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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#1
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#2
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267585/disturbances-of-thirst-and-fluid-balance-associated-with-aging
#3
REVIEW
Denovan P Begg
During heat waves, significant mortality and morbidity occurs in elderly populations due to heat-stress and dehydration. The dehydration is primarily attributable to inadequate water intake caused by dysfunction of the central nervous system mechanisms controlling thirst. The phenomenon of a reduced thirst in response to dehydration in aging was first observed decades ago and has been examined extensively since. The reduced thirst and ingestive behavior have been reported consistently in response to hyperosmotic stimuli, hypovolemic stimuli and dehydration in both elderly humans and animal models of aging...
March 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253022/a-sodium-drink-enhances-fluid-retention-during-3-hours-of-post-exercise-recovery-when-ingested-with-a-standard-meal
#4
Gethin H Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley, Lewis J James
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on post-exercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4 % of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60 minute period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243570/nanoscale-isoindigo-carriers-self-assembly-and-tunable-properties
#5
Tatiana N Pashirova, Andrei V Bogdanov, Lenar I Musin, Julia K Voronina, Irek R Nizameev, Marsil K Kadirov, Vladimir F Mironov, Lucia Ya Zakharova, Shamil K Latypov, Oleg G Sinyashin
Over the last decade isoindigo derivatives have attracted much attention due to their high potential in pharmacy and in the chemistry of materials. In addition, isoindigo derivatives can be modified to form supramolecular structures with tunable morphologies for the use in drug delivery. Amphiphilic long-chain dialkylated isoindigos have the ability to form stable solid nanoparticles via a simple nanoprecipitation technique. Their self-assembly was investigated using tensiometry, dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and fluorometry...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236387/simultaneous-analysis-of-oil-soluble-basic-and-acidic-illegal-dyes-in-foods-using-liquid-chromatography-diode-array-detection
#6
Yoko Uematsu, Toshiko Mizumachi, Kimio Monma
A method for simutaneously detecting 8 oil-soluble and 10 water-soluble (3 basic and 7 acidic) illegal dyes in foods was developed. The sample was mixed with water, followed by methanol and tetrahydrofuran. Transesterification with sodium methoxide was applied to the mixture, which allowed the triglycerides in the sample to be converted to fatty acid methyl esters. This treatment resulted in a biphasic mixture. Oil-soluble dyes and fatty acid methyl esters were deposited in the upper organic phase, which was cleaned using a silica-gel solid-phase extraction (SPE) column to remove the fatty acid methyl esters from the solution...
February 25, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#7
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153467/water-balance-in-the-fetus-and-neonate
#8
REVIEW
Julie B Lindower
Fetal water balance is dependent prenatally on the placental transfer of water from maternal to fetal circulation. Adequate amniotic fluid volume is one indicator of stable fetal status and development. Excessive or less than expected amniotic fluid volume may be a precursor to postnatal morbidity and mortality. Postnatal transition is marked by predictable changes in body water including contraction of extracellular volume and insensible fluid loss, primarily across the skin barrier. The degree to which these occur is determined by gestational and postnatal age...
January 30, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137758/derlin-1-promotes-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac
#9
Hui You, Yamei Ge, Jian Zhang, Yizhi Cao, Jing Xing, Dongming Su, Yujie Huang, Min Li, Shen Qu, Fei Sun, Xiubin Liang
Ubiquitination of the epithelial Na channel (ENaC) plays a critical role in cellular functions, including transmembrane transport of sodium, sodium and water balance, and blood pressure stabilization. Published studies have suggested that ENaC subunits are targets of ER-related degradation (ERAD) in yeast systems. However, the molecular mechanism underlying proteasome-mediated degradation of ENaC subunits remains to be established. Derlin-1, an E3 ligase mediator, links recognized target proteins to ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation in the cytosol...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135107/free-energy-of-scission-for-sodium-laureth-1-sulfate-wormlike-micelles
#10
Karsten Vogtt, Hanqiu Jiang, Gregory Beaucage, Michael Weaver
Wormlike micelles (WLMs) are nanoscale, self-assembled components of many products from shampoos to fracking fluids due to their viscoelasticity. Their rheological behavior is largely governed by the contour length of the micelles and the concomitant propensity of the micelles to overlap and entangle. The large contour lengths, on the order of micrometers, is the result of a delicate balance between the scission enthalpy of the wormlike micelles on the one hand and entropic factors such as the mixing entropy of dispersion, the ordering of water molecules and counterions, and the mobility of branch points on the other hand...
February 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126906/optimizing-the-restoration-and-maintenance-of-fluid-balance-after-exercise-induced-dehydration
#11
Gethin Hywel Evans, Lewis John James, Susan Margaret Shirreffs, Ronald J Maughan
Hypohydration, or a body water deficit, is a common occurrence in athletes and recreational exercisers following the completion of an exercise session. For those who will undertake a further exercise session that day, it is important to replace water losses to avoid beginning the next exercise session hypohydrated and the potential detrimental effects on performance that this may lead to. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research related to factors that may affect post-exercise rehydration...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101449/immunohistochemical-expression-of-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-components-in-response-to-tempol-in-rats-fed-a-high-salt-diet
#12
Gabriel Cao, Silvana Lorena Della Penna, Nicolás Martín Kouyoumdzian, Marcelo Roberto Choi, Susana Gorzalczany, Belisario Enrique Fernández, Jorge Eduardo Toblli, María Inés Rosón
AIM: To determine the effect of tempol in normal rats fed high salt on arterial pressure and the balance between antagonist components of the renal renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 8% NaCl high-salt (HS) or 0.4% NaCl (normal-salt, NS) diet for 3 wk, with or without tempol (T) (1 mmol/L, administered in drinking water). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary sodium excretion (UVNa) were measured...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087147/immune-responses-to-in-ovo-vaccine-formulations-containing-inactivated-fowl-adenovirus-8b-with-poly-di-sodium-carboxylatoethylphenoxy-phosphazene-pcep-and-avian-beta-defensin-as-adjuvants-in-chickens
#13
Mishal Sarfraz, Muhammed Suleman, Suresh K Tikoo, Colette Wheler, Andrew A Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major viral infections causing substantial economic loss to the global poultry industry. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of mortality (2-30%) and high morbidity (60-70%). IBH is caused by a number of serotypes of fowl adenovirus with substantially low levels of serotype cross protection. Thus far, there is no effective and safe vaccine commercially available in the North America for the control of IBH in chickens. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) is a high molecular weight, biodegradable water soluble polymer that has been well characterized as a safe and effective adjuvant for a number of experimental veterinary vaccines...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066913/dialysate-sodium-rationale-for-evolution-over-time
#14
Jennifer E Flythe, Finnian R Mc Causland
Oligo-anuric individuals receiving hemodialysis (HD) are dependent on the dialysis machine to regulate sodium and water balance. Interest in adjusting the dialysate sodium concentration to promote tolerance of the HD procedure dates back to the early years of dialysis therapy. Evolution of dialysis equipment technologies and clinical characteristics of the dialysis population have prompted clinicians to increase the dialysate sodium concentration over time. Higher dialysate sodium concentrations generally promote hemodynamic stabilization and reduce intradialytic symptoms but often do so at the expense of stimulating thirst and promoting volume expansion...
March 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen P DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967227/sodium-and-water-imbalance-after-sellar-suprasellar-and-parasellar-surgery
#16
Zareen Kiran, Aisha Sheikh, Sehrish Nizar Ali Momin, Isra Majeed, Safia Awan, Owais Rashid, Najmul Islam
OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of sodium and water disturbances (SWDs) in patients undergoing sellar, suprasellar, and parasellar surgery (SSPS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study on 115 patients in the Aga Khan University Hospital after ethical approval. Patients were 16 years old or older undergoing pituitary or sellar surgeries. We collected data on basic sociodemographic characteristics and clinical indication for surgery. We noted laboratory values for serum electrolytes, plasma and urine osmolality, urine sodium, and 24-hour fluid balance from the immediate postoperative day until discharge and follow-up...
March 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924355/avp-dynamically-increases-paracellular-na-permeability-and-transcellular-nacl-transport-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop
#17
REVIEW
Nina Himmerkus, Allein Plain, Rita D Marques, Svenja R Sonntag, Alexander Paliege, Jens Leipziger, Markus Bleich
The medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (mTAL) is crucial for urine-concentrating ability of the kidney. It is water tight and able to dilute the luminal fluid by active transcellular NaCl transport, fueling the counter current mechanism by increasing interstitial osmolality. While chloride is exclusively transported transcellularly, approx. 50% of sodium transport occurs via the paracellular route, driven by the lumen-positive transepithelial potential. Antidiuretic hormone (AVP) is known to increase active NaCl transport to support collecting duct water reabsorption...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919736/effect-of-morin-5-sulfonic-acid-sodium-salt-on-the-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-caspase-3-bax-and-bcl-2-due-to-the-mercury-induced-oxidative-stress-in-albino-rats
#18
Rantham Subramaniam Venkatesan, Abdul Majeeth Mohamed Sadiq
Many environmental contaminants have been reported to disturb the pro-oxidant or antioxidant balance of the cells by inducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress mediated by the HgCl2 induces DNA, protein and lipid oxidation resulted in necrosis or apoptosis, or both. Currently flavonoids are being emerging topic and reported to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti- tumor and antioxidant activities. Morin is one of the flavonoid protects the cells from oxygen free radical damage and scavenges the free radicals and metals and also heals the injured cells commercially...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#19
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#20
Ewout J Hoorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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