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Plant Taxonomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896319/correlation-between-pollution-and-decline-of-scleractinian-cladocora-caespitosa-linnaeus-1758-in-the-gulf-of-gabes
#1
Akram El Kateb, Claudio Stalder, Christoph Neururer, Chiara Pisapia, Silvia Spezzaferri
During an expedition in 2014 in the Gulf of Gabes that aimed to evaluate the impact of the pollution of the phosphate industry on the marine environment, numerous dead coral fragments were retrieved from several stations along a 18 km long transect in front of the industry complex of Gabes. Detailed taxonomy of these coral fragments shows clearly that all fragments belong to the species Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758). Quantitative analysis of the coral fragments indicates a positive correlation with stations characterized by positive bathymetric anomalies...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890093/3-nitropropionic-acid-production-by-the-endophytic-diaporthe-citri-molecular-taxonomy-chemical-characterization-and-quantification-under-ph-variation
#2
Julio Cesar Polonio, Marcos Alessandro Dos Santos Ribeiro, Sandro Augusto Rhoden, Maria Helena Sarragiotto, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a nitrogenated compound produced by plants and fungi and has been associated with poisoning episodes in humans, animals, and to induction of Huntington disease symptoms in rats. The production of 3-NPA by endophytes has been reported, but the function and biosynthesis are not well-defined. The specie of endophytic strain G-01 was confirmed as Diaporthe citri using a multilocus sequence analysis, and was verified different concentrations of 3-NPA produced at different initial pHs by these strain...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885775/the-coffee-leaf-rust-pathogen-hemileia-vastatrix-one-and-a-half-centuries-around-the-tropics
#3
Pedro Talhinhas, Dora Batista, Inês Diniz, Ana Vieira, Diogo N Silva, Andreia Loureiro, Sílvia Tavares, Ana Paula Pereira, Helena G Azinheira, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Vítor Várzea, Maria do Céu Silva
Taxonomy and history: Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Broome (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) was described in 1869 in Eastern Africa and Ceylon as the agent of Coffee Leaf Rust and spread to all coffee cultivation areas worldwide. Major disease outbreaks in Asia, Africa and America caused and continue to cause severe yield losses, making this the most important disease of Arabica coffee, a cash crop for many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Life cycle and disease symptoms: Hemileia vastatrix is a hemicyclic fungus with the urediniosporic life cycle as its most important (if not only) source of inoculum...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880983/pantoea-ananatis-genomic-insights-into-a-versatile-pathogen
#4
Tania Weller-Stuart, Pieter De Maayer, Teresa Coutinho
Pantoea ananatis, a bacterium that is well-known for its phytopathogenic characteristics, has been isolated from a myriad of ecological niches and hosts. Infection of agronomic crops such as maize and rice can result in substantial economic losses. In the last few years, much of the research done on P. ananatis has been based on the sequencing and analysis of the genomes of strains isolated from different environments and with different lifestyles. In this review we summarise the advances made in terms of pathogenicity determinants of phytopathogenic strains of P...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833616/coconut-lethal-yellowing-diseases-a-phytoplasma-threat-to-palms-of-global-economic-and-social-significance
#5
REVIEW
Geoff M Gurr, Anne C Johnson, Gavin J Ash, Bree A L Wilson, Mark M Ero, Carmel A Pilotti, Charles F Dewhurst, Minsheng S You
The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812444/embryogenesis-in-polianthes-tuberosa-l-var-simple-from-megasporogenesis-to-early-embryo-development
#6
Alejandra G González-Gutiérrez, Benjamín Rodríguez-Garay
The genus Polianthes belongs to the subfamily Agavoideae of the Asparagaceae family formerly known as Agavaceae. The genus is endemic to México and comprises about 15 species, among them is Polianthes tuberosa L. The aim of this work was to study and characterize the embryo sac and early embryo development of this species in order to generate basic knowledge for its use in taxonomy, in vitro fertilization and production of haploid plants and to complement studies already performed in other genera and species belonging to the Agavoideae sub-family...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781035/decoding-the-semantic-content-of-natural-movies-from-human-brain-activity
#7
Alexander G Huth, Tyler Lee, Shinji Nishimoto, Natalia Y Bilenko, An T Vu, Jack L Gallant
One crucial test for any quantitative model of the brain is to show that the model can be used to accurately decode information from evoked brain activity. Several recent neuroimaging studies have decoded the structure or semantic content of static visual images from human brain activity. Here we present a decoding algorithm that makes it possible to decode detailed information about the object and action categories present in natural movies from human brain activity signals measured by functional MRI. Decoding is accomplished using a hierarchical logistic regression (HLR) model that is based on labels that were manually assigned from the WordNet semantic taxonomy...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742096/they-seldom-occur-alone
#8
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald
Species of Coleophoma have been reported as plant pathogenic, saprobic or endophytic on a wide host range. The genus is characterised by having pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic conidiogenous cells intermingled among paraphyses, and cylindrical conidia. Coleophoma has had a confusing taxonomic history with numerous synonyms, and its phylogeny has remained unresolved. The aim of the present study was to use a polyphasic approach incorporating morphology, ecology, and molecular data of the partial large subunit of nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742091/redefining-common-endophytes-and-plant-pathogens-in-neofabraea-pezicula-and-related-genera
#9
Chen Chen, Gerard J M Verkley, Guangyu Sun, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721688/stemphylium-leaf-blight-of-garlic-allium-sativum-in-spain-taxonomy-and-in-vitro-fungicide-response
#10
Laura Gálvez, Jéssica Gil-Serna, Marta García, Concepción Iglesias, Daniel Palmero
The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719666/cannabis-a-treasure-trove-or-pandora-s-box
#11
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718316/development-of-genomic-tools-in-a-widespread-tropical-tree-symphonia-globulifera-l-f-a-new-low-coverage-draft-genome-snp-and-ssr-markers
#12
Sanna Olsson, Pedro Seoane Zonjic, Rocío Bautista, M Gonzalo Claros, Santiago C González-Martínez, Ivan Scotti, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Olivier J Hardy, Myriam Heuertz
Population genetic studies in tropical plants are often challenging because of limited information on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and distribution ranges, scarce genomic information and logistic challenges in sampling. We describe a strategy to develop robust and widely applicable genetic markers based on a modest development of genomic resources in the ancient tropical tree species Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), a keystone species in African and Neotropical rainforests. We provide the first low-coverage (11X) fragmented draft genome sequenced on an individual from Cameroon, covering 1...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717501/cuticular-hydrocarbons-and-sucrose-esters-as-chemotaxonomic-markers-of-wild-and-cultivated-tomato-species-solanum-section-lycopersicon
#13
Łukasz P Haliński, Piotr Stepnowski
The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. Due to the limited genetic variability, wild related species are considered as potential gene pool for breeding cultivated plants with enriched genetic basis. Taxonomic relations between tomato species at the level of single groups and taxa still remain, however, not fully resolved. Hence, in addition to already reported classification based on the morphology of the plants and molecular markers, we proposed chemotaxonomic approach to unveil some aspects of tomato taxonomy...
October 4, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717306/close-ecological-relationship-among-species-facilitated-horizontal-transfer-of-retrotransposons
#14
Xianzong Wang, Xiaolin Liu
BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer (HT) of genetic materials is increasingly being found in both animals and plants and mainly concerns transposable elements (TEs). Many crustaceans have big genome sizes and are thus likely to harbor high TE contents. Their habitat might offer them ample opportunities to exchange genetic materials with organisms that are ecologically close but taxonomically distant to them. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), an important economic crustacean, to explore traces of HT events...
October 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706755/rna-applications-for-endophytic-research
#15
J C Polonio, A D Polli, J L Azevedo, J A Pamphile
Endophytic microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, have intrinsic relationships with the host plants, involving complex chemical and genetic communication networks. The relationship among these organisms involves the development of regulatory mechanisms of gene expression that control their development and response to different interactions. Although RNA molecules are already being used in studies of microorganism diversity and taxonomy, for example, using comparisons of rRNA regions, they may also be useful tools in the exploration of gene regulation and modeling of other molecules, such as the analysis of microRNA and small interfering RNAs...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706748/classification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-chinese-hawthorn-assessed-by-plant-and-pollen-morphology
#16
S L Y Ma, Y M Lu
The Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.) is uniquely originated in northern China. The ecological and horticultural importance of Chinese hawthorn is considerable and some varieties are valued for their fruit or medicine extracts. Its taxonomy and phylogeny remain poorly understood. Apart from general plant morphological traits, pollen is an important trait for the classification of plants and their evolutionary origin. However, few studies have investigated the pollen of Chinese hawthorn...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679499/prof-huan-yong-chen-a-leading-botanist-and-taxonomist-one-of-the-pioneers-and-founders-of-modern-plant-taxonomy-in-china
#17
Rui-Lan Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677157/novel-endorna-like-viruses-including-three-with-two-open-reading-frames-challenge-the-membership-criteria-and-taxonomy-of-the-endornaviridae
#18
Jamie W L Ong, Hua Li, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam, Kingsley W Dixon, Michael G K Jones, Stephen J Wylie
Viruses associated with wild orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi are poorly studied. Using a shotgun sequencing approach, we identified eight novel endornavirus-like genome sequences from isolates of Ceratobasidium fungi isolated from pelotons within root cortical cells of wild indigenous orchid species Microtis media, Pterostylis sanguinea and an undetermined species of Pterostylis in Western Australia. They represent the first endornaviruses to be described from orchid mycorrhizal fungi and from the Australian continent...
September 24, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669159/using-a-control-to-better-understand-phyllosphere-microbiota
#19
Andrea R Ottesen, Sasha Gorham, Elizabeth Reed, Michael J Newell, Padmini Ramachandran, Travis Canida, Marc Allard, Peter Evans, Eric Brown, James Robert White
An important data gap in our understanding of the phyllosphere surrounds the origin of the many microbes described as phyllosphere communities. Most sampling in phyllosphere research has focused on the collection of microbiota without the use of a control, so the opportunity to determine which taxa are actually driven by the biology and physiology of plants as opposed to introduced by environmental forces has yet to be fully realized. To address this data gap, we used plastic plants as inanimate controls adjacent to live tomato plants (phyllosphere) in the field with the hope of distinguishing between bacterial microbiota that may be endemic to plants as opposed to introduced by environmental forces...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664721/bacillus-velezensis-rc-218-as-a-biocontrol-agent-to-reduce-fusarium-head-blight-and-deoxynivalenol-accumulation-genome-sequencing-and-secondary-metabolite-cluster-profiles
#20
Juan M Palazzini, Christopher A Dunlap, Michael J Bowman, Sofía N Chulze
Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
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