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Plant Taxonomy

M Catherine Aime, Alistair R McTaggart, Stephen J Mondo, Sébastien Duplessis
Rust fungi (Pucciniales) are the most speciose and the most complex group of plant pathogens. Historically, rust taxonomy was largely influenced by host and phenotypic characters, which are potentially plastic. Molecular systematic studies suggest that the extant diversity of this group was largely shaped by host jumps and subsequent shifts. However, it has been challenging to reconstruct the evolutionary history for the order, especially at deeper (family-level) nodes. Phylogenomics offer a potentially powerful tool to reconstruct the Pucciniales tree of life, although researchers working at this vanguard still face unprecedented challenges working with nonculturable organisms that possess some of the largest and most repetitive genomes now known in kingdom fungi...
2017: Advances in Genetics
Andrew A Crowl, Nico Cellinese
In recent times, evolution has become a central tenet of taxonomy, but nomenclature has consistently been decoupled from the tree-thinking process, often leading to significant issues in reconciling traditional (Linnaean) names with clades in the Tree of Life. Recent evolutionary studies on the Roucela clade, a group of endemic plants found in the Mediterranean Basin, motivated the establishment of phylogenetic concepts to formally anchor clade names on the Campanuloideae (Campanulaceae) tree. These concepts facilitate communication of clades that approximate traditionally defined groups, in addition to naming newly discovered cryptic diversity in a phylogenetic framework...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Vitor C Pacheco da Silva, Mehmet Bora Kaydan, Thibaut Malausa, Jean-François Germain, Ferran Palero, Marcos Botton
The Serra Gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern Brazil. Despite mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. A survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in Serra Gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and DNA analyses for species identification. The most abundant species were Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), found on all four host plant species, and Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), infesting persimmon, vines and weeds...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marcus A Koch, Dmitry A German, Markus Kiefer, Andreas Franzke
The advent of omic technologies opened new and multiple avenues to access higher levels of complexity. Taxonomy - discovering and naming biodiversity - has also entered a taxonomics epoch and serves as a tool not only to name biological diversity, but also to fully explore biological knowledge and to build bridges between disciplines.
November 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hui Zhang, Weihong Guo, Mukui Yu, G Geoff Wang, Tonggui Wu
Latitudinal patterns of leaf stoichiometry and nutrient resorption were not consistent among published studies, likely due to confounding effects from taxonomy (e.g., plant distribution and community composition), and environment, which is also influenced by altitude and longitude. Thus, the latitudinal patterns and environmental mechanism could be best revealed by testing a given species along a latitude gradient with similar altitude and longitude. We determined nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of green (leaf) and senesced leaves (litter) from eight Metasequoia glyptostroboides forests along the eastern coastline of China, with similar altitude and longitude...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ralf G Dietzgen, Elodie Ghedin, Dàohóng Jiāng, Jens H Kuhn, Timothy Song, Nikos Vasilakis, David Wang, Ictv Report Consortium
The Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses with unsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 11.3-12.2 kb that produce enveloped, spherical virions. Viruses of the genus Nyavirus are tick-borne and some also infect birds. Other nyamiviruses infecting parasitoid wasps and plant parasitic nematodes have been classified into the genera Peropuvirus and Socyvirus, respectively. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Nyamiviridae, which is available at www...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
András Zlinszky, Bence Molnár, Anders S Barfod
Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid measurement of distances to the targets, thus producing three dimensional point cloud models of sub-centimeter resolution and accuracy in a few minutes. Here, we aim to gain an overview of the variability of circadian movement of small trees across different taxonomic groups, growth forms and leaf anatomies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mingli Wu, Qing Li, Zhigang Hu, Xiwen Li, Shilin Chen
Amomum kravanh is an important edible and medicinal herb, the dried fruits of which are widely used in traditional herbal medicine as cardamom. We sequenced and analyzed the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. kravanh with herbgenomics technologies. The size of the A. kravanh cp genome was 162,766 bp, which consisted of long (LSC; 87,728 bp) and short (SSC; 15,390 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs; 29,824 bp). The genome encoded 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs...
November 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alvaro Peix, Martha-Helena Ramírez-Bahena, Encarna Velázquez
The genus Pseudomonas described in 1894 is one of the most diverse and ubiquitous bacterial genera which encompass species isolated worldwide. In the last years more than 70 new species have been described, which were isolated from different environments, including soil, water, sediments, air, animals, plants, fungi, algae, compost, human and animal related sources. Some of these species have been isolated in extreme environments, such as Antarctica or Atacama desert, and from contaminated water or soil. Also, some species recently described are plant or animal pathogens...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Maxim V Vinarski, Ivan N Bolotov, Katrin Schniebs, Ivan O Nekhaev, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
The Lymnaeidae constitute a significant part of the freshwater molluscan diversity of Greenland. Since 1842, not less than 10 nominal taxa of the species and variety rank were described to organize the diversity of the Greenland lymnaeid snails. All previous attempts to revise these taxa were systematically based on morphological evidence only. Here, we provide a molecular analysis of the phylogenetic affinity and systematic status of three alleged species of the Greenland Lymnaeidae: Lymnaea vahlii (Møller, 1842), L...
October 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Heng Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Taihao Li, Na Chen, Wenjie Xu, Shupeng Liu
Background: Flos Chrysanthemi, as a part of Chinese culture for a long history, is valuable for not only environmental decoration but also the medicine and food additive. Due to their voluminously various breeds and extensive distributions worldwide, it is burdensome to make recognition and classification among numerous cultivars with conventional methods which still rest on the level of morphologic observation and description. As a fingerprint spectrum for parsing molecular information, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) could be a suitable candidate technique to characterize and distinguish the inter-cultivar differences at molecular level...
2017: Plant Methods
Eva Masiero, Dipanwita Banik, John Abson, Paul Greene, Adrian Slater, Tiziana Sgamma
Liriope and Ophiopogon species have a long history of use as traditional medicines across East Asia. They have also become widely used around the world for ornamental and landscaping purposes. The morphological similarities between Liriope and Ophiopogon taxa have made the taxonomy of the two genera problematic and caused confusion about the identification of individual specimens. Molecular approaches could be a useful tool for the discrimination of these two genera in combination with traditional methods. Seventy-five Liriope and Ophiopogon samples from the UK National Plant Collections of Ophiopogon and Liriope were analyzed...
October 26, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
James B Whitfield, Andrew D Austin, Jose L Fernandez-Triana
The braconid parasitoid wasp subfamily Microgastrinae is perhaps the most species-rich subfamily of animals on Earth. Despite their small size, they are familiar to agriculturalists and field ecologists alike as one of the principal groups of natural enemies of caterpillars feeding on plants. Their abundance and nearly ubiquitous terrestrial distribution, their intricate interactions with host insects, and their historical association with mutualistic polydnaviruses have all contributed to Microgastrinae becoming a key group of organisms for studying parasitism, parasitoid genomics, and mating biology...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
Elizabeth Anne Dauncey, Jason Thomas Whitley Irving, Robert Allkin
OBJECTIVES: To review which names are used to refer to Hypericum perforatum L. in health regulation and medicinal plant references, and the potential for ambiguity or imprecision. KEY FINDINGS: Structured searches of Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services Resource, supplemented with other online bibliographic resources, found that the scientific name Hypericum perforatum L. is used consistently in the literature, but variation between subspecies is rarely considered by researchers...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Gang Zeng, Bing Liu, David K Ferguson, Jens G Rohwer, Yong Yang
Generic delimitation in the Beilschmiedia group of the Lauraceae remains ambiguous because flowering specimens of a few genera with confined distribution are poorly represented in herbaria, and a few floral characters important for taxonomy are still poorly known. Syndiclis is sporadically distributed in southwestern China, and is represented in the herbaria by only a few flowering specimens. We conducted field investigations to collect floral materials of four species and observed structures and ontogeny of the tiny flowers using both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
2017: PloS One
Yanpei Guo, Xian Yang, Christian Schöb, Youxu Jiang, Zhiyao Tang
Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniela Matenaar, Marcus Fingerle, Eva Heym, Sarah Wirtz, Axel Hochkirch
Vicariance and dispersal are two important processes shaping biodiversity patterns. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is known for its high biotic diversity and endemism. However, studies on the phylogeography of endemic invertebrates in this biodiversity hotspot are still scarce. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of the flightless grasshopper genus Betiscoides, which is endemic to the CFR and strongly associated with restio plants (Restionaceae). We hypothesized that the genus originated in the southwestern part of the CFR, that differentiation within the genus is mainly an effect of vicariance and that the three known species only represent a minor fraction of the real genetic diversity of the genus...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Piotr Gasiorek, Hanna Rozycka
Haemadipsid leeches are among the most successful terrestrial invertebrates in Bornean rainforests. They are very common ectoparasites of vertebrates, and their abundance has facilitated the conduction of numerous projects in the fields of ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy. We undertook research on two species inhabiting lowland dipterocarp forest, Haemadipsa picta Moore, 1929 and Haemadipsa subagilis (Moore, 1929), in order to address the following questions: (a) is there a difference in leech abundance between trails and off-trails?; (b) is ambush location dependent on specimen size or is species-specific?; (c) is intra- and interspecific competition limited by differences in foraging behaviours or vertical niche partitioning? Our results clearly show that H...
October 3, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
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