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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908459/three-single-leg-standing-tests-for-clinical-assessment-of-chronic-plantar-heel-pain-syndrome-static-stance-half-squat-and-heel-rise
#1
B Saban, Y Masharawi
OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability and validity of three single leg standing clinical tests in patients with plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional reliability study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients diagnosed with PHPS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients stood on their affected foot in a static stance for up to 30seconds, a half squat for up to 10 repetitions, and a heel rise for up to 10 repetitions. The first sensation of pain (p1) determined the termination of each test, and established a positive test result...
June 29, 2016: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811299/a-general-relationship-links-gait-mechanics-and-running-ground-reaction-forces
#2
Kenneth P Clark, Laurence J Ryan, Peter G Weyand
The relationship between gait mechanics and running ground reaction forces is widely regarded as complex. This viewpoint has evolved primarily via efforts to explain the rising-edge of vertical force-time waveforms observed during slow human running. Existing theoretical models do provide good rising-edge fits, but require more than a dozen input variables to sum the force contributions of four or more vague components of the body's total mass (mb). Here, we hypothesized that the force contributions of two discrete body mass components are sufficient to account for vertical ground reaction force-time waveforms patterns in full [stance foot and shank, m1=0...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702444/increasing-ankle-push-off-work-with-a-powered-prosthesis-does-not-necessarily-reduce-metabolic-rate-for-transtibial-amputees
#3
Roberto E Quesada, Joshua M Caputo, Steven H Collins
Amputees using passive ankle-foot prostheses tend to expend more metabolic energy during walking than non-amputees, and reducing this cost has been a central motivation for the development of active ankle-foot prostheses. Increased push-off work at the end of stance has been proposed as a way to reduce metabolic energy use, but the effects of push-off work have not been tested in isolation. In this experiment, participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (N=6) walked on a treadmill at a constant speed while wearing a powered prosthesis emulator...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676754/on-the-origin-of-the-mediolateral-displacement-of-the-centre-of-pressure-during-gait-initiation
#4
Marco Schieppati, Jean Louis Honeine, Manh-Cuong Do, Oscar Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: The critical action for gait initiation involves lifting of the swing leg while shifting the centre of mass (CoM) of the body over the stance leg. This action is made possible by the initial displacement of the centre of pressure (CoP) in the direction of the swing leg. We hypothesised that the CoP displacement requires a coordinated action of the swing-leg abductor muscles and of the dorsiflexor muscles of the stance leg. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths (small, medium, wide)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666186/quantifying-effects-of-age-on-balance-and-gait-with-inertial-sensors-in-community-dwelling-healthy-adults
#5
Jeong-Ho Park, Martina Mancini, Patricia Carlson-Kuhta, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Although balance and gait deteriorate as a person ages, it is unknown if all balance and gait measures change similarly across the adult age span. We developed the Instrumented Stand and Walk test (ISAW) to provide a quick quantification of key components of balance and walking: postural sway, anticipatory postural adjustments during step initiation, gait, and turning using body-worn, inertial sensors. Our aims were to characterize how different balance and gait measures change with age and to identify key age-related measures of mobility, in a wide age range of healthy, community-dwelling adults...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534368/front-matter
#6
(no author information available yet)
"Universal design provides a blueprint for maximum inclusion of all people" [7]. This statement is now nearly 20 years old. The present collection of papers from the 3rd International Conference on Universal Design (UD 2016) is testament to the fact that Universal Design is now benefitting from a climate that is more knowledgeable about, and possibly more accommodating of, individual differences between people. However, there are still many open issues, and much to be learnt from exchanging experiences between all stakeholders interested in Universal Design, be they policy makers, practitioners or researchers...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502243/postural-control-during-cascade-ball-juggling-effects-of-expertise-and-base-of-support
#7
Sérgio T Rodrigues, Paula F Polastri, Gisele C Gotardi, Stefane A Aguiar, Marcelo R Mesaros, Mayara B Pestana, Fabio A Barbieri
Cascade ball juggling is a complex perceptual motor skill which requires efficient postural stabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of experience (expert and intermediate groups) and foot distance (wide and narrow stances) on body sway of jugglers during three ball cascade juggling. A total of 10 expert jugglers and 11 intermediate jugglers participated in this study. Participants stood barefoot on the force plate (some participants wore a gaze tracking system), with feet maintained in wide and narrow conditions and performed three 40-seconds trials of the three-ball juggling task...
August 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496153/the-2014-primary-health-care-reform-in-poland-short-term-fixes-instead-of-a-long-term-strategy
#8
Anna Mokrzycka, Iwona Kowalska-Bobko, Anna Sagan, Włodzimierz Cezary Włodarczyk
At the end of 2013, the Minister of Health started legislative changes directly and indirectly affecting primary health care (PHC). The reforms were widely criticised among certain groups of medical professionals, including family medicine physicians. The latter mainly criticised the formal inclusion of specialists in internal diseases and paediatrics into PHC within the statutory health care system, which in practice meant that these two groups of specialists were no longer required to specialize in family medicine from 2017 in order to enter into contracts with the public payer and would be able to set up solo PHC practices-something over which family medicine physicians used to have a monopoly...
July 25, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271850/head-and-tibial-acceleration-as-a-function-of-stride-frequency-and-visual-feedback-during-running
#9
Michael A Busa, Jongil Lim, Richard E A van Emmerik, Joseph Hamill
Individuals regulate the transmission of shock to the head during running at different stride frequencies although the consequences of this on head-gaze stability remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine if providing individuals with visual feedback of their head-gaze orientation impacts tibial and head accelerations, shock attenuation and head-gaze motion during preferred speed running at different stride frequencies. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners running on a treadmill at their preferred speed were collected during five stride frequencies (preferred, ±10% and ±20% of preferred) in two visual task conditions (with and without real-time visual feedback of head-gaze orientation)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237388/evaluation-of-two-methodologies-for-lameness-detection-in-dairy-cows-based-on-postural-and-gait-abnormalities-observed-during-milking-and-while-restrained-at-headlock-stanchions
#10
A García-Muñoz, G Vidal, N Singh, N Silva-Del-Río
Lameness is a critical issue on dairies with an impact on production and animal welfare. Early lameness detection followed by effective treatments could improve prognosis and cure rate of lame cows. Current methods for lameness detection are based on locomotion score (LS) that requires observation of cows walking, preferably at the exit of the milking parlor. This is a time-consuming task that is difficult to implement on large dairies. Therefore, a common methodology for lameness detection is based on milkers' and cow pushers' observations of cows walking to the milking parlor or standing at the milking stall (MPP)...
June 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160823/walking-sagittal-balance-correction-by-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-adults-with-fixed-sagittal-imbalance
#11
Mitsuru Yagi, Shinjiro Kaneko, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma, Masafumi Machida
PURPOSE: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is widely used to treat severe fixed sagittal imbalance. However, the effect of PSO on balance has not been fully documented. The aim of this study was to assess dynamic walking balance after PSO to treat fixed sagittal imbalance. METHODS: Gait and balance were assessed in 15 consecutive adult female patients who had been treated by PSO for a fixed sagittal imbalance and compare patients' preop and postop dynamic walking balance with that of 15 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (HV)...
August 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156910/-eye-contact-effects-a-therapeutic-issue
#12
M Baltazar, L Conty
INTRODUCTION: The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool...
May 5, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117010/shock-absorption-during-transtibial-amputee-gait-does-longitudinal-prosthetic-stiffness-play-a-role
#13
Erin Boutwell, Rebecca Stine, Steven Gard
BACKGROUND: Reduced-stiffness components are often prescribed in lower-limb prostheses, but their efficacy in augmenting shock absorption has been inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic variation of longitudinal prosthetic stiffness over a wide range of values and to evaluate its effect on shock absorption during gait. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated-measures crossover experiment. METHODS: Twelve subjects with a unilateral transtibial amputation walked at normal and fast self-selected speeds...
April 26, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070273/mentalization-and-dissociation-in-the-context-of-trauma-implications-for-child-psychopathology
#14
Karin Ensink, Michaël Bégin, Lina Normandin, Natacha Godbout, Peter Fonagy
Dissociation is a common reaction subsequent to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and has been identified as a risk factor for child psychopathology. There is also evidence that mentalization contributes to resilience in the context of abuse. However, at this stage little is known regarding the relationship between mentalization and dissociation, and their respective contributions to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to examine pathways from CSA to depressive symptoms, externalizing behaviour difficulties and sexualized behaviour through mentalization and dissociation...
April 12, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042547/changes-in-habitual-and-active-sagittal-posture-in-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-visual-input-implications-for-diagnostic-analysis-of-posture
#15
Oliver Ludwig, Carola Mazet, Dirk Mazet, Annette Hammes, Eduard Schmitt
INTRODUCTION: Poor posture in children and adolescents has a prevalence of 22-65% and is suggested to be responsible for back pain. To assess posture, photometric imaging of sagittal posture is widely used, but usually only habitual posture positions (resting position with minimal muscle activity) are analysed. AIM: The objective of this study was 1) to investigate possible changes in posture-describing parameters in the sagittal plane, when the subjects changed from a habitual passive posture to an actively corrected posture, and 2) to investigate the changes in posture parameters when an actively corrected posture was to be maintained with closed eyes...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013529/spontaneous-shaker-rat-mutant-a-new-model-for-x-linked-tremor-ataxia
#16
Karla P Figueroa, Sharan Paul, Tito Calì, Raffaele Lopreiato, Sukanya Karan, Martina Frizzarin, Darren Ames, Ginevra Zanni, Marisa Brini, Warunee Dansithong, Brett Milash, Daniel R Scoles, Ernesto Carafoli, Stefan M Pulst
The shaker rat is an X-linked recessive spontaneous model of progressive Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration exhibiting a shaking ataxia and wide stance. Generation of Wistar Furth (WF)/Brown Norwegian (BN) F1 hybrids and genetic mapping of F2 sib-sib offspring using polymorphic markers narrowed the candidate gene region to 26 Mbp denoted by the last recombinant genetic marker DXRat21 at 133 Mbp to qter (the end of the long arm). In the WF background, the shaker mutation has complete penetrance, results in a stereotypic phenotype and there is a narrow window for age of disease onset; by contrast, the F2 hybrid phenotype was more varied, with a later age of onset and likely non-penetrance of the mutation...
May 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008321/minimally-invasive-drainage-of-a-post-laminectomy-subfascial-seroma-with-cervical-spinal-cord-compression
#17
Adriaan Mynhardt Kitshoff, Bart Van Goethem, Ine Cornelis, Anais Combes, Ingeborgh Polis Dvm, Ingrid Gielen, Peter Vandekerckhove, Hilde de Rooster
A 14 mo old female neutered Doberman pinscher was evaluated for difficulty in rising, a wide based stance, pelvic limb gait abnormalities, and cervical pain of 2 mo duration. Neurologic examination revealed pelvic limb ataxia and cervical spinal hyperesthesia. Spinal reflexes and cranial nerve examination were normal. The pathology was localized to the C1-C5 or C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Computed tomography (CT) findings indicated bony proliferation of the caudal articular processes of C6 and the cranial articular processes of C7, resulting in bilateral dorsolateral spinal cord compression that was more pronounced on the left side...
May 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993134/hand-and-eye-dominance-in-sport-are-cricket-batters-taught-to-bat-back-to-front
#18
David L Mann, Oliver R Runswick, Peter M Allen
BACKGROUND: When first learning to bimanually use a tool to hit a target (e.g., when chopping wood or hitting a golf ball), most people assume a stance that is dictated by their dominant hand. By convention, this means that a 'right-handed' or 'left-handed' stance that places the dominant hand closer to the striking end of the tool is adopted in many sports. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the conventional stance used for bimanual hitting provides the best chance of developing expertise in that task...
September 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974848/cerebral-microbleeds-and-lacunar-infarcts-are-associated-with-walking-speed-independent-of-cognitive-performance-in-middle-aged-to-older-adults
#19
Marjon Stijntjes, Anton J M de Craen, Jeroen van der Grond, Carel G M Meskers, P Eline Slagboom, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: The positive relationship between cognitive and physical performance has been widely established. The influence of brain structure on both domains has been shown as well. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the relationship between brain structure and physical performance is independent of cognitive performance. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 297 middle-aged to older adults (mean age ± SD 65.4 ± 6.8 years). Memory function, executive function and physical performance measured by the Tandem Stance Test, Chair Stand Test, 4-meter walk and 25-meter walk were assessed...
2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941592/speed-dependent-modulation-of-the-locomotor-behavior-in-adult-mice-reveals-attractor-and-transitional-gaits
#20
Maxime Lemieux, Nicolas Josset, Marie Roussel, Sébastien Couraud, Frédéric Bretzner
Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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