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Plant Taxonomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086839/ethnobotanical-knowledge-acquisition-during-daily-chores-the-firewood-collection-of-pastoral-maasai-girls-in-southern-kenya
#1
Xiaojie Tian
BACKGROUND: Researchers considering children's traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) highlighted the importance of examining children's daily activities as empirical contexts for its acquisition. Many of them evaluated children's TEK acquisition linearly as gain or loss, and paid less attention to the adaptive nature of this knowledge system and the social relationships arising from its acquisition processes. This study approaches children's TEK acquisition considering these abovementioned aspects...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063920/reverse-ethnopharmacology-and-drug-discovery
#2
Marco Leonti, Gary I Stafford, Maja Dal Cero, Stefano Cabras, Maria Eugenia Castellanos, Laura Casu, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ethnopharmacological investigations of traditional medicines have made significant contributions to plant-derived drugs, as well as the advancement of pharmacology. Drug discovery from medicinal flora is more complex than generally acknowledged because plants are applied for different therapeutic indications within and across cultures. Therefore we propose the concept of "reverse ethnopharmacology" and compare biomedical uses of plant taxa with their ethnomedicinal and popular uses and test the effect of these on the probability of finding anticancer drugs...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059122/study-on-relationship-between-pollen-exine-ornamentation-pattern-and-germplasm-evolution-in-flowering-crabapple
#3
Wang-Xiang Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhao, Jun-Jun Fan, Ting Zhou, Yong-Xia Chen, Fu-Liang Cao
Pollen ornamentation patterns are important in the study of plant genetic evolution and systematic taxonomy. However, they are normally difficult to quantify. Based on observations of pollen exine ornamentation characteristics of 128 flowering crabapple germplasms (44 natural species and 84 varieties), three qualitative variables with binary properties (Xi: regularity of pollen exine ornamentation; Yi: scope of ornamentation arrangement regularity; Zi: ornamentation arrangement patterns) were extracted to establish a binary three-dimensional data matrix (Xi Yi Zi) and the matrix data were converted to decimal data through weight assignment, which facilitated the unification of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028016/multiple-and-asymmetrical-origin-of-polyploid-dog-rose-hybrids-rosa-l-sect-caninae-dc-ser-involving-unreduced-gametes
#4
V Herklotz, C M Ritz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses (Rosa sect. Caninae) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4x) and haploid sperm cells (1x). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5x) producing 6x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1x) sperm cells...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003532/uncovering-higher-taxon-diversification-dynamics-from-clade-age-and-species-richness-data
#5
Luna L Sánchez-Reyes, Hélène Morlon, Susana Magallón
The relationship between clade age and species richness has been increasingly used in macroevolutionary studies as evidence for ecologically versus time-dependent diversification processes. However, theory suggests that phylogenetic structure, age type (crown or stem age), and taxonomic delimitation can affect estimates of the age-richness correlation (ARC) considerably. We currently lack an integrative understanding of how these different factors affect ARCs, which in turn, obscures further interpretations...
October 6, 2016: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990779/current-issues-involved-with-the-identification-and-nutritional-value-of-wood-grubs-consumed-by-australian-aborigines
#6
REVIEW
Alan Yen, Conrad Bilney, Michael Shackleton, Susan Lawler
The so called witchetty grub is a publicised food source for Australian Aborigines. Despite heavy use, the identities and number of species consumed is still not known because of the lack of identified voucher specimens. Taxonomy based on adults makes identification of larval forms difficult. Dwelling in the root, trunks and stems of woody plants, grubs are a reliable and highly valued food source that may be in decline. Much information on edible insects may already be lost in parts of Australia heavily settled by Europeans...
December 19, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989631/molecular-phylogeny-character-evolution-and-historical-biogeography-of-cryptanthus-otto-a-dietr-bromeliaceae
#7
Geyner A S Cruz, Georg Zizka, Daniele Silvestro, Elton M C Leme, Katharina Schulte, Ana M Benko-Iseppon
Cryptanthus comprises 72 species endemic to eastern Brazil with a center of diversity in the Atlantic Forest. The majority of the species are threatened due to habitat loss. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships in Cryptanthus based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) including 48 species and 109 accessions. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed four major lineages in Cryptanthus and provided further evidence for the paraphyly of subgen. Hoplocryptanthus, while subgenus Cryptanthus was resolved as monophyletic...
October 27, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943140/ignored-fungal-community-in-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment-plants-diversity-and-altitudinal-characteristics
#8
Lihua Niu, Yi Li, Lingling Xu, Peifang Wang, Wenlong Zhang, Chao Wang, Wei Cai, Linqiong Wang
Fungi are important contributors to the various functions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); however, the diversity and geographic characteristics of fungal populations have remained vastly unexplored. Here, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were combined to investigate the abundance and diversity of the activated sludge fungal communities from 18 full-scale municipal WWTPs in China. Phylogenetic taxonomy revealed that the members of the fungal communities were assigned to 7 phyla and 195 genera...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939420/mesembrine-alkaloids-review-of-their-occurrence-chemistry-and-pharmacology
#9
REVIEW
John L Krstenansky
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mesembrine alkaloids are considered to be the primary active constituents of the South African medicinal plant Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E.Br. (Aizoaceae), and it is used as the dried or fermented aerial material from the plant, which is known as kanna (aka, channa, kougoed). Traditional regional use ranged from relieving thirst, mild analgesia, and alteration of mood. Current interest has focused primarily on the antidepressant action of preparations based on the plant and commercialization is expanding the recognition and availability of these preparations...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936873/composition-of-endophytic-fungal-community-associated-with-leaves-of-maize-cultivated-in-south-brazilian-field
#10
Vivian J Szilagyi-Zecchin, Douglas Adamoski, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Mariangela Hungria, Angela C Ikeda, Vanessa Kava-Cordeiro, Chirlei Glienke, Lygia V Galli-Terasawa
The objective of this study was to conduct a survey about fungi associated with leaves from two different maize plant lineages and to analyze their microbiota diversity. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological analysis and molecular taxonomy was performed using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. About 27 fungi morphotypes were obtained, 15 of them were from the first maize lineage. About 86.7% of the individuals belonged to the Dothideomycetes class (Phoma sorghina, Epicocum nigrum, Cladosporium sp., Bipolaris zeicola, and Alternaria alternata complex) and 13...
December 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896319/correlation-between-pollution-and-decline-of-scleractinian-cladocora-caespitosa-linnaeus-1758-in-the-gulf-of-gabes
#11
Akram El Kateb, Claudio Stalder, Christoph Neururer, Chiara Pisapia, Silvia Spezzaferri
During an expedition in 2014 in the Gulf of Gabes that aimed to evaluate the impact of the pollution of the phosphate industry on the marine environment, numerous dead coral fragments were retrieved from several stations along a 18 km long transect in front of the industry complex of Gabes. Detailed taxonomy of these coral fragments shows clearly that all fragments belong to the species Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758). Quantitative analysis of the coral fragments indicates a positive correlation with stations characterized by positive bathymetric anomalies...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890093/3-nitropropionic-acid-production-by-the-endophytic-diaporthe-citri-molecular-taxonomy-chemical-characterization-and-quantification-under-ph-variation
#12
Julio Cesar Polonio, Marcos Alessandro Dos Santos Ribeiro, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, Maria Helena Sarragiotto, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a nitrogenated compound produced by plants and fungi and has been associated with poisoning episodes in humans, animals, and to induction of Huntington disease symptoms in rats. The production of 3-NPA by endophytes has been reported, but the function and biosynthesis are not well-defined. The specie of endophytic strain G-01 was confirmed as Diaporthe citri using a multilocus sequence analysis, and was verified different concentrations of 3-NPA produced at different initial pHs by these strain...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885775/the-coffee-leaf-rust-pathogen-hemileia-vastatrix-one-and-a-half-centuries-around-the-tropics
#13
Pedro Talhinhas, Dora Batista, Inês Diniz, Ana Vieira, Diogo N Silva, Andreia Loureiro, Sílvia Tavares, Ana Paula Pereira, Helena G Azinheira, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Vítor Várzea, Maria do Céu Silva
Taxonomy and history: Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Broome (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) was described in 1869 in Eastern Africa and Ceylon as the agent of Coffee Leaf Rust and spread to all coffee cultivation areas worldwide. Major disease outbreaks in Asia, Africa and America caused and continue to cause severe yield losses, making this the most important disease of Arabica coffee, a cash crop for many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Life cycle and disease symptoms: Hemileia vastatrix is a hemicyclic fungus with the urediniosporic life cycle as its most important (if not only) source of inoculum...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880983/pantoea-ananatis-genomic-insights-into-a-versatile-pathogen
#14
Tania Weller-Stuart, Pieter De Maayer, Teresa Coutinho
Pantoea ananatis, a bacterium that is well-known for its phytopathogenic characteristics, has been isolated from a myriad of ecological niches and hosts. Infection of agronomic crops such as maize and rice can result in substantial economic losses. In the last few years, much of the research done on P. ananatis has been based on the sequencing and analysis of the genomes of strains isolated from different environments and with different lifestyles. In this review we summarise the advances made in terms of pathogenicity determinants of phytopathogenic strains of P...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833616/coconut-lethal-yellowing-diseases-a-phytoplasma-threat-to-palms-of-global-economic-and-social-significance
#15
REVIEW
Geoff M Gurr, Anne C Johnson, Gavin J Ash, Bree A L Wilson, Mark M Ero, Carmel A Pilotti, Charles F Dewhurst, Minsheng S You
The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812444/embryogenesis-in-polianthes-tuberosa-l-var-simple-from-megasporogenesis-to-early-embryo-development
#16
Alejandra G González-Gutiérrez, Benjamín Rodríguez-Garay
The genus Polianthes belongs to the subfamily Agavoideae of the Asparagaceae family formerly known as Agavaceae. The genus is endemic to México and comprises about 15 species, among them is Polianthes tuberosa L. The aim of this work was to study and characterize the embryo sac and early embryo development of this species in order to generate basic knowledge for its use in taxonomy, in vitro fertilization and production of haploid plants and to complement studies already performed in other genera and species belonging to the Agavoideae sub-family...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781035/decoding-the-semantic-content-of-natural-movies-from-human-brain-activity
#17
Alexander G Huth, Tyler Lee, Shinji Nishimoto, Natalia Y Bilenko, An T Vu, Jack L Gallant
One crucial test for any quantitative model of the brain is to show that the model can be used to accurately decode information from evoked brain activity. Several recent neuroimaging studies have decoded the structure or semantic content of static visual images from human brain activity. Here we present a decoding algorithm that makes it possible to decode detailed information about the object and action categories present in natural movies from human brain activity signals measured by functional MRI. Decoding is accomplished using a hierarchical logistic regression (HLR) model that is based on labels that were manually assigned from the WordNet semantic taxonomy...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742096/they-seldom-occur-alone
#18
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald
Species of Coleophoma have been reported as plant pathogenic, saprobic or endophytic on a wide host range. The genus is characterised by having pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic conidiogenous cells intermingled among paraphyses, and cylindrical conidia. Coleophoma has had a confusing taxonomic history with numerous synonyms, and its phylogeny has remained unresolved. The aim of the present study was to use a polyphasic approach incorporating morphology, ecology, and molecular data of the partial large subunit of nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742091/redefining-common-endophytes-and-plant-pathogens-in-neofabraea-pezicula-and-related-genera
#19
Chen Chen, Gerard J M Verkley, Guangyu Sun, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721688/stemphylium-leaf-blight-of-garlic-allium-sativum-in-spain-taxonomy-and-in-vitro-fungicide-response
#20
Laura Gálvez, Jéssica Gil-Serna, Marta García, Concepción Iglesias, Daniel Palmero
The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
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