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Sodium & water balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#1
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530505/ingestion-of-sodium-bicarbonate-nahco3-following-a-fatiguing-bout-of-exercise-accelerates-post-exercise-acid-base-balance-recovery-and-improves-subsequent-high-intensity-cycling-time-to-exhaustion
#2
Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins
This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526086/comparison-of-fluid-balance-and-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-effects-of-sodium-lactate-versus-sodium-bicarbonate-versus-0-9-nacl-in-porcine-endotoxic-shock-a-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#3
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Anne-Frédérique Dessein, Joseph Vamecq, Jean-Claude Vienne, Dries Dobbelaere, Karine Mention, Claire Douillard, Patrice Maboudou, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercé Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Julien Poissy, Daniel Mathieu, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate has been shown to improve hemodynamics and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to confirm a beneficial effect on fluid balance with sodium lactate infusion and to specify whether the advantage of lactate is related to a negative chloride balance, its particular metabolism, or simply its energy load. METHODS: This was an interventional, randomized, open-label, controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "large white" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin...
May 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493707/general-physical-description-of-the-behavior-of-oppositely-charged-polyelectrolyte-surfactant-mixtures-at-the-air-water-interface
#4
Imre Varga, Richard A Campbell
This work reports a unifying general physical description of the behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures at the air/water interface in terms of equilibrium vs. nonequilibrium extremes. The poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate system with added NaCl at two different bulk polyelectrolyte concentrations and the poly(sodium styrenesulfonate)/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide system have been systematically examined using a variety of bulk and surface techniques...
May 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481551/direct-measurement-of-the-surface-energy-of-graphene
#5
Christian D van Engers, Nico E A Cousens, Vitaliy Babenko, Jude Britton, Bruno Zappone, Nicole Grobert, Susan Perkin
Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation...
May 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438314/progression-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-is-associated-with-up-regulation-of-major-sodium-transporters-in-the-mouse-kidney-cortex-under-a-normal-salt-diet
#6
Xiaoming Zhou, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Yao Xiao, Saule Nurmukhambetova, Jason R Lees
Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413966/the-clinical-problems-of-hypertension-treatment-in-hemodialysis-patients
#7
Charalampos N Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Hypertension (HT) is present in more than 80% of patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-dialytic interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408634/moderate-20-fructose-enriched-diet-stimulates-salt-sensitive-hypertension-with-increased-salt-retention-and-decreased-renal-nitric-oxide
#8
Kevin L Gordish, Kamal M Kassem, Pablo A Ortiz, William H Beierwaltes
Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404590/inflammatory-cytokines-regulate-renal-sodium-transporters-how-where-and-why
#9
Allison E Norlander, Meena S Madhur
Hypertension is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide and is now the leading preventable cause of premature death. For over a century, we have known that the kidney plays a critical role in blood pressure regulation. Specifically, abnormalities in renal sodium transport appear to be a final common pathway that gives rise to elevated blood pressure regardless of the nature of the initial hypertensive stimulus. However, it is only in the past decade that we have come to realize that inflammatory cytokines secreted by innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as renal epithelial cells, can modulate the expression and activity of sodium transporters all along the nephron, leading to alterations in pressure natriuresis, sodium and water balance, and ultimately hypertension...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384420/not-good-but-not-all-bad-dehydration-effects-on-body-fluids-organ-masses-and-water-flux-through-the-skin-of-rhinella-schneideri-amphibia-bufonidae
#10
Rodolfo C O Anderson, Rafael P Bovo, Carlos E Eismann, Amauri A Menegario, Denis V Andrade
Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365548/water-balance-assessment-of-different-substrates-on-potash-tailings-piles-using-non-weighable-lysimeters
#11
Carolina Bilibio, Christian Schellert, Stefanie Retz, Oliver Hensel, Helge Schmeisky, Daniel Uteau, Stephan Peth
Water balance is an important tool to evaluate water deficit or excess in crop systems. However, few studies have evaluated the water balance of vegetation grown on the residues from potash mining because the high sodium chloride levels of the residues hinder agricultural development. Therefore, this study aims to measure the water balance components in eight non-weighing lysimeters installed on a potash tailings pile in Heringen (Werra), Germany. These lysimeters were filled with different mixtures of household waste incineration slags and coal combustion residues, resulting in 4 different substrates with two repetitions...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360221/nfat5-and-slc4a10-loci-associate-with-plasma-osmolality
#12
Carsten A Böger, Mathias Gorski, Gearoid M McMahon, Huichun Xu, Yen-Pei C Chang, Peter J van der Most, Gerjan Navis, Ilja M Nolte, Martin H de Borst, Weihua Zhang, Benjamin Lehne, Marie Loh, Sian-Tsung Tan, Eric Boerwinkle, Morgan E Grams, Peggy Sekula, Man Li, Beth Wilmot, James G Moon, Paul Scheet, Francesco Cucca, Xiangjun Xiao, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Graciela Delgado, Tanja B Grammer, Marcus E Kleber, Sanaz Sedaghat, Fernando Rivadeneira, Tanguy Corre, Zoltan Kutalik, Sven Bergmann, Carrie M Nielson, Priya Srikanth, Alexander Teumer, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Anne Catharina Brockhaus, Arne Pfeufer, Wolfgang Rathmann, Annette Peters, Martha Matsumoto, Mariza de Andrade, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Ian H de Boer, Shih-Jen Hwang, Iris M Heid, Martin Gögele, Maria Pina Concas, Toshiko Tanaka, Stefania Bandinelli, Mike A Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Salman M Tajuddin, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jie Zhou, Ayo Doumatey, Shannon McWeeney, Joanne Murabito, Nora Franceschini, Michael Flessner, Michael Shlipak, James G Wilson, Guanjie Chen, Charles N Rotimi, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans, Luigi Ferrucci, Olivier Devuyst, Mario Pirastu, Alan Shuldiner, Andrew A Hicks, Peter Paul Pramstaller, Bryan Kestenbaum, Sharon L R Kardia, Stephen T Turner, LifeLines Cohort Study, Tamara Ellefson Briske, Christian Gieger, Konstantin Strauch, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Uwe Völker, Matthias Nauck, Henry Völzke, Peter Vollenweider, Murielle Bochud, Gerard Waeber, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Winfried März, Abbas Dehghan, Oscar H Franco, Andre G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Herman A Taylor, John C Chambers, Jaspal S Kooner, Caroline S Fox, Robert Hitzemann, Eric S Orwoll, Cristian Pattaro, David Schlessinger, Anna Köttgen, Harold Snieder, Afshin Parsa, David M Cohen
Disorders of water balance, an excess or deficit of total body water relative to body electrolyte content, are common and ascertained by plasma hypo- or hypernatremia, respectively. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis on plasma sodium concentration in 45,889 individuals of European descent (stage 1 discovery) and 17,637 additional individuals of European descent (stage 2 replication), and a transethnic meta-analysis of replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 79,506 individuals (63,526 individuals of European descent, 8765 individuals of Asian Indian descent, and 7215 individuals of African descent)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342942/the-nature-of-early-astroglial-protection-fast-activation-and-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Julianna Kardos, László Héja, Katalin Jemnitz, Richárd Kovács, Miklós Palkovits
Our present review is focusing on the uniqueness of balanced astroglial signaling. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory signaling within the CNS is mainly determined by sharp synaptic transients of excitatory glutamate (Glu) and inhibitory γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) acting on the sub-second timescale. Astroglia is involved in excitatory chemical transmission by taking up i) Glu through neurotransmitter-sodium transporters, ii) K(+) released due to presynaptic action potential generation, and iii) water keeping osmotic pressure...
March 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342598/effect-of-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-of-alfalfa-hay-on-lactating-dairy-cows-feeding-behavior-fiber-digestibility-and-lactation-performance
#14
M Fustini, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, E Bonfante, L Mammi, M T Pacchioli, G C J Sniffen, R J Grant, K W Cotanch, A Formigoni
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336818/increased-exposure-to-sodium-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-changes-basal-and-induced-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-responses-in-adult-male-offspring
#15
Marcia S Silva, Fabiana Lúcio-Oliveira, Andre Souza Mecawi, Lucas F Almeida, Silvia G Ruginsk, Michael P Greenwood, Mingkwan Greenwood, Laura Vivas, Lucila L K Elias, David Murphy, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Excessive sodium (Na(+)) intake in modern society has been associated with several chronic disorders such as hypertension. Several studies suggest that early life events can program physiological systems and lead to functional changes in adulthood. Therefore, we investigated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses under basal conditions and after 48 h of water deprivation in adult (60-day-old Wistar rats) male, Wistar rats originating from dams were offered only water or 0.15 mol/L NaCl during pregnancy and lactation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#16
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#17
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267585/disturbances-of-thirst-and-fluid-balance-associated-with-aging
#18
REVIEW
Denovan P Begg
During heat waves, significant mortality and morbidity occurs in elderly populations due to heat-stress and dehydration. The dehydration is primarily attributable to inadequate water intake caused by dysfunction of the central nervous system mechanisms controlling thirst. The phenomenon of a reduced thirst in response to dehydration in aging was first observed decades ago and has been examined extensively since. The reduced thirst and ingestive behavior have been reported consistently in response to hyperosmotic stimuli, hypovolemic stimuli and dehydration in both elderly humans and animal models of aging...
March 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253022/a-sodium-drink-enhances-fluid-retention-during-3-hours-of-post-exercise-recovery-when-ingested-with-a-standard-meal
#19
Gethin H Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley, Lewis J James
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on post-exercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4 % of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60 minute period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243570/nanoscale-isoindigo-carriers-self-assembly-and-tunable-properties
#20
Tatiana N Pashirova, Andrei V Bogdanov, Lenar I Musin, Julia K Voronina, Irek R Nizameev, Marsil K Kadirov, Vladimir F Mironov, Lucia Ya Zakharova, Shamil K Latypov, Oleg G Sinyashin
Over the last decade isoindigo derivatives have attracted much attention due to their high potential in pharmacy and in the chemistry of materials. In addition, isoindigo derivatives can be modified to form supramolecular structures with tunable morphologies for the use in drug delivery. Amphiphilic long-chain dialkylated isoindigos have the ability to form stable solid nanoparticles via a simple nanoprecipitation technique. Their self-assembly was investigated using tensiometry, dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and fluorometry...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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