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Plant Taxonomy

Jie Liu, Richard I Milne, Michael Möller, Guang-Fu Zhu, Lin-Jiang Ye, Ya-Huang Luo, Jun-Bo Yang, Moses Cheloti Wambulwa, Chun-Neng Wang, De-Zhu Li, Lian-Ming Gao
Rapid and accurate identification of endangered species is a critical component of bio-surveillance and conservation management, and potentially policing illegal trades. However, this is often not possible using traditional taxonomy, especially where only small or pre-processed parts of plants are available. Reliable identification can be achieved via a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library, accompanied by precise distribution data. However, these require extensive sampling at spatial and taxonomic scales, which has rarely been achieved for cosmopolitan taxa...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Bin Rui Yang, Sze Chung Yuen, Guang Yi Fan, Wei-Hong Cong, Siu-Wai Leung, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. H. Chow (P. notoginseng) is a highly valued Chinese materia medica having a hemostatic effect and mainly used for the treatment of trauma and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Stringent growth requirements, weak resistance to insect pests and plant diseases, arsenic contamination and continuous cropping constitute hurdles to further increases in the agricultural production of P. notoginseng. This review focuses on the traditional uses (based on traditional Chinese medicine theory), major chemical components, biological activities, pharmacological properties, geographical distributions and historical development of taxonomy of P...
May 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Rachel S Jabaily, Kelly A Shepherd, Pryce S Michener, Caroline J Bush, Rodrigo Rivero, Andrew G Gardner, Emily B Sessa
Goodeniaceae is a primarily Australian flowering plant family with a complex taxonomy and evolutionary history. Previous phylogenetic analyses have successfully resolved the backbone topology of the largest clade in the family, Goodenia s.l., but have failed to clarify relationships within the species-rich and enigmatic Goodenia clade C, a prerequisite for taxonomic revision of the group. We used genome skimming to retrieve sequences for chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear markers for 24 taxa representing Goodenia s...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Wu Zhou, Yuwei Wang, Gong Zhang, Guangxiang Luan, Shasha Chen, Jing Meng, Honglun Wang, Na Hu, Yourui Suo
The dioecious property of the sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) prevents sex recognition via traditional observation at the juvenile stage, thus impeding breeding and economic cropping; A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify the sexes. A total of 45 random decamer primers were used to screen genomic DNA pools of staminate and pistillate genotypes for genetic polymorphisms. One female sex-linked marker was identified...
May 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qian Qian Yang, Su Wen Liu, Xiao Ping Yu
DNA barcode is a fragment of short DNA sequence from a standard part of the genome. DNA barcoding is an effective taxonomic method for species identification through analyzing the DNA barcodes. With the dramatic increasing of DNA barcode sequences, the analysis methods have developed rapidly, which promoted their applications in molecular identification for organisms. Since 2003, DNA barcoding has been widely used in species identification for animals, plants, fungi, etc. It has also robustly promoted the development of scientific disciplines, such as taxonomy, biodiversity science, and ecology...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jing Meng, Xuepei Li, Hongtao Li, Junbo Yang, Hong Wang, Jun He
Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) consists of approximately 400 species distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Many species are well-known herbs, mainly used for analgesia and anti-inflammatory purposes. This genus is well represented in China and has gained widespread attention for its toxicity and detoxification properties. In southwestern China, several Aconitum species, called ‘Dula’ in the Yi Nationality, were often used to control the poisonous effects of other Aconitum plants...
April 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bradley J Blitvich, Barry J Beaty, Carol D Blair, Aaron C Brault, Gerhard Dobler, Michael A Drebot, Andrew D Haddow, Laura D Kramer, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Thomas P Monath, Eric C Mossel, Kenneth Plante, Ann M Powers, Robert B Tesh, Michael J Turell, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has implemented numerous changes to the taxonomic classification of bunyaviruses over the years. Whereas most changes have been justified and necessary because of the need to accommodate newly discovered and unclassified viruses, other changes are a cause of concern, especially the decision to demote scores of formerly recognized species to essentially strains of newly designated species. This practice was first described in the seventh taxonomy report of the ICTV and has continued in all subsequent reports...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Clémence Ogeron, Guillaume Odonne, Antonia Cristinoi, Julien Engel, Pierre Grenand, Jacques Beauchêne, Bruno Clair, Damien Davy
BACKGROUND: Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. METHODS: A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Naoki Yata, Oleg G Gorbunov, Yutaka Arita, Yoshichika Aoki
The systematic position of Aegeria montis Leech, 1889 and Zhuosesia zhuoxiana Yang, 1977 is discussed. Having studied newly collected material, we transfer A. montis to the genus Chamaesphecia Spuler, 1910, subgenus Chamaesphecia s. str. The male of this species and its genitalia are illustrated for the first time. The host-plant of its larvae is assumed to be a species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae).        Zhuosesia Yang, 1977, syn. nov., is shown to be a junior subjective synonym of Chamaesphecia Spuler, 1910 with the new combination of its type species, Chamaesphecia zhuoxiana (Yang, 1977), comb...
January 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Ante VujiĆ, Gunilla StÅhls, Jelena AČanski, Santos Rojo, Celeste PÉrez-baÑÓn, SneŽana RadenkoviĆ
The Palaearctic Merodon geniculatus species group (Diptera, Syrphidae: Merodontini) currently comprises six Western Mediterranean species and four species with Eastern Mediterranean distribution. One of this group species, Merodon albifasciatus Macquart, 1842, is the only Merodon species listed from the Oriental Region. We discovered the lost holotype, which fit morphologically with European Merodon females of the M. albifasciatus species complex confirmed here and that occurs in the Palaearctic region. An integrative approach to the taxonomy of M...
January 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Jin Xu, Nian Wang
Genome sequencing is commonly used in research laboratories right now thanks to the rise of high-throughput sequencing with higher speed and output-to-cost ratios. Here, we summarized the application of genomics in different aspects of plant pathosystems. Genomics has been used in studying the mechanisms of plant bacterial interactions, and host specificity. It also helps with taxonomy, study of non-cultured bacteria, identification of causal agent, single cell sequencing, population genetics, and meta-transcriptomic...
April 17, 2018: Genomics
Soumik Mitra, Krishnendu Pramanik, Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tithi Soren, Anumita Sarkar, Ramendra Sundar Dey, Sanjeev Pandey, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Application of heavy metal resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria has an important role as they help to evade metal-induced toxicity in plants on one hand and enhance plant growth on the other. The present study is therefore focused on the characterization of a cadmium resistant bacterial strain isolated from heavy metal contaminated rhizospheric soil designated as S8. This S8 strain was selected in terms of cadmium resistance and plant growth promoting traits. Moreover, it also showed resistance to lead and arsenic to a considerable extent...
May 2018: Microbiological Research
Ergin Sahin, Ilgaz Akata
Ever since their discovery just about 56 years ago in the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus , many more viruses infecting fungi have been identified in a wide range of fungal taxa. With mostly being asymptomatic, especially the ones that are detrimental to their phytopathogenic hosts are intensively studied due to their considerable importance in developing novel plant protection measures. Contrary to the rapid accumulation of notable data on viruses of plant pathogenic microfungi, much less information have hitherto been obtained in regards to the viruses whose hosts are macrofungi...
March 2018: Virusdisease
Gabrielle Vieira, Jelena Purić, Luana Galvão Morão, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Fábio José Inforsato, Lara Durães Sette, Henrique Ferreira, Daiane Cristina Sass
This study aims to obtain secondary metabolites extracts from filamentous fungi isolated from soil and marine sediments from Antarctica and assess its potential antibacterial activity on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, the agent of citrus canker. Metabolites production was conducted in Malt 2% broth at 15 °C for 20 d after which intracellular and extracellular extracts were obtained. The extracts were evaluated by cell viability assays through Resazurin Microtiter Assay. From 158 fungal extracts, 33 hampered bacterial growth in vitro...
March 31, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Michael R Ament, Julie A Tierney, Lars O Hedin, Erik A Hobbie, Nina Wurzburger
Longleaf pine savannas house a diverse community of herbaceous N2 -fixing legume species that have the potential to replenish nitrogen (N) losses from fire. Whether legumes fill this role depends on the factors that regulate symbiotic fixation, including soil nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and molybdenum (Mo) and the growth and fixation strategies of different species. In greenhouse experiments, we determined how these factors influence fixation for seven species of legumes grown in pure field soil from two different regions of the southeastern US longleaf pine ecosystem...
March 30, 2018: Oecologia
Xinxin Zhang, Ming Jin, Nigatu Tadesse, Jun Dang, Tao Zhou, Hui Zhang, Sicen Wang, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (D. zingiberensis), Dioscoreaceae, is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicines. The aim of the current review paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the traditional usage and phytochemistry of the plant. Clinical studies performed and products prepared from the plant and active principles will be mentioned. In addition a review of the taxonomy of the genus Dioscorea is given. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search on literature has been performed in databases like Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scifinder, Web of Science, and in Chinese databases (China Knowledge Resource Integrated, i...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kangquan Yin, Yue Zhang, Yuejuan Li, Fang K Du
Quercus is an economically important and phylogenetically complex genus in the family Fagaceae. Due to extensive hybridization and introgression, it is considered to be one of the most challenging plant taxa, both taxonomically and phylogenetically. Quercus aquifolioides is an evergreen sclerophyllous oak species that is endemic to, but widely distributed across, the Hengduanshan Biodiversity Hotspot in the Eastern Himalayas. Here, we compared the fully assembled chloroplast (cp) genome of Q. aquifolioides with those of three closely related species...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alex Mabou Tagne, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tithonia diversifolia (TD) is widely valued in several cultures for its medicinal properties. A comprehensive review of the current understanding of this plant species is required due to emerging concerns over its efficacy, toxicity and allergenic potential. AIM OF THE REVIEW: We critically summarized the current evidence on the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety of TD, with the view to provide perspectives for developing more attractive pharmaceuticals of plant origin, but also to lay a new foundation for further investigations on this plant...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Alicia K Bird, Sofia R Prado-Irwin, Vance T Vredenburg, Andrew G Zink
A multitude of microorganisms live on and within plant and animal hosts, yet the ecology and evolution of these microbial communities remains poorly understood in many taxa. This study examined the extent to which environmental factors and host taxonomic identity explain microbiome variation within two salamander genera, Ensatina and Batrachoseps , in the family Plethodontidae. In particular, we assessed whether microbiome differentiation paralleled host genetic distance at three levels of taxonomy: genus and high and low clade levels within Ensatina eschscholtzii ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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