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Marion Boulanger, Yannick Béjot, Peter M Rothwell, Emmanuel Touzé
BACKGROUND: Uncertainties remain about the current risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a systematic review to estimate the long-term risk of MI, compared to recurrent stroke, with temporal trends in ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients. Annual risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of MI and recurrent stroke were estimated using random-effect meta-analyses. We calculated incidence ratios of MI/recurrent stroke, for fatal and nonfatal events, using similar analyses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Fatimat M Akinlusi, Kabiru A Rabiu, Idayat A Durojaiye, Adeniyi A Adewunmi, Tawaqualit A Ottun, Yusuf A Oshodi
BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery carries a risk of major intra-operative blood loss and its performance is often delayed by non-availability of blood and blood products. Unnecessary cross-matching and reservation of blood lead to apparent scarcity in centres with limited supply. This study set out to identify the risk factors for blood transfusion in women who underwent caesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric unit with a view to ensuring efficient blood utilization. METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis of 906 women who had caesarean deliveries at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January and December, 2011...
January 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Giuseppe Gargiulo, Sara Ariotti, Pascal Vranckx, Sergio Leonardi, Enrico Frigoli, Nestor Ciociano, Carlo Tumscitz, Francesco Tomassini, Paolo Calabrò, Stefano Garducci, Gabriele Crimi, Giuseppe Andò, Maurizio Ferrario, Ugo Limbruno, Bernardo Cortese, Paolo Sganzerla, Alessandro Lupi, Filippo Russo, Roberto Garbo, Arturo Ausiello, Dennis Zavalloni, Gennaro Sardella, Giovanni Esposito, Andrea Santarelli, Simone Tresoldi, Marco Stefano Nazzaro, Antonio Zingarelli, Anna Sonia Petronio, Stephan Windecker, Bruno R da Costa, Marco Valgimigli
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess whether transradial access (TRA) compared with transfemoral access (TFA) is associated with consistent outcomes in male and female patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing invasive management. BACKGROUND: There are limited and contrasting data about sex disparities for the safety and efficacy of TRA versus TFA for coronary intervention. METHODS: In the MATRIX (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of angioX) program, 8,404 patients were randomized to TRA or TFA...
January 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Giuseppe Tarantini, Daisuke Ueshima, Gianpiero D'Amico, Giulia Masiero, Giuseppe Musumeci, Gregg W Stone, Sorin J Brener
BACKGROUND: The use of the potent oral P2Y12 inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has a favorable net clinical effect compared with clopidogrel and is recommended as first-line therapy. However, the impact of these agents on ischemic and bleeding events in elderly ACS patients is not well defined. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles comparing potent P2Y12 inhibitors to clopidogrel in elderly and nonelderly patients (defined according to each study) with ACS in terms of efficacy (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and safety (major bleeding) end points...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
Chuan Gao, Carl D Langefeld, Julie T Ziegler, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Yii-Der I Chen, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Xiuqing Guo, Matthew A Allison, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Jerome I Rotter, Donald W Bowden, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the genetic mechanisms of regional fat deposition, which is a strong risk factor for metabolic diseases beyond total adiposity. METHODS: A genome-wide association study of 7,757,139 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 983 Mexican Americans (nmale  = 403; nfemale  = 580) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study was performed. Association analyses were performed with and without sex stratification for subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and visceral-subcutaneous ratio (VSR) obtained from computed tomography...
January 2018: Obesity
Stefano Ghio, Gabriele Crimi, Pier Luigi Temporelli, Egidio Traversi, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Antonia Cannito, Dario Vizza, Laura Scelsi, Claudia Raineri, Marco Guazzi, Luigi Oltrona Visconti
AIMS: The most recent European guidelines have proposed new definitions of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in left heart disease, to better approach the characteristics required to reflect the presence of pulmonary vascular disease. The purpose of this study was to assess whether different haemodynamic definitions of post-capillary PH imply a different reversibility of PH in response to acute vasodilator administration in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and PH (HFrEF-PH)...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
Espen Ø Bjørnestad, Robert A Borsholm, Gard F T Svingen, Eva R Pedersen, Reinhard Seifert, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Grethe S Tell, Kaare H Bønaa, Ottar Nygård
BACKGROUND: Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is related to plasma neopterin, an indicator of interferon-γ-mediated immune activation, and both biomarkers positively predict cardiovascular risk. We examined whether the association between tHcy and subsequent risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was modified by systemic concentrations of neopterin and C-reactive protein among patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: By Cox modeling, we explored the association between tHcy and risk of AMI in 4164 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris...
November 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Kelly A Hirko, Boyang Chai, Donna Spiegelman, Hannia Campos, Maryam S Farvid, Susan E Hankinson, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen
The roles of specific fatty acids in breast cancer etiology are unclear, particularly among premenopausal women. We examined 34 individual fatty acids, measured in blood erythrocytes collected between 1996-1999, and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of primarily premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and before June 2010 (n=794) were matched to controls and conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR's (95% CI's) for associations of fatty acids with breast cancer; unconditional logistic regression was used for stratified analyses...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Catherine Gebhard, Aurel Toma, Zhao Min, Barbara E Stähli, Kambis Mashayekhi, Michael Gick, Miroslaw Ferenc, Heinz Joachim Büttner, Franz-Josef Neumann
Background  As technologies of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusions (CTO) have improved, great uncertainty exists regarding patient selection and long-term benefit of CTO-PCI. Given that white blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with cardiovascular risk, we hypothesized that the latter might provide incremental prognostic value in patients undergoing CTO-PCI. Methods and Results  Our study population consisted of 1,262 consecutive patients (76.3% males, mean age of 67...
November 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Markus Niklasson, Renee Otten, Alexandra Ahlner, Cecilia Andresen, Judith Schlagnitweit, Katja Petzold, Patrik Lundström
NMR spectroscopy is uniquely suited for atomic resolution studies of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and metabolites, since detailed information on structure and dynamics are encoded in positions and line shapes of peaks in NMR spectra. Unfortunately, accurate determination of these parameters is often complicated and time consuming, in part due to the need for different software at the various analysis steps and for validating the results. Here, we present an integrated, cross-platform and open-source software that is significantly more versatile than the typical line shape fitting application...
October 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Nancy Wanjiru Thuku, Kibet Shikuku, Amos Mbugua
INTRODUCTION: For many years, platelet concentrates have been used for the prevention as well as treatment of bleeding disorders, especially in those patients with haematological problems involving platelet disorders as well as refractoriness, In addition, platelet concentrates (PCs) have been widely used to support patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation or who are receiving myelotoxic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of platelet concentrates by assessing platelet counts, volume, pH changes, swirling, residue of the red blood cells and white blood cell counts...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Gennaro Giustino, Björn Redfors, Roxana Mehran, Ajay J Kirtane, Usman Baber, Philippe Généreux, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Franz-Josef Neumann, Giora Weisz, Akiko Maehara, Michael J Rinaldi, D Christopher Metzger, Timothy D Henry, David A Cox, Peter L Duffy, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Bruce R Brodie, Thomas D Stuckey, George D Dangas, Sorin J Brener, M Ozgu Ozan, Gregg W Stone
BACKGROUND: Whether the consequences of diabetes mellitus (DM) are worse for women than for men treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) and antiplatelet therapy remain unclear. METHODS: Patients from the Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents study were stratified according to sex and DM status. We investigated the sex-specific effect of DM on high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR), defined as a P2Y12 reaction units ≥208, and the adjusted association of DM on the 2-year risk for coronary thrombotic events (CTE), defined as spontaneous myocardial infarction or definite or probable stent thrombosis...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Carol Emslie, Jemma Lennox, Lana Ireland
Research suggests that alcohol use and misuse are higher among lesbian, gay and bisexual than heterosexual populations, yet the social context of drinking in sexual minority communities has rarely been examined. To explore lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people's relationship with alcohol, we conducted seven focus groups (N = 33) with pre-existing groups of friends and work colleagues (18 to 52 years) in Scotland, UK. We identified and analysed patterns in our data using thematic analysis. Respondents perceived heavy drinking as central to the commercial gay scene...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
L L Van Hecke, K Hermans, M Haspeslagh, K Chiers, E Pint, F Boyen, A M Martens
The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for diagnosing wound infection in wounds healing by second intention in horses and to assess the effect of a vortex and sonication protocol on quantitative bacteriology in specimens with a histologically confirmed biofilm. In 50 wounds healing by second intention, a clinical assessment, a quantitative swab, a semi-quantitative swab, and a swab for cytology were compared to a quantitative tissue biopsy (reference standard). Part of the biopsy specimen was examined histologically for evidence of a biofilm...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
Myrto Barrdahl, Anja Rudolph, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Annegien Broeks, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, J Esteban Castelao, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Stig E Bojesen, Susan M Gapstur, Mia M Gaudet, Hermann Brenner, Volker Arndt, Hiltrud Brauch, Ute Hamann, Arto Mannermaa, Diether Lambrechts, Lynn Jongen, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Kathrin Thoene, Fergus J Couch, Graham G Giles, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, Jonine Figueroa, Kyriaki Michailidou, Manjeet K Bolla, Joe Dennis, Qin Wang, Ursula Eilber, Sabine Behrens, Kamila Czene, Per Hall, Angela Cox, Simon Cross, Anthony Swerdlow, Minouk J Schoemaker, Alison M Dunning, Rudolf Kaaks, Paul D P Pharoah, Marjanka Schmidt, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Douglas F Easton, Roger L Milne, Jenny Chang-Claude
Investigating the most likely causal variants identified by fine-mapping analyses may improve the power to detect gene-environment interactions. We assessed the interplay between 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by genetic fine-scale mapping of susceptibility loci and 11 epidemiological breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast cancer. Analyses were conducted on up to 58,573 subjects (26,968 cases and 31,605 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, in one of the largest studies of its kind...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Nitin Muralidharan, Casey N Brock, Adam P Cohn, Deanna Schauben, Rachel E Carter, Landon Oakes, D Greg Walker, Cary L Pint
The interplay between mechanical strains and battery electrochemistry, or the tunable mechanochemistry of batteries, remains an emerging research area with limited experimental progress. In this report, we demonstrate how elastic strains applied to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), a widely studied cathode material for Li-ion batteries, can modulate the kinetics and energetics of lithium-ion intercalation. We utilize atomic layer deposition to coat V2O5 materials onto the surface of a shapememory superelastic NiTi alloy, which allows electrochemical assessment at a fixed and measurable level of elastic strain imposed on the V2O5, with strain state assessed through Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
Liana K Billings, Kathleen A Jablonski, A Sofia Warner, Yu-Chien Cheng, Jarred B McAteer, Laura Tipton, Alan R Shuldiner, David A Ehrmann, Alisa K Manning, Dana Dabelea, Paul W Franks, Steven E Kahn, Toni I Pollin, William C Knowler, David Altshuler, Jose C Florez
Context: Variation in genes that cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has been associated with diabetes incidence and glycemic traits. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether genetic variation in MODY genes leads to differential responses to insulin-sensitizing interventions. Design and Setting: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter, randomized clinical trial, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), involving 27 US academic institutions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yihui Xu, Mengyun Chen, Chenchen Liu, Xiaowei Zhang, Wei Li, Huaidong Cheng, Jun Zhu, Mingjun Zhang, Zhendong Chen, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and polygenic disease that can be divided into different molecular subtypes based on histological and genomic features. To date, numerous susceptibility loci of breast cancer have been discovered by genome-wide association studies and may expand the genetic features. However, few loci have been further studied according to molecular subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped 23 recently discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms using the Sequenom iPLEX platform in a female Chinese cohort of 3,036 breast cancer patients (2,935 samples matched molecular subtypes) and 3,036 healthy controls...
August 2017: Oncologist
Juan Wang, Ruci Wang, Yueming Wang, Li Zhang, Li Zhang, Yufang Xu, Shanguo Yao
The culm development of rice is characterized by elongation and medullary cavity (MC) formation, which are determined by node formation meristem and residual meristem, respectively. Although many factors have been shown to affect culm elongation, molecules involved in MC formation remained to be identified. In this study, we show that a point mutation in SHORT and SOLID CULM (SSC), the rice homologue of Arabidopsis LFY, resulted in plants with drastically reduced culm length and completely abolished MC formation...
March 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Benjamin G Wiggins, Konstantinos Aliazis, Scott P Davies, Gideon Hirschfield, Patricia F Lalor, Gary Reynolds, Zania Stamataki
The liver is the largest internal organ and filters around 3 pints of blood per minute. This continuous flux of blood should not be confused with rapid egress of lymphocytes through the liver; this organ has intricate corridors of specialized sinusoidal spaces, ensuring that immune cells decelerate to shear flow rates, and providing ample opportunities to interact with parenchymal cells. Migration has been intricately linked to T cell function; it is therefore important to study liver T cell biology into context within the liver microenvironment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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