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Sodium & water balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801267/primum-non-nocere-the-effects-of-sodium-hypochlorite-on-dentin-as-used-in-endodontics
#1
Li-Sha Gu, Xue-Qing Huang, Brandon Griffin, Brian R Bergeron, David H Pashley, Li-Na Niu, Franklin R Tay
The medical literature is replete with the maxim 'primum non nocere', cautioning health care providers to avoid doing any harm to human subjects in their delivery of medical care. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a well-established irrigant for root canal treatment because of its antimicrobial and organic tissue remnant dissolution capability. However, little is known about the deleterious effect of this strong oxidizing agent on the integrity of human mineralized dentin. Iatrogenically-induced loss of dentin integrity may precipitate post-treatment root fracture and has potential medico-legal complications...
August 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796300/apelin-apj-system-a-novel-potential-therapy-target-for-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Zhen Huang, Lele Wu, Linxi Chen
Apelin is an endogenous ligand of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are distributed in various tissues, including the heart, lung, kidney, and even in tumor tissues. Studies show that apelin mRNA is highly expressed in the inner stripe of kidney outer medulla, which plays an important role in process of water and sodium balance. Additionally, more studies also indicate that apelin/APJ system exerts a broad range of activities in kidney. Therefore, we review the role of apelin/APJ system in kidney diseases such as renal fibrosis, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease and hemodialysis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791006/regulation-of-lung-epithelial-sodium-channels-by-cytokines-and-chemokines
#3
REVIEW
Brandi M Wynne, Li Zou, Valerie Linck, Robert S Hoover, He-Ping Ma, Douglas C Eaton
Acute lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress (ARDS) is a global health concern. ARDS patients have significant pulmonary inflammation leading to flooding of the pulmonary alveoli. This prevents normal gas exchange with consequent hypoxemia and causes mortality. A thin fluid layer in the alveoli is normal. The maintenance of this thin layer results from fluid movement out of the pulmonary capillaries into the alveolar interstitium driven by vascular hydrostatic pressure and then through alveolar tight junctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771454/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-drives-electroneutral-nacl-reabsorption-in-intercalated-cells-by-activating-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-oxgr1
#4
Paul R Grimm, Paul A Welling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1. RECENT FINDINGS: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768662/stimulation-of-diuresis-and-natriuresis-by-renomedullary-infusion-of-a-dual-inhibitor-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-and-monoacylglycerol-lipase
#5
Ashfaq Ahmad, Zdravka Daneva, Guangbi Li, Sara K Dempsey, Ningjun Li, Justin Poklis, Aron Lichtman, Pin-Lan Li, Joseph Kraft Ritter
The renal medulla, considered critical for the regulation of salt and water balance and long-term blood pressure control, is enriched in anandamide and two of its major metabolizing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Infusion of anandamide (15, 30 and 60 nmol/min/kg) into the renal medulla of C57BL/6J mice stimulated diuresis and salt excretion in a COX-2- but not COX-1-dependent manner. To determine if endogenous endocannabinoids in the renal medulla can elicit similar effects, the effects of intramedullary isopropyl dodecyl fluorophosphate (IDFP), which inhibits the two major endocannabinoid hydrolases, were studied...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759085/resveratrol-did-not-alter-blood-pressure-in-rats-with-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibited-hypertension
#6
Mehmet Aydin, Buket Gungor, A Secil Akdur, Hakki Engin Aksulu, Coskun Silan, Ibrahim Susam, Ali Kemal Cabuk, Gizem Cabuk
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a well-known experimental model of hypertension (HT). It was shown that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of HT. Resveratrol is a potent anti-oxidant that is found in red grapes, peanuts and red wine. It improves the NO response and increases endothelial NOS expression, which causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation as well as renal vasodilation. We aimed to explore the effects of resveratrol on blood pressure, the water-salt balance and sodium excretion as a reflection of renal function in NOS-inhibited rat models...
May 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744670/rna-binding-protein-hur-enhances-mineralocorticoid-signaling-in-renal-kc3ac1-cells-under-hypotonicity
#7
Ingrid Lema, Larbi Amazit, Khadija Lamribet, Jérôme Fagart, Anne Blanchard, Marc Lombès, Nadia Cherradi, Say Viengchareun
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates the sodium-retaining action of aldosterone in the distal nephron. Herein, we decipher mechanisms by which hypotonicity increases MR expression in renal principal cells. We identify HuR (human antigen R), an mRNA-stabilizing protein, as an important posttranscriptional regulator of MR expression. Hypotonicity triggers a rapid and reversible nuclear export of HuR in renal KC3AC1 cells, as quantified by high-throughput microscopy. We also identify a key hairpin motif in the 3'-untranslated region of MR transcript, pivotal for the interaction with HuR and its stabilizing function...
July 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727890/surfactant-concentration-and-type-affects-the-removal-of-escherichia-coli-from-pig-skin-during-a-simulated-handwash
#8
Dane A Jensen, Michael A Rogers, Donald W Schaffner
The effect of surfactant type and concentration on a bland soap formulations ability to remove bacteria from hands remains largely unstudied. Several combinations of surfactants and water were combined to test bacterial removal efficacy using a handwashing device (two pieces of pig skin and a mechanical motor) to simulate a handwash. A nalidixic acid resistant, non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) was used. Two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium stearoyl lactylate, and two nonionic surfactants, poloxamer 407 and sorbitan monostearate, each in concentrations of 2%, 5%, and 10% were studied...
July 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708402/two-step-micellization-model-the-case-of-long-chain-carboxylates-in-water
#9
Žiga Medoš, Marija Bešter-Rogač
The micellization behavior of the long-chain carboxylates-sodium and potassium octanoate (NaC8 and KC8), sodium decanoate (NaC10), potassium decanoate (KC10), cesium decanoate (CsC10), choline decanoate (ChC10), and sodium dodecanoate (NaC12)-in aqueous solutions were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the temperature range between 288.15 and 328.15 K. Experimental data were analyzed by help of an improved model treating the micellization process as a two-step process. Furthermore, consideration of the state of the stock and titrated solutions during the experiment allowed for the elimination of all usually used empirical parameters...
July 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673579/the-chloride-theory-a-unifying-hypothesis-for-renal-handling-and-body-fluid-distribution-in-heart-failure-pathophysiology
#10
Hajime Kataoka
Body fluid volume regulation is a complex process involving the interaction of various afferent (sensory) and neurohumoral efferent (effector) mechanisms. Historically, most studies focused on the body fluid dynamics in heart failure (HF) status through control of the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body, and maintaining arterial circulatory integrity is central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation in HF pathophysiology. The pathophysiologic background of the biochemical determinants of vascular volume in HF status, however, has not been known...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665738/development-of-a-dry-medium-for-isolation-of-histomonas-meleagridis-in-the-field
#11
Miguel A Barrios, Anna Kenyon, Robert Beckstead
Blackhead disease is caused by Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and results in mortality rates of up to 100% in turkeys and 30% in chickens. Outbreaks of blackhead disease are unpredictable, and the harvesting of H. meleagridis strains from the field would be a great resource for researchers to study its epidemiology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a dry medium that would allow storage at ambient temperatures until needed. Fifty milliliters of horse serum was dried and then mixed with dry medium M199 with Hanks balanced salts (10...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644866/the-high-tolerance-to-aluminium-in-crucian-carp-carassius-carassius-is-associated-with-its-ability-to-avoid-hypoxia
#12
Antonio B S Poléo, Joachim Schjolden, Jørgen Sørensen, Göran E Nilsson
It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634813/long-term-excessive-selenium-supplementation-induces-hypertension-in-rats
#13
Denise Grotto, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Michele Mazzaron de Castro, Solange Cristina Garcia, Fernando Barbosa Junior
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in several biological pathways, naturally found in rocks, soils, and food. Even though the daily requirement of Se is achieved through a balanced diet, the use of Se supplements has been frequent. Due to the risk of toxic effects of having Se in excess, supplementation is still under debate. The aim was to evaluate the effects of long-term Se supplementation upon systolic blood pressure (SBP) and redox status of rats exposed to sodium selenite. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 2 and 6 mg/L of sodium selenite in drinking water for 85 days...
June 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#14
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584821/th1-th2-balance-and-th17-treg-mediated-immunity-in-relation-to-murine-resistance-to-dextran-sulfate-induced-colitis
#15
Fangli Yang, Danan Wang, Yan Li, Lixuan Sang, Junfeng Zhu, Jinyan Wang, Bing Wei, Changlong Lu, Xun Sun
BACKGROUND: The role of the Th17/Treg balance in the development of experimental colitis remains poorly understood. METHODS: We exploited the differential response of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 mice towards drinking water mediated by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) challenge. RESULTS: DSS-resistant BALB/c mice were characterized by low levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α but high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, and colon lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells when compared to C57BL/6 mice...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583780/-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-early-diagnosis-avoids-severe-hyponatremia-complications
#16
A Cailleaux, F Mahieu, C Heinrichs, B Adams, K Ismaili, C Brachet
AIM: Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a rare disease characterized by a kidney disability to dilute urine and, as a result, severe recurrent hyponatremia. Due to wide variability in clinical expression, the diagnosis still remains a challenge for clinicians. We report our experience of a case in which NSIAD was diagnosed early. We also stress the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, which protects an infant with NSAID from severe hyponatremia. BACKGROUND: A 1-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for persistent hyponatremia and intense vomiting...
June 2, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573142/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-cirrhosis-patients
#17
REVIEW
Lei Lei, Liangping Li, Hu Zhang
Liver cirrhosis is a common progressive and chronic clinical liver disease. Due to the strong compensation ability of the liver, no obvious symptoms develop in the early stage. However, multiple systems are involved in decompensation of the liver. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications, characterized by a sharp drop in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); a rapid increase in Scr and BUN, as well as sodium and water storage; and a disturbance of acid-base balance. The mortality rate is high, and the prognosis is very poor...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554145/physiological-and-biochemical-perspectives-of-non-salt-tolerant-plants-during-bacterial-interaction-against-soil-salinity
#18
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Kwang Hyun Baek
Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#19
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530505/ingestion-of-sodium-bicarbonate-nahco3-following-a-fatiguing-bout-of-exercise-accelerates-post-exercise-acid-base-balance-recovery-and-improves-subsequent-high-intensity-cycling-time-to-exhaustion
#20
Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins
This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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