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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223815/attenuation-of-bacterial-cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanotubes-by-riverine-suspended-solids-in-water
#1
Baotong Zhu, Xinghui Xia, Sibo Zhang, Yuchen Tang
The impact of solid particles on ecotoxicity of nanomaterials in water environments is poorly understood. This study investigated the effect of natural riverine suspended solids (SPS) on the cytotoxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) towards a bacterium, Ochrobactrum sp. in water. Compared with SWCNT suspension without SPS, the presence of SPS at different concentrations ranging from 20 to 400 mg L-1 markedly increased the survival rates of bacteria exposed to 50 mg L-1 SWCNTs and bacterial survival rates increased with SPS concentrations by a power law...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223497/older-teen-attitudes-towards-birth-control-access-in-pharmacies-a-qualitative-study
#2
Tracey A Wilkinson, Courtney Miller, Samantha Rafie, Sharon Cohen Landau, Sally Rafie
OBJECTIVES: To examine adolescent attitudes toward accessing contraception through a new pharmacist prescribing model in the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: In-depth telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2015 with 30 females ages 18 to 19 in California. Participants were recruited using a social media advertisement. Semi-structured interviews utilized open-ended questions to understand teens' experiences with pharmacies, experiences obtaining contraception at pharmacies, and views on pharmacist prescribing of contraception...
December 6, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219586/intersubband-landau-level-couplings-induced-by-in-plane-magnetic-fields-in-trilayer-graphene
#3
Yuta Asakawa, Satoru Masubuchi, Naoko Inoue, Sei Morikawa, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Tomoki Machida
We observed broken-symmetry quantum Hall effects and level crossings between spin- and valley- resolved Landau levels (LLs) in Bernal stacked trilayer graphene. When the magnetic field was tilted with respect to the sample normal from 0° to 66°, the LL crossings formed at intersections of zeroth and second LLs from monolayer-graphene-like and bilayer-graphene-like subbands, respectively, exhibited a sequence of transitions. The results indicate the LLs from different subbands are coupled by in-plane magnetic fields (B_{∥}), which was explained by developing the tight-binding model Hamiltonian of trilayer graphene under B_{∥}...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219553/quantum-phase-transitions-of-the-majorana-toric-code-in-the-presence-of-finite-cooper-pair-tunneling
#4
Ananda Roy, Barbara M Terhal, Fabian Hassler
The toric code based on Majorana fermions on mesoscopic superconducting islands is a promising candidate for quantum information processing. In the limit of vanishing Cooper-pair tunneling, it has been argued that the phase transition separating the topologically ordered phase of the toric code from the trivial one is in the universality class of the (2+1)D XY model. On the other hand, in the limit of infinitely large Cooper-pair tunneling, the phase transition is in the universality class of the (2+1)D Ising model...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219518/dispersive-readout-of-adiabatic-phases
#5
Sigmund Kohler
We propose a protocol for the measurement of adiabatic phases of periodically driven quantum systems coupled to an open cavity that enables dispersive readout. It turns out that the cavity transmission exhibits peaks at frequencies determined by a resonance condition that involves the dynamical and the geometric phase. Since these phases scale differently with the driving frequency, one can determine them by fitting the peak positions to the theoretically expected behavior. For the derivation of the resonance condition and for a numerical study, we develop a Floquet theory for the dispersive readout of ac driven quantum systems...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219513/sonic-landau-levels-and-synthetic-gauge-fields-in-mechanical-metamaterials
#6
Hamed Abbaszadeh, Anton Souslov, Jayson Paulose, Henning Schomerus, Vincenzo Vitelli
Mechanical strain can lead to a synthetic gauge field that controls the dynamics of electrons in graphene sheets as well as light in photonic crystals. Here, we show how to engineer an analogous synthetic gauge field for lattice vibrations. Our approach relies on one of two strategies: shearing a honeycomb lattice of masses and springs or patterning its local material stiffness. As a result, vibrational spectra with discrete Landau levels are generated. Upon tuning the strength of the gauge field, we can control the density of states and transverse spatial confinement of sound in the metamaterial...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219508/dirac-fermions-with-competing-orders-non-landau-transition-with-emergent-symmetry
#7
Toshihiro Sato, Martin Hohenadler, Fakher F Assaad
We consider a model of Dirac fermions in 2+1 dimensions with dynamically generated, anticommuting SO(3) Néel and Z_{2} Kekulé mass terms that permits sign-free quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram is obtained from finite-size scaling and includes a direct and continuous transition between the Néel and Kekulé phases. The fermions remain gapped across the transition, and our data support an emergent SO(4) symmetry unifying the two order parameters. While the bare symmetries of our model do not allow for spinon-carrying Z_{3} vortices in the Kekulé mass, the emergent SO(4) invariance permits an interpretation of the transition in terms of deconfined quantum criticality...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219462/numerical-study-of-quantum-hall-bilayers-at-total-filling-%C3%AE-_-t-1-a-new-phase-at-intermediate-layer-distances
#8
Zheng Zhu, Liang Fu, D N Sheng
We study the phase diagram of quantum Hall bilayer systems with total filing ν_{T}=1/2+1/2 of the lowest Landau level as a function of layer distances d. Based on numerical exact diagonalization calculations, we obtain three distinct phases, including an exciton superfluid phase with spontaneous interlayer coherence at small d, a composite Fermi liquid at large d, and an intermediate phase for 1.1<d/l_{B}<1.8 (l_{B} is the magnetic length). The transition from the exciton superfluid to the intermediate phase is identified by (i) a dramatic change in the Berry curvature of the ground state under twisted boundary conditions on the two layers and (ii) an energy level crossing of the first excited state...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219415/strongly-correlated-metal-built-from-sachdev-ye-kitaev-models
#9
Xue-Yang Song, Chao-Ming Jian, Leon Balents
Prominent systems like the high-T_{c} cuprates and heavy fermions display intriguing features going beyond the quasiparticle description. The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model describes a (0+1)D quantum cluster with random all-to-all four-fermion interactions among N fermion modes which becomes exactly solvable as N→∞, exhibiting a zero-dimensional non-Fermi-liquid with emergent conformal symmetry and complete absence of quasiparticles. Here we study a lattice of complex-fermion SYK dots with random intersite quadratic hopping...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219392/superfluid-filaments-of-dipolar-bosons-in-free-space
#10
Fabio Cinti, Alberto Cappellaro, Luca Salasnich, Tommaso Macrì
We systematically investigate the zero temperature phase diagram of bosons interacting via dipolar interactions in three dimensions in free space via path integral Monte Carlo simulations with a few hundreds of particles and periodic boundary conditions based on the worm algorithm. Upon increasing the strength of the dipolar interaction and at sufficiently high densities we find a wide region where filaments are stabilized along the direction of the external field. Most interestingly by computing the superfluid fraction we conclude that the superfluidity is anisotropic and is greatly suppressed along the orthogonal plane...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216516/atr-ftir-investigation-of-mechanisms-of-bacillus-subtilis-adhesion-onto-variable-and-constant-charge-soil-colloids
#11
Li-Ying Ren, Zhi-Neng Hong, Zhao-Dong Liu, Ren-Kou Xu
The primary objective of this study was to determine the capacity and the mechanisms of adhesion of Bacillus subtilis onto variable- and constant-charge soil colloids. The adhesion process was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, and batch adhesion experiments. The maximum adhesion capacity of B. subtilis on the colloids of Oxisol, Ultisol, and Alfisol reached 699.17, 462.56, and 258.82mgg-1, respectively. B. subtilis adhesion to all three soil colloids decreased as the suspension pH increased from 3 to 8...
December 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210928/retinal-ganglion-cell-topography-in-patients-with-visual-pathway-pathology
#12
Simon Zehnder, Hannes Wildberger, James V M Hanson, Sebastian Lukas, Stefan Pelz, Klara Landau, Werner Wichmann, Christina Gerth-Kahlert
BACKGROUND: To investigate and quantify the impact of intracranial lesions at different locations within the visual pathway on the ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) complex and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). METHODS: Patients with intracranial lesions affecting the optic chiasm (Group I) or the optic tract and/or lateral geniculate nucleus (Group II) were included. All patients received kinetic visual field assessment and underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206107/statistical-thermodynamics-and-magnetic-moments-of-landau-quantized-group-vi-dichalcogenides
#13
Norman J Morgenstern Horing
This work is focused on the determination of the Helmholtz Free Energy and the magnetic moments of the "Dirac-like" Group VI Dichalcogenides subject to Landau quantization. We employ a technique described by Wilson to relate the Free Energy to the Green's function for the Dichalcogenides in a high magnetic field, which was recently evaluated explicitly in terms of elementary functions. In the course of this analysis, the partition function is determined as a function of the magnetic field as well. The results exhibit the role of the quantizing magnetic field in the Helmholtz Free Energy at arbitrary temperature, and they are also employed to obtain the magnetic moments of the Dichalcogenides...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204593/quantifying-the-thickness-of-the-electrical-double-layer-neutralizing-a-planar-electrode-the-capacitive-compactness
#14
Guillermo Iván Guerrero-García, Enrique González-Tovar, Martín Chávez-Páez, Jacek Kłos, Stanisław Lamperski
The spatial extension of the ionic cloud neutralizing a charged colloid or an electrode is usually characterized by the Debye length associated with the supporting charged fluid in the bulk. This spatial length arises naturally in the linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory of point charges, which is the cornerstone of the widely used Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek formalism describing the colloidal stability of electrified macroparticles. By definition, the Debye length is independent of important physical features of charged solutions such as the colloidal charge, electrostatic ion correlations, ionic excluded volume effects, or specific short-range interactions, just to mention a few...
December 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204361/double-mucosal-flap-for-the-reconstruction-of-transverse-vaginal-septum-a-novel-surgical-approach-using-the-vaginal-septal-tissue
#15
Amitay Lorber, Dvora Bauman, Katya Chapchay, Mordechai Duvdevani, Dov Pode, Ofer N Gofrit, Ezekiel H Landau, Guy Hidas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198698/successful-intravenous-immunoglobulin-treatment-in-pediatric-severe-dress-syndrome
#16
Nufar Marcus, Keren Smuel, Moran Almog, Dario Prais, Rachel Straussberg, Daniel Landau, Oded Scheuerman
BACKGROUND: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening delayed drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction. The most frequently reported drugs causing DRESS are aromatic antiepileptic agents. Prompt withdrawal of the offending drug and administering systemic corticosteroids is the most widely accepted and used treatment. The treatment of severe DRESS not responsive to systemic corticosteroids is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe a case series of pediatric patients with DRESS who were treated successfully with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195315/the-impact-of-propagation-and-processing-delays-on-amplitude-and-oscillation-deaths-in-the-presence-of-symmetry-breaking-coupling
#17
Wei Zou, Meng Zhan, Jürgen Kurths
We numerically investigate the impacts of both propagation and processing delays on the emergences of amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD) in one system of two Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry-breaking coupling. In either the absence of or the presence of propagation delay, the processing delay destabilizes both AD and OD by revoking the stability of the stable homogenous and inhomogenous steady states. In the AD to OD transition, the processing delay destabilizes first OD from large values of coupling strength until its stable regime completely disappears and then AD from both the upper and lower bounds of the stable coupling interval...
November 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191458/long-term-radiological-features-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#18
Catarina Veiga, David Landau, Jamie R McClelland, Jonathan A Ledermann, David Hawkes, Sam M Janes, Anand Devaraj
PURPOSE: To describe the radiological findings of radiation-induced lung damage (RILD) present on CT imaging of lung cancer patients 12 months after radical chemoradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Baseline and 12-month CT scans of 33 patients were reviewed from a phase I/II clinical trial of isotoxic chemoradiation (IDEAL CRT). CT findings were scored in three categories derived from eleven sub-categories: (1) parenchymal change, defined as the presence of consolidation, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), traction bronchiectasis and/or reticulation; (2) lung volume reduction, identified through reduction in lung height and/or distortions in fissures, diaphragm, anterior junction line and major airways anatomy, and (3) pleural changes, either thickening and/or effusion...
November 27, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191268/the-evolving-role-of-radiation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Evan Landau, Shalom Kalnicki
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor long-term survival and only mild improvement in outcomes over the past 30 years. Local failure remains a problem and radiation can help improve control. The role of radiation therapy in has been controversial and is still evolving. This article reviews the trials of pancreatic cancer and radiation in adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and unresectable lesions. The article reviews the impact and outcomes of evolving radiation technology.
February 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188842/multiple-polarization-states-in-symmetric-ferroelectric-heterostructures-for-multi-bit-non-volatile-memories
#20
Georgia A Boni, Lucian D Filip, Cristina Chirila, Iuliana Pasuk, Raluca Negrea, Ioana Pintilie, Lucian Pintilie
Here we report a ferroelectric capacitor structure obtained by alternating ferroelectric and insulator thin-film layers which allows an increase of up to 2n polarization states, with n the number of ferroelectric layers. Four and up to eight distinct, stable and independently addressed polarization states are experimentally demonstrated in this work. The experimental findings are supported by a theoretical model based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory. The key parameter is the change in the strain conditions of ferroelectric layers induced by the insulating separator...
November 30, 2017: Nanoscale
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