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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#1
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153467/water-balance-in-the-fetus-and-neonate
#2
REVIEW
Julie B Lindower
Fetal water balance is dependent prenatally on the placental transfer of water from maternal to fetal circulation. Adequate amniotic fluid volume is one indicator of stable fetal status and development. Excessive or less than expected amniotic fluid volume may be a precursor to postnatal morbidity and mortality. Postnatal transition is marked by predictable changes in body water including contraction of extracellular volume and insensible fluid loss, primarily across the skin barrier. The degree to which these occur is determined by gestational and postnatal age...
January 30, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137758/derlin-1-promotes-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac
#3
Hui You, Yamei Ge, Jian Zhang, Yizhi Cao, Jing Xing, Dongming Su, Yujie Huang, Min Li, Shen Qu, Fei Sun, Xiubin Liang
Ubiquitination of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) plays a critical role in cellular functions, including transmembrane transport of sodium, sodium and water balance, and blood pressure stabilization. Published studies have suggested that ENaC subunits are targets of ER-related degradation (ERAD) in yeast systems. However, the molecular mechanism underlying proteasome-mediated degradation of ENaC subunits remains to be established. Derlin-1, an E3 ligase mediator, links recognized target proteins to ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation in the cytosol...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135107/free-energy-of-scission-for-sodium-laureth-1-sulfate-wormlike-micelles
#4
Karsten Vogtt, Hanqiu Jiang, Gregory Beaucage, Michael Weaver
Wormlike micelles (WLMs) are nanoscale, self-assembled components of many products from shampoos to fracking fluids due to their viscoelasticity. Their rheological behavior is largely governed by the contour length of the micelles and the concomitant propensity of the micelles to overlap and entangle. The large contour lengths, on the order of micrometers, is the result of a delicate balance between the scission enthalpy of the wormlike micelles on the one hand and entropic factors such as the mixing entropy of dispersion, the ordering of water molecules and counterions, and the mobility of branch points on the other hand...
February 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126906/optimizing-the-restoration-and-maintenance-of-fluid-balance-after-exercise-induced-dehydration
#5
Gethin Hywel Evans, Lewis John James, Susan Margaret Shirreffs, Ronald J Maughan
Hypohydration, or a body water deficit, is a common occurrence in athletes and recreational exercisers following the completion of an exercise session. For those who will undertake a further exercise session that day, it is important to replace water losses to avoid beginning the next exercise session hypohydrated and the potential detrimental effects on performance that this may lead to. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research related to factors that may affect post-exercise rehydration...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101449/immunohistochemical-expression-of-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-components-in-response-to-tempol-in-rats-fed-a-high-salt-diet
#6
Gabriel Cao, Silvana Lorena Della Penna, Nicolás Martín Kouyoumdzian, Marcelo Roberto Choi, Susana Gorzalczany, Belisario Enrique Fernández, Jorge Eduardo Toblli, María Inés Rosón
AIM: To determine the effect of tempol in normal rats fed high salt on arterial pressure and the balance between antagonist components of the renal renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 8% NaCl high-salt (HS) or 0.4% NaCl (normal-salt, NS) diet for 3 wk, with or without tempol (T) (1 mmol/L, administered in drinking water). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary sodium excretion (UVNa) were measured...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087147/immune-responses-to-in-ovo-vaccine-formulations-containing-inactivated-fowl-adenovirus-8b-with-poly-di-sodium-carboxylatoethylphenoxy-phosphazene-pcep-and-avian-beta-defensin-as-adjuvants-in-chickens
#7
Mishal Sarfraz, Muhammed Suleman, Suresh K Tikoo, Colette Wheler, Andrew A Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major viral infections causing substantial economic loss to the global poultry industry. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of mortality (2-30%) and high morbidity (60-70%). IBH is caused by a number of serotypes of fowl adenovirus with substantially low levels of serotype cross protection. Thus far, there is no effective and safe vaccine commercially available in the North America for the control of IBH in chickens. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) is a high molecular weight, biodegradable water soluble polymer that has been well characterized as a safe and effective adjuvant for a number of experimental veterinary vaccines...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066913/dialysate-sodium-rationale-for-evolution-over-time
#8
Jennifer E Flythe, Finnian R Mc Causland
Oligo-anuric individuals receiving hemodialysis (HD) are dependent on the dialysis machine to regulate sodium and water balance. Interest in adjusting the dialysate sodium concentration to promote tolerance of the HD procedure dates back to the early years of dialysis therapy. Evolution of dialysis equipment technologies and clinical characteristics of the dialysis population have prompted clinicians to increase the dialysate sodium concentration over time. Higher dialysate sodium concentrations generally promote hemodynamic stabilization and reduce intradialytic symptoms but often do so at the expense of stimulating thirst and promoting volume expansion...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#9
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967227/sodium-and-water-imbalance-after-sellar-suprasellar-and-parasellar-surgery
#10
Zareen Kiran, Aisha Sheikh, Sehrish Nizar Ali Momin, Isra Majeed, Safia Awan, Owais Rashid, Najmul Islam
OBJECTIVES: To report the frequency of sodium and water disturbances (SWD) in patients undergoing sellar, suprasellar and parasellar surgery (SSPS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study on 115 patients in the Aga Khan University Hospital after ethical approval. Patients were 16 years old or older undergoing pituitary or sellar surgeries. We collected data on basic sociodemographic characteristics and clinical indication for surgery. We noted laboratory values for serum electrolytes, plasma and urine osmolality, urine sodium and 24-hour fluid balance from immediate postoperative day till discharge and follow up...
December 14, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924355/avp-dynamically-increases-paracellular-na-permeability-and-transcellular-nacl-transport-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop
#11
REVIEW
Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Rita D Marques, Svenja R Sonntag, Alexander Paliege, Jens Leipziger, Markus Bleich
The medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (mTAL) is crucial for urine-concentrating ability of the kidney. It is water tight and able to dilute the luminal fluid by active transcellular NaCl transport, fueling the counter current mechanism by increasing interstitial osmolality. While chloride is exclusively transported transcellularly, approx. 50% of sodium transport occurs via the paracellular route, driven by the lumen-positive transepithelial potential. Antidiuretic hormone (AVP) is known to increase active NaCl transport to support collecting duct water reabsorption...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919736/effect-of-morin-5-sulfonic-acid-sodium-salt-on-the-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-caspase-3-bax-and-bcl-2-due-to-the-mercury-induced-oxidative-stress-in-albino-rats
#12
Rantham Subramaniam Venkatesan, Abdul Majeeth Mohamed Sadiq
Many environmental contaminants have been reported to disturb the pro-oxidant or antioxidant balance of the cells by inducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress mediated by the HgCl2 induces DNA, protein and lipid oxidation resulted in necrosis or apoptosis, or both. Currently flavonoids are being emerging topic and reported to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti- tumor and antioxidant activities. Morin is one of the flavonoid protects the cells from oxygen free radical damage and scavenges the free radicals and metals and also heals the injured cells commercially...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#13
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#14
Ewout J Hoorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849390/adverse-effects-of-tempol-on-hidrosaline-balance-in-rats-with-acute-sodium-overload
#15
N M Kouyoumdzian, Nl Rukavina Mikusic, G Cao, M R Choi, Sl Della Penna, B E Fernández, J E Toblli, M I Rosón
We studied the effects of tempol, an oxygen radical scavenger, on hydrosaline balance in rats with acute sodium overload. Male rats with free access to water were injected with isotonic (control group) or hypertonic saline solution (0.80 mol/l NaCl) either alone (Na group) or with tempol (Na-T group). Hydrosaline balance was determined during a 90 min experimental period. Protein expressions of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), aquaporin 2 (AQP2), angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured in renal tissue...
November 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835975/empagliflozin-lessened-cardiac-injury-and-reduced-visceral-adipocyte-hypertrophy-in-prediabetic-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Hiroaki Kusaka, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Yu Hasegawa, Hisao Ogawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND: The potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in metabolic syndrome is with prediabetic stage unclear. This work was undertaken to investigate the non-glycemic effect of empagliflozin on metabolic syndrome rats with prediabetes. METHODS: SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp), a model of metabolic syndrome with prediabetes, were given empagliflozin for 10 weeks to examine the effects on urinary sodium and water balance, visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte, and cardiac injury...
November 11, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825364/mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin-mr-proadm-a-marker-of-positive-fluid-balance-in-critically-ill-patients-results-of-the-envol-study
#17
Bernard Vigué, Pierre-Etienne Leblanc, Frédérique Moati, Eric Pussard, Hussam Foufa, Aurore Rodrigues, Samy Figueiredo, Anatole Harrois, Jean-Xavier Mazoit, Homa Rafi, Jacques Duranteau
BACKGROUND: The optimal control of blood volume without fluid overload is a main challenge in the daily care of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Accordingly this study focused on the identification of biomarkers to help characterize fluid overload status. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients were studied from ICU admission to day 7 (D7). Blood and urine samples were taken daily and sodium and water balance strictly calculated resulting in a total cumulative assessment of ∆Na(+) and ∆H2O...
November 9, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815853/simulation-of-arsenic-retention-in-constructed-wetlands
#18
M C Valles-Aragón, M T Alarcón-Herrera, E Llorens, J Obradors-Prats, A Leyva
The software RCB-arsenic was developed previously to simulate the metalloid behavior in a constructed wetland (CW). The model simulates water flow and reactive transport by contemplating the major processes of arsenic (As) retention inside of CW. The objective of this study was to validate the RCB-arsenic model by simulating the behavior of horizontal flow CW for As removal from water. The model validation was made using data from a 122-day experiment. Two CWs prototypes were used: one planted with Eleocharis macrostachya (CW_planted) and another one unplanted (CW_unplanted) as a control...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814606/regulation-and-function-of-renal-medullary-cyclooxygenase-2-during-high-salt-loading
#19
Tianxin Yang, Mi Liu
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important autocrine/paracrine regulators that contribute to sodium balance and blood pressure control. Along the nephron, the highest amount of PGE2 is found in the distal nephron, an important site for fine-tuning of urinary sodium and water excretion. Cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and its expression along with urinary PGE2 excretion is highly induced by chronic salt loading. Factors involved in high salt-induced COX-2 expression in the renal medulla include the hypertonicity, fluid shear stress (FSS), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810276/-peritoneal-equilibration-test-conventional-versus-adapted-preliminary-study
#20
Ariane Zaloszyc, Claus Peter Schmitt, Betti Schaefer, Armelle Doutey, Joëlle Terzic, Soraya Menouer, Laetitia Higel, Michel Fischbach
Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients...
October 31, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
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