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Neonatal clinical guides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019748/doppler-us-in-the-evaluation-of-fetal-growth-and-perinatal-health
#1
Kristen R Uquillas, Brendan H Grubbs, Ashley E Prosper, Ramen H Chmait, Edward G Grant, Daphne K Walker
Fetal growth restriction is commonly defined as an estimated fetal weight (EFW) that is below the 10th percentile for gestational age. It is associated with an increased risk of intrauterine demise, neonatal morbidity, and neonatal death; therefore, antenatal detection and surveillance with the optimization of delivery timing are necessary to improve pregnancy outcomes. If the estimated due date has been verified and the EFW is below the 10th percentile for gestational age, the underlying cause should be investigated, since the clinical management, outcome, and counseling options are largely dependent on the cause of the growth restriction...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986615/perforations-associated-with-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-in-a-neonatal-population
#2
Andrew J Sertic, Bairbre L Connolly, Michael J Temple, Dimitri A Parra, Joao G Amaral, Kyong-Soon Lee
BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are increasingly used in neonates but perforations can result in devastating complications such as pericardial and pleural effusions. Identifying risk factors may guide surveillance and reduce morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for PICC perforation in neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case:control (1:2) study of neonates admitted between 2004-2014...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982789/endovascular-treatment-of-vein-of-galen-malformations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
W Brinjikji, T Krings, M H Murad, A Rouchaud, D Meila
BACKGROUND: Outcomes after endovascular embolization of vein of Galen malformations remain relatively poorly described. PURPOSE: We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine outcomes and predictors of good outcomes following endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations. DATA SOURCES: We used Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and the Web of Science. STUDY SELECTION: Our study consisted of all case series with ≥4 patients receiving endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations published through January 2017...
October 5, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982710/identification-of-extremely-premature-infants-at-low-risk-for-early-onset-sepsis
#4
Karen M Puopolo, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Nellie I Hansen, C Michael Cotten, Barbara J Stoll, Pablo J Sanchez, Edward F Bell, Abhik Das, Angelita M Hensman, Krisa P Van Meurs, Myra H Wyckoff
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at high risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) relative to term infants, and most are administered empirical antibiotics after birth. We aimed to determine if factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS. METHODS: Study infants were born at 22 to 28 weeks' gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014. EOS was defined by isolation of pathogenic species from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours age...
October 5, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974871/imperforate-hymen-varied-presentation-new-associations-and-management
#5
Raghu Sampally Ramareddy, Anjala Kumar, Anand Alladi
AIM: Imperforate hymen is an isolated and sporadic event. The aim of this study was to report varied clinical and management problems of consecutive imperforate hymen in children and to compare the genetic review with literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of eight consecutive imperforate hymen children admitted during 2010-2015. RESULTS: Among eight girls, two were infants and six were in the adolescent group...
October 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969690/the-quality-of-medical-death-certification-of-cause-of-death-in-hospitals-in-rural-bangladesh-impact-of-introducing-the-international-form-of-medical-certificate-of-cause-of-death
#6
Riley H Hazard, Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury, Tim Adair, Adnan Ansar, A M Quaiyum Rahman, Saidul Alam, Nurul Alam, Rasika Rampatige, Peter Kim Streatfield, Ian Douglas Riley, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely data on cause of death are critically important for guiding health programs and policies. Deaths certified by doctors are implicitly considered to be reliable and accurate, yet the quality of information provided in the international Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD) usually varies according to the personnel involved in certification, the diagnostic capacity of the hospital, and the category of hospitals. There are no published studies that have analysed how certifying doctors in Bangladesh adhere to international rules when completing the MCCD or have assessed the quality of clinical record keeping...
October 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944700/participation-restrictions-among-adolescents-and-adults-with-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy-the-patient-perspective
#7
Menno van der Holst, Jeroen Groot, Duco Steenbeek, Willem Pondaag, Rob Ghh Nelissen, Thea Pm Vliet Vlieland
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) on societal participation of adolescents and adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with NBPP, aged ≥16 years, who had visited our NBPP clinic. Patients completed questions on the influence of NBPP on their choices regarding education/work and their work-performance, the Impact on Participation/Autonomy questionnaire and the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-P)...
September 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936715/comparing-different-partograph-designs-for-use-in-standard-labor-care-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#8
Nigel J Lee, Jeremy Neal, Nancy K Lowe, Sue V Kildea
Backgound Partographs are used in many labour settings to provide a pictorial overview of a woman's cervical dilation pattern in the first stage of labor and to alert clinicians to slow progress possibly requiring intervention. Recent reviews called for large trials to establish the efficacy of partographs to improve birth outcomes whilst highlighting issues of clinician compliance with use. Previous studies have also reported issues with participant recruitment related to concerns regarding the possibility of a longer labour...
September 21, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921513/use-of-a-clinical-laboratory-score-to-guide-treatment-of-gestational-diabetes
#9
Juliana B do Valle, Jean C Silva, Daniela S Oliveira, Lisiane Martins, Amanda Lewandowski, Wagner Horst
OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes of implementing a clinical-laboratory score in the treatment of pregnant women with gestational diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective before-and-after implementation analysis was undertaken using data and neonatal outcomes for pregnant women with gestational diabetes treated before (January 2011-December 2012; control group) and after (January 2013-December 2014; score group) introduction of a newly developed score. To evaluate the effects of score adoption, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated after adjustment for confounding factors...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910943/-study-on-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-and-enterococcus-colonized-in-intestine-of-neonates-from-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#10
X F Li, Z J Liu, X Chen, J Li, Z G Cui, B Kan, J R Ma, J H Cui
Objective: To understand the antibiotic resistance of bacteria colonized in intestine of the neonates from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and provide evidence to guide clinical antibiotic treatment. Methods: From May, 2014 to May, 2015, a total of 572 stool samples were collected from the neonates of NICU in our hospital. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were detected with VITEK-2 system. Results: A total of 328 strains of E. coli and 243 strains of Enterococcus were isolated respectively in this study...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906265/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-supraclavicular-ultrasound-guided-brachiocephalic-vein-cannulations-in-preterm-infants
#11
Christian Breschan, Gudrun Graf, Robert Jost, Haro Stettner, Georg Feigl, Stefan Neuwersch, Christian Stadik, Markus Koestenberger, Rudolf Likar
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the supraclavicular ultrasound-guided cannulation of the brachiocephalic vein in preterm infants. METHODS: The ultrasound probe was placed in the supraclavicular region so as to obtain the optimum sonographic long-axis view of the brachiocephalic vein. By using a strict in-plane approach the brachiocephalic vein was cannulated by advancing a 22- or 24-gauge iv cannula from lateral to medial under the long axis of the ultrasound probe under real-time ultrasound guidance into the vein...
September 13, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901786/effect-of-gestational-age-on-the-epidemiology-of-late-onset-sepsis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-review
#12
Elsa Da Palma Afonso, Stijn Blot
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Late-onset sepsis affects a significant percentage of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Most affected newborns are preterm or low birth weight, but late-onset sepsis also affects late preterm and term infants. Understanding how gestational age affects the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis can be of use when defining strategies for its prevention and clinical management in NICU. Areas covered: Available evidence suggests the incidence and mortality of late-onset sepsis is higher in preterm and VLBW infants, but pathogen distribution and risk exposure is similar across all infants admitted to NICU...
September 25, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885377/clinical-pearls-in-venovenous-extracorporeal-life-support-for-adult-respiratory-failure
#13
Chee Kiang Tay, Kiick Sung, Yang Hyun Cho
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been widely utilized to treat neonatal respiratory failure for two decades. However, its uptake in the case of adult respiratory failure has been slow because of a paucity of quality evidence and a sluggish tempo of ECLS-related technological advances. In recent years, interest in ECLS has been piqued after encouraging results were reported from its use during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In a world constantly under threat from another influenza epidemic or deadly novel respiratory infection, e...
September 6, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#14
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869278/cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitoring-for-prevention-of-brain-injury-in-very-preterm-infants
#15
REVIEW
Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Gorm Greisen, Bodil Als-Nielsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Cerebral injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is common in extremely preterm infants. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous estimation of cerebral oxygenation. This diagnostic method coupled with appropriate interventions if NIRS is out of normal range (that is cerebral oxygenation within the 55% to 85% range) may offer benefits without causing more harms. Therefore, NIRS coupled with appropriate responses to abnormal findings on NIRS needs assessment in a systematic review of randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised studies...
September 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859764/no-347-obstetric-management-at-borderline-viability
#16
Noor Niyar N Ladhani, Radha S Chari, Michael S Dunn, Griffith Jones, Prakesh Shah, Jon F R Barrett
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this guideline was to develop consensus statements to guide clinical practice and recommendations for obstetric management of a pregnancy at borderline viability, currently defined as prior to 25+6 weeks. INTENDED USERS: Clinicians involved in the obstetric management of women whose fetus is at the borderline of viability. TARGET POPULATION: Women presenting for possible birth at borderline viability. EVIDENCE: This document presents a summary of the literature and a general consensus on the management of pregnancies at borderline viability, including maternal transfer and consultation, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate, fetal heart rate monitoring, and considerations in mode of delivery...
September 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833371/nurses-perceptions-of-pain-assessment-and-management-practices-in-neonates-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Tarja Pölkki, Anne Korhonen, Helena Laukkala
AIMS: This study aimed to describe pain assessment and management practices for neonates based on nurses' perceptions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in Finland. METHODS: Of all nurses (N = 422) working in the NICUs in the country's five university hospitals, 294 responded to a questionnaire. The data were analysed by statistical methods. RESULTS: Nurses agreed that pain assessment is important, but over half of them reported being able to assess pain in a reliable way without using pain assessment scales...
August 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796951/bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-as-a-probiotic-for-preterm-infants-a-strain-specific-systematic-review
#18
Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Shripada Rao, Karen Simmer, Sanjay Patole
INTRODUCTION: Bifidobacterium breve M-16V has been used as a probiotic in preterm infants. Probiotic strain-specific data are essential to guide clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of B breve M-16V in preterm neonates. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of B breve M-16V in preterm infants was conducted. Multiple databases, proceedings of Pediatric Academy Society, and other relevant conferences were searched in September 2016 and on January 5, 2017...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782412/gestational-weight-gain-in-obese-pregnancy-impact-on-maternal-and-foetal-metabolic-parameters-and-birthweight
#19
Karen L Lindsay, Lorraine Brennan, Ann Rath, Orla C Maguire, Thomas Smith, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the impact of gestational weight gain (GWG) among euglycaemic obese pregnant women on maternal and foetal metabolic parameters and neonatal outcome. Total GWG was recorded for 101 obese, non-diabetic women with a singleton pregnancy. At 28 weeks of gestation, fasting maternal blood samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide and lipids. Cord bloods were collected at delivery for analysis of glucose, c-peptide and lipids. GWG (mean ± SD =10...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777308/key-challenges-in-the-search-for-innovative-drug-treatments-for-special-populations-converging-needs-in-neonatology-pediatrics-and-medical-genetics
#20
Stuart MacLeod
The explosion of knowledge concerning the interplay of genetic and environmental factors determining pathophysiology and guiding therapeutic choice has altered the landscape in pediatric clinical pharmacology and pharmacy. The need for innovative research methods and design expertise for small clinical trials to be undertaken in sparse populations has been accentuated. At the same time, shortfalls in critical human resources represent a key challenge, especially in low- and middle-income countries where the need for new research and education directions is greatest...
August 4, 2017: Children
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