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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710036/dietary-salt-sodium-chloride-requirement-and-adverse-effects-of-salt-restriction-in-humans
#1
Mamoru Nishimuta, Naoko Kodama, Yutaka Yoshitake, Mieko Shimada, Naho Serizawa
Inevitable sodium loss under sodium restriction must not be construed as evidence for the estimated average requirement (EAR) for sodium (Na) in humans. We conducted human mineral balance studies to determine the EAR for some minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn). Na concentration in arm sweat was low while those of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were high, during relatively heavy bicycle-ergometer exercise under relatively low Na intake (100 mmol/d). This suggests that Na was released from the bone, the sole pool of Na, with Ca and Mg...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705351/stimulation-of-nitric-oxide-sensitive-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#2
Masashi Tawa, Takahide Furukawa, Hiroko Tongu, Mai Sugihara, Satoko Taguwa, Misaki Yamanaka, Yoko Yano, Hiroaki Matsumori, Rie Kitada, Tatsuya Sawano, Ryosuke Tanaka, Mamoru Ohkita, Yasuo Matsumura
AIMS: In this study, we examined whether a disruption in the balance between nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive and -insensitive soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and whether treatment with NO-enhancing drugs can halt disease progression. MAIN METHODS: Rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or 60 mg/kg monocrotaline (MCT). At 14 days after injection, the vascular reactivity of isolated extralobar pulmonary arteries was assessed by organ chamber technique...
April 26, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678794/aggravated-gut-inflammation-in-mice-lacking-the-taste-signaling-protein-%C3%AE-gustducin
#3
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#4
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619577/effects-of-sodium-chloride-salinity-on-ecophysiological-and-biochemical-parameters-of-oak-seedlings-quercus-robur-l-from-use-of-de-icing-salts-for-winter-road-maintenance
#5
Xavier Laffray, Laurence Alaoui-Sehmer, Mohamed Bourioug, Pascale Bourgeade, Badr Alaoui-Sossé, Lotfi Aleya
Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593868/recommendations-for-active-correction-of-hypernatremia-in-volume-resuscitated-shock-or-sepsis-patients-should-be-taken-with-a-grain-of-salt-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Joseph W Quinn, Kerry Sewell, Dell E Simmons
Background: Healthcare-acquired hypernatremia (serum sodium >145 mEq/dL) is common among critically ill and other hospitalized patients and is usually treated with hypotonic fluid and/or diuretics to correct a "free water deficit." However, many hypernatremic patients are eu- or hypervolemic, and an evolving body of literature emphasizes the importance of rapidly returning critically ill patients to a neutral fluid balance after resuscitation. Objective: We searched for any randomized- or observational-controlled studies evaluating the impact of active interventions intended to correct hypernatremia to eunatremia on any outcome in volume-resuscitated patients with shock and/or sepsis...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556787/dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-vasopressinergic-system-interactions-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550010/sodium-hypochlorite-and-a-preparation-containing-glycocholic-acid-and-surfactants-have-a-synergistic-action-on-organic-tissue-dissolution-in-vitro
#8
Alejandro Peña López, Antonio J Conde, Roberto Estevez, Oliver Valencia de Pablo, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Rafael Cisneros
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate porcine palatal mucosa dissolution by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without an auxiliary dissolving agent containing glycocholic acid and a mixture of surfactants (Keratobacter [KB]; Saint Joseph DID, Valencia, Spain). METHODS: One hundred forty samples were obtained from porcine palatal mucosa and weighed using a high-precision balance. The samples were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 35) based on the test solution used: distilled water (the negative control), CanalPro NaOCl 6% (Coltene Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), KB, and a 9:1 vol/vol mixture of NaOCl with KB (NaOCl + KB)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525234/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-a-mini-breed-puppy-associated-with-aspiration-pneumonia
#9
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#10
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471458/pro-the-rationale-for-dietary-therapy-for-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Joel D Kopple, Denis Fouque
Dietary treatment offers many benefits to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are approaching the need for renal replacement therapy. A large number of these benefits are independent of whether diets slow the rate of progression of CKD. These diets are low in protein and many minerals, and provide adequate energy for the CKD patient. The diets can reduce accumulation of potentially toxic metabolic products derived from protein and amino acid degradation, maintain a healthier balance of body water, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and other minerals, and prevent or improve protein-energy wasting...
March 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405658/role-of-afferent-and-efferent-renal-nerves-in-the-development-of-angii-salt-hypertension-in-rats
#12
Jason D Foss, Jessica Fiege, Yoji Shimizu, John P Collister, Tim Mayerhofer, Laurel Wood, John W Osborn
Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for death worldwide, yet the causes remain unclear and treatment remains suboptimal. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDNX) is a promising new treatment for resistant hypertension, but the mechanisms underlying its antihypertensive effect remain unclear. We recently found that RDNX attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and that this is dependent on ablation of afferent renal nerves and is associated with decreased renal inflammation. To determine if this is common to other models of salt-sensitive hypertension, rats underwent complete RDNX (n = 8), selective ablation of afferent renal nerves (n = 8), or sham denervation (n = 8)...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383015/protective-effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-chronic-kidney-disease-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#13
Hassan Askari, Behjat Seifi, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Nima Sanadgol, Mohammed Elshiekh, Mina Ranjbaran, Parisa Ahghari
The current study aimed to examine the renoprotective effects of long-term treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a prominent hydrogen sulfide donor, in 5/6 nephrectomy animal model. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into 3 groups including sham-operated group (Sham), 5/6-nephrectomized group (5/6 Nx), and NaHS-treated group (5/6Nx+NaHS). NaHS (30 micromol/l) was added twice daily into the drinking water and renal failure was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Twelve weeks after surgical procedure, blood pressure, creatinine clearance (CCr), urine concentration of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as renal morphological changes, apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and inflammation (p-NF-κB) were measured...
2018: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359117/fluid-balance-concepts-in-medicine-principles-and-practice
#14
REVIEW
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos P Argyropoulos, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
The regulation of body fluid balance is a key concern in health and disease and comprises three concepts. The first concept pertains to the relationship between total body water (TBW) and total effective solute and is expressed in terms of the tonicity of the body fluids. Disturbances in tonicity are the main factor responsible for changes in cell volume, which can critically affect brain cell function and survival. Solutes distributed almost exclusively in the extracellular compartment (mainly sodium salts) and in the intracellular compartment (mainly potassium salts) contribute to tonicity, while solutes distributed in TBW have no effect on tonicity...
January 6, 2018: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346014/role-of-the-lymphatic-system-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-in-humans
#15
Angelika Chachaj, Bartosz Puła, Mariusz Chabowski, Jędrzej Grzegrzółka, Ewa Szahidewicz-Krupska, Maciej Karczewski, Dariusz Janczak, Piotr Dzięgiel, Marzenna Podhorska-Okołów, Grzegorz Mazur, Andrzej Gamian, Andrzej Szuba
BACKGROUND: Recent studies, mainly on animal models, have suggested that negatively charged glycosaminoglycans, macrophages, and lymph vessels in the skin interstitium may serve as extrarenal control of sodium balance and blood pressure. The aim of the study was to prove the hypothesis that skin interstitium has a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have examined skin biopsies in 91 patients from the department of surgery who had elective surgery with abdominal skin incision: 43 were hypertensive, 14 had resistant hypertension, and 34 with normal blood pressure as control group (median patients' age in these groups estimated accordingly 64 vs...
April 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#16
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314721/peritoneal-protein-losses-depend-on-more-than-just-peritoneal-dialysis-modality-and-peritoneal-membrane-transporter-status
#17
Suree Yoowannakul, Lauren S Harris, Andrew Davenport
Peritoneal protein clearance (PPCl) depends upon vascular supply and size selective permeability. Some previous reports suggested PPCl can distinguish fast peritoneal membrane transport due to local or systemic inflammation. However, as studies have been discordant, we wished to determine factors associated with an increased PPCl. Consecutive patients starting peritoneal dialysis (PD) who were peritonitis-free were studied. Data included a baseline peritoneal equilibration test (PET), measurement of dialysis adequacy, 24-h dialysate PPCl and body composition measured by multifrequency bioimpedance...
April 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279966/betulinic-acid-alleviates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-and-visceral-pain-in-mice
#18
Jaspreet Kalra, Madhu Cholenahalli Lingaraju, Karikalan Mathesh, Dhirendra Kumar, Subhashree Parida, Thakur Uttam Singh, Anil Kumar Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Surendra Kumar Tandan
Betulinic acid (BA) exhibits many biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Free radicals and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated pain. We, therefore, examined the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive potential of BA in colitis. Colitis was induced with 3% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water in mice for 1to7 days. BA (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was given orally for 0 to 7 days...
March 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251736/pge-2-ep-1-receptor-inhibits-vasopressin-dependent-water-reabsorption-and-sodium-transport-in-mouse-collecting-duct
#19
Rania Nasrallah, Joseph Zimpelmann, David Eckert, Jamie Ghossein, Sean Geddes, Jean-Claude Beique, Jean-Francois Thibodeau, Chris R J Kennedy, Kevin D Burns, Richard L Hébert
PGE2 regulates glomerular hemodynamics, renin secretion, and tubular transport. This study examined the contribution of PGE2 EP1 receptors to sodium and water homeostasis. Male EP1-/- mice were bred with hypertensive TTRhRen mice (Htn) to evaluate blood pressure and kidney function at 8 weeks of age in four groups: wildtype (WT), EP1-/-, Htn, HtnEP1-/-. Blood pressure and water balance were unaffected by EP1 deletion. COX1 and mPGE2 synthase were increased and COX2 was decreased in mice lacking EP1, with increases in EP3 and reductions in EP2 and EP4 mRNA throughout the nephron...
March 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233909/oral-contraceptives-and-renal-water-handling-a-diurnal-study-in-young-women
#20
Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie, Jens Christian Djurhuus
To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-term OC users were included in a 24-h standardized inpatient study for measurements of vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium, and osmolality in plasma as well as urinary excretion of electrolytes, aquaporin-2, and prostaglandin E2...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
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