, Charles E McCulloch, Alan S Go, Dawei Xie, Feng Lin, L Lee Hamm, Jiang He, John W Kusek, Sankar D Navaneethan, Ana C Ricardo, Hernan Rincon-Choles, Miroslaw Smogorzewski, Chi-Yuan Hsu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the changes in weight that may occur over time among adults with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether such weight changes are independently associated with death after the onset of end-stage renal disease has also not been rigorously examined. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied 3,933 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study, a longitudinal cohort of patients with CKD...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216336/managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
December 5, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215755/apelin-apj-system-a-critical-regulator-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell
#16
REVIEW
Xuling Luo, Jiaqi Liu, Hong Zhou, Linxi Chen
APJ, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is first identified through homology cloning in 1993. Apelin is endogenous ligand of APJ extracted from bovine stomach tissue in 1998. Apelin/APJ system is widely expressed in many kinds of cells such as endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, especially vascular smooth muscle cell. Vascular smooth muscle cell, an integral part of the vascular wall, takes part in many normal physiological processes. Our experiment firstly finds that apelin/APJ system enhances VSMC proliferation by ERK1/2-cyclin D1 signal pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215520/preeclampsia-and-long-term-renal-function-in-women-who-underwent-kidney-transplantation
#17
Valerie Vannevel, Kathleen Claes, David Baud, Yvan Vial, Delaviz Golshayan, Eugene W Yoon, Ryan Hodges, Anne Le Nepveu, Peter G Kerr, Claire Kennedy, Mary Higgins, Elisabeth Resch, Philipp Klaritsch, Tim Van Mieghem
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia often complicates pregnancies after maternal kidney transplantation. We aimed to assess whether preeclampsia is associated with kidney function decline either during the pregnancy or in the long term. METHODS: We performed an international multicenter retrospective cohort study. Renal function at conception, pregnancy outcomes, and short- and long-term graft outcomes were collected for women who were pregnant after renal transplantation and had transplant and obstetric care at the participating centers...
December 4, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212081/in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-short-term-blood-pressure-variability-is-associated-with-the-presence-and-severity-of-sleep-disorders
#18
Martino F Pengo, Donatella Ioratti, Valeria Bisogni, Verdiana Ravarotto, Barbara Rossi, Luciana Bonfante, Francesca Simioni, Federico Nalesso, Giuseppe Maiolino, Lorenzo A Calò
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with poor outcome. Sleep disturbances alter BP profiles in hypertensives but their influence on BPV in CKD patients is unknown. We screened a cohort of CKD/ESRD patients to investigate whether sleep quality impacts on BPV. METHODS: Consecutive CKD patients' sleep quality was assessed using validated questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS); International Restless legs scale-IRLS; Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-FOSQ: Insomnia Severity Index-ISI; STOP-Bang)...
November 28, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211853/nrf2-deficiency-upregulates-intrarenal-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-and-angiotensin-1-7-receptor-expression-and-attenuates-hypertension-and-nephropathy-in-diabetic-mice
#19
Shuiling Zhao, Anindya Ghosh, Chao-Sheng Lo, Isabelle Chenier, James W Scholey, Janos G Filep, Julie R Ingelfinger, Shao-Ling Zhang, John S D Chan
We investigated the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) gene expression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) and in the development of systemic hypertension and kidney injury in diabetic Akita mice. We used adult male Akita Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice and Akita mice treated with trigonelline (an Nrf2 inhibitor) or oltipraz (an Nrf2 activator). We also examined immortalized rat RPTCs (IRPTCs) stably transfected with control plasmids or plasmids containing rat angiotensinogen (Agt), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (Ace2) or angiotensin 1-7 receptor (MasR) gene promoters...
December 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211322/perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-the-dynamic-regulation-of-kv-7-and-kir-channels-implications-to-resistant-hypertension
#20
Maik Gollasch, Donald G Welsh, Rudolf Schubert
Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled despite treatment with at least three antihypertensive drugs at adequate doses. Resistant hypertension is an increasingly common clinical problem in older age, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, and chronic kidney disease. Although the direct vasodilator minoxidil was introduced in the early 1970s, only recently has this drug been shown to be particularly effective in a subgroup of patients with treatment-resistant or uncontrolled hypertension...
December 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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