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Sodium & water balance

M C O van IJzendoorn, H Buter, W P Kingma, G J Navis, E C Boerma
Background. ICU acquired hypernatremia (IAH, serum sodium concentration (sNa) ≥ 143 mmol/L) is mainly considered iatrogenic, induced by sodium overload and water deficit. Main goal of the current paper was to answer the following questions: Can the development of IAH indeed be explained by sodium intake and water balance? Or can it be explained by renal cation excretion? Methods. Two retrospective studies were conducted: a balance study in 97 ICU patients with and without IAH and a survey on renal cation excretion in 115 patients with IAH...
2016: Critical Care Research and Practice
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
X Liu, R S Edinger, C A Klemens, Y L Phua, A J Bodnar, W A LaFramboise, J Ho, M B Butterworth
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules and cortical collecting duct (CCD) in the kidney nephron. Under the regulation of the steroid hormone aldosterone, ENaC is a major determinant of sodium (Na(+) ) and water balance. The ability of aldosterone to regulate microRNAs (miRs) in the kidney has recently been realized, but the role of miRs in Na(+) regulation has not been well established. Here we demonstrate that expression of a miR cluster mmu-miR-23∼24∼27, is upregulated in the CCD by aldosterone stimulation both in vitro and in vivo...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Caroline Gusson Shimoura, Gisele Silvério Lincevicius, Erika Emy Nishi, Adriana Castello Costa Girardi, Karin Argenti Simon, Cassia de Toledo Bergamaschi, Ruy Ribeiro Campos
BACKGROUND: Renovascular hypertension (2-kidney 1-clip model (2K1C)) is characterized by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Increased Angiotensin II (AngII) leads to sympathoexcitation, oxidative stress, and alterations in sodium and water balance. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a discrete increase in sodium chloride intake in 2K1C rats leads to changes in cardiovascular and autonomic function, oxidative stress, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Hypertension
Elaine M Kaptein, Divya Sreeramoju, John M Kaptein, Matthew J Kaptein
BACKGROUND: Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. METHOD: We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Min Jeong Han, Soon Chul Kim, Chan Uhng Joo, Sun Jun Kim
RATIONALE FOR THIS CASE REPORT: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
September 7, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Musa Silahli, Mahmut Gökdemir, Enes Duman, Zeynel Gökmen
We present a catheter related severe hypernatremia in a 2-month-old baby who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care. Imbalance of plasma sodium is commonly seen in pediatric intensive care patients. The water and sodium balance is a complex process. Especially, brain and kidneys are the most important organs that affect the water and sodium balance. Other mechanisms of the cellular structure include osmoreceptors, Na-K ATPase systems, and vasopressin. Hypernatremia is usually an iatrogenic condition in hospitalized patients due to mismanagement of water electrolyte imbalance...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
P Nguyen, B Reynolds, J Zentek, N Paßlack, V Leray
High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ramy Magdy Hanna, Wan-Ting Yang, Eduardo A Lopez, Joseph Nabil Riad, James Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué-Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum-Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen-Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
M Schrader, B Treff, T Sandholtet, N Maassen, V Shushakov, J Kaesebieter, M Maassen
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the effect of beverages containing carbohydrates, only, on the sodium and fluid balance during intermittent exercise of high intensity are rare. Therefore, we compared the effects of water and carbohydrate supplementation on plasma, blood volume, and electrolyte shifts during intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten male subjects performed an intermittent exercise test twice. In one trial, tap water (4 ml/kg/15 min) was consumed (Plac trial)...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Giovanni Pallio, Alessandra Bitto, Gabriele Pizzino, Federica Galfo, Natasha Irrera, Letteria Minutoli, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Giovanni Squadrito, Antonio Macrì, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We investigated the effects of flavocoxid, a dual COX/LOX inhibitor, in experimental colitis induced with either dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS) or dextrane sulphate sodium (DSS) In the first model, colitis was induced in rats by a single intra-colonic instillation (25mg in 0.8ml 50% ethanol) of DNBS; after 24h animals were randomized to receive orally twice a day, flavocoxid (10mg/kg), zileuton (50mg/kg), or celecoxib (5mg/kg)...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
F L Motta, B A G Melo, M H A Santana
Humic acids (HAs) are macromolecules of undefined compositions that vary with origin, the process by which they are obtained and functional groups present in their structure, such as quinones, phenols, and carboxylic acids. In addition to agriculture, there is an increased interest in HAs due to their important pharmacological effects. However, HAs are not readily soluble in water at physiological pH, which may limit their bioavailability. Although primary aggregation forms non-uniform pseudo-micelles, the presence of ionisable groups in the HA molecule makes pH an environmental stimulus for controlled aggregation and precipitation...
July 15, 2016: New Biotechnology
Vid Leban, Gordana Kozelj, Miran Brvar
INTRODUCTION: In Europe body purification and natural balance restoring rituals are becoming increasingly popular, but an introduction of Amazonian shamanic rituals in urban Europe can result in unexpected adverse events. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old woman attended a Kambô or Sapo ritual in Slovenia where dried skin secretion from a giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) was applied to five freshly burned wounds at her shoulder. Afterwards, she drank 6 litres of water and gradually developed nausea and vomiting, confusion, lethargy, muscle weakness, spasms and cramps, seizure, decreased consciousness level and short-term memory loss...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Letícia Streck, Víctor H V Sarmento, Paula R L Machado, Kleber J S Farias, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior
Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ) loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR) and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR) change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16) stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M T Moore, M A Locke, R Kröger
Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. Each of six different aquatic macrophytes were planted, in monoculture, in three replicate mesocosms (1.2 m × 0.15 m × 0.65 m). Three additional unvegetated mesocosms served as controls for a total number of 21 mesocosms...
October 2016: Chemosphere
Rui Zhang, Songyan Wang, Mian Zhang, Lijuan Cui
Hyponatremia is a common condition encountered in clinical practice. A number of studies have associated low serum sodium levels with increased mortality in various patient populations, such as hospitalized patients and patients with various comorbid conditions; recent studies have shown that individuals with chronic kidney disease also are afflicted by hyponatremia. However, few studies have focused on patients with hemodialysis. Evidence supporting the incidence and prevalence of hyponatremia, clinical characteristics and the association with patient outcomes with hemodialysis is limited...
June 27, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Cornelia Rückert, Roswitha Siener, Martin Ganter, Manfred Coenen, Ingrid Vervuert
AIM: Reduction of urolithic potential by means of increased water intake and urine dilution through supplementation of sodium chloride (NaCl) or decrease of urine pH by supplementation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen female, 6-month-old dwarf rabbits received the following three feeding regimens in a random order: complete feed without supplements = control; complete feed + 10 g NaCl/kg feed = NaCl; complete feed + 2.5 g NH4Cl/kg feed = NH4Cl...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Jerome Nriagu, Firouz Darroudi, Basem Shomar
This review contends that "healthy" water in terms of electrolyte balance is as important as "pure" water in promoting public health. It considers the growing use of desalination (demineralization) technologies in drinking water treatment which often results in tap water with very low concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Ingestion of such water can lead to electrolyte abnormalities marked by hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia which are among the most common and recognizable features in cancer patients...
October 2016: Environmental Research
K A Cabral, C A F Andrade
The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) exerts an important inhibitory influence for the control of sodium and water intake. However, the importance of LPBN on renal responses and cardiovascular changes during extracellular dehydration are still unknown. Here we investigated the effects of bilateral injections of moxonidine (alpha2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonist) on renal and cardiovascular changes in fluid-depleted rats. Male Wistar rats (n=4-8 per group) with bilateral stainless steel guide-cannulas implanted into the LPBN were treated with subcutaneous furosemide (10mg/kg)+captopril (5mg/kg) to induce fluid depletion...
October 2016: Neuroscience Research
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