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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643699/nonequilibrium-ferroelectric-ferroelastic-10%C3%A2-nm-nanodomains-wrinkles-period-doubling-and-power-law-relaxation
#1
James F Scott, Donald M Evans, Ram S Katiyar, Raymond G P McQuaid, J Marty Gregg
Since the 1935 work of Landau-Lifshitz and of Kittel in 1946 all ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and ferroelastic domains have been thought to be straight-sided with domain widths proportional to the square root of the sample thickness. We show in the present work that this is not true. We also discover period doubling domains predicted by Metaxas et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 217208) and modeled by Wang and Zhao (2015 Sci. Rep. 5 8887). We examine non-equilibrium ferroic domain structures in perovskite oxides with respect to folding, wrinkling, and relaxation and suggest that structures are kinetically limited and in the viscous flow regime predicted by Metaxas et al in 2008 but never observed experimentally...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642699/cerebral-blood-flow-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-interact-to-affect-memory-performance-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#2
Katherine J Bangen, Alexandra L Clark, Emily C Edmonds, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine L Werhane, Kelsey R Thomas, Lyzette E Locano, My Tran, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years) underwent neuroimaging and memory testing...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640337/thermodynamic-bounds-for-existence-of-normal-shock-in-compressible-fluid-flow-in-pipes
#3
Sergio Colle
The present paper is concerned with the thermodynamic theory of the normal shock in compressible fluid flow in pipes, in the lights of the pioneering works of Lord Rayleigh and G. Fanno. The theory of normal shock in pipes is currently presented in terms of the Rayleigh and Fanno curves, which are shown to cross each other in two points, one corresponding to a subsonic flow and the other corresponding to a supersonic flow. It is proposed in this paper a novel differential identity, which relates the energy flux density, the linear momentum flux density, and the entropy, for constant mass flow density...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630676/scaling-properties-of-ageing-orientation-fluctuations-in-stripe-phases
#4
Christian Riesch, Günter Radons, Robert Magerle
We investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of an ordered stripe-forming system free of topological defects. In particular, we study the ageing and the coarsening of orientation fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the stripes via computer simulations based on a minimal phase-field model (model B with Coulomb interactions). Under the influence of noise, the stripe orientation field develops fluctuations parallel to the stripes, with the dominant modulation length λ*∥ increasing with time t as λ*∥ ∼ t(1/4) and the correlation length perpendicular to the stripes ξ(⊥)θ increasing as ξ(⊥)θ ∼ t(1/2)...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630669/straight-round-the-twist-frustration-and-chirality-in-smectics-a
#5
Elisabetta A Matsumoto, Randall D Kamien, Gareth P Alexander
Frustration is a powerful mechanism in condensed matter systems, driving both order and complexity. In smectics, the frustration between macroscopic chirality and equally spaced layers generates textures characterized by a proliferation of defects. In this article, we study several different ground states of the chiral Landau-de Gennes free energy for a smectic liquid crystal. The standard theory finds the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase to be the ground state for chiral type II smectics. However, for very highly chiral systems, the hierarchical helical nanofilament phase can form and is stable over the TGB...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628937/the-epilepsy-aphasia-spectrum-from-landau-kleffner-syndrome-to-rolandic-epilepsy
#6
Bigna Katrin Bölsterli Heinzle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628578/neuraxial-anesthesia-in-obstetric-patients-receiving-thromboprophylaxis-with-unfractionated-or-low-molecular-weight-heparin-a-systematic-review-of-spinal-epidural-hematoma
#7
Lisa R Leffert, Heloise M Dubois, Alexander J Butwick, Brendan Carvalho, Timothy T Houle, Ruth Landau
Venous thromboembolism remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in obstetrics with an incidence of 29.8/100,000 vaginal delivery hospitalizations; cesarean delivery confers a 4-fold increased risk of thromboembolism when compared with vaginal delivery. Revised national guidelines now stipulate that the majority of women delivering via cesarean and women at risk for ante- or postpartum venous thromboembolism receive mechanical or pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. This practice change has important implications for obstetric anesthesiologists concerned about the risk of spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) among anticoagulated women receiving neuraxial anesthesia...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627909/thought-control-difficulty-motivates-structure-seeking
#8
Anyi Ma, Mark J Landau, Jayanth Narayanan, Aaron C Kay
Struggling to control one's mind can change how the world appears. In prior studies testing the compensatory control theory, reduced control over the external environment motivated the search for perceptual patterns and other forms of structured knowledge, even in remote domains. Going further, the current studies test whether difficulty controlling thoughts similarly predicts structure seeking. As hypothesized, thought-control difficulty positively predicted perceptions of causal connections between remote events (Study 1a) and nonexistent objects in visual noise (Study 1b)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625302/pharmacogenetics-in-obstetric-anesthesia
#9
REVIEW
Ruth Landau, Richard Smiley
The 21st century has been billed as the era of "precision/personalized medicine." Genetic investigation of clinical syndromes may guide therapy as well as reveal previously unknown biological or pharmacological pathways that may result in novel drug therapies. Several clinical issues in obstetrics and obstetric anesthesiology have been targets for genetic investigations. These include evaluation of the genetic effects on preterm labor and the progression of labor, spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension and the response to medications used to treat hypotension, and the effect of gene variants on pain and analgesic responses...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618641/kinetic-simulations-of-ladder-climbing-by-electron-plasma-waves
#10
Kentaro Hara, Ido Barth, Erez Kaminski, I Y Dodin, N J Fisch
The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on whether the wave spectrum is discrete (bounded plasma) or continuous (boundless plasma), this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autoresonant acceleration of plasmons. It was first proposed by Barth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075001] based on a linear fluid model. In this paper, LC of electron plasma waves is investigated using fully nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless bounded plasma...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618636/entropy-of-diluted-antiferromagnetic-ising-models-on-frustrated-lattices-using-the-wang-landau-method
#11
Yuriy Shevchenko, Konstantin Nefedev, Yutaka Okabe
We use a Monte Carlo simulation to study the diluted antiferromagnetic Ising model on frustrated lattices including the pyrochlore lattice to show the dilution effects. Using the Wang-Landau algorithm, which directly calculates the energy density of states, we accurately calculate the entropy of the system. We discuss the nonmonotonic dilution concentration dependence of residual entropy for the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the pyrochlore lattice, and compare it to the generalized Pauling approximation proposed by Ke et al...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618623/macroscopically-constrained-wang-landau-method-for-systems-with-multiple-order-parameters-and-its-application-to-drawing-complex-phase-diagrams
#12
C H Chan, G Brown, P A Rikvold
A generalized approach to Wang-Landau simulations, macroscopically constrained Wang-Landau, is proposed to simulate the density of states of a system with multiple macroscopic order parameters. The method breaks a multidimensional random-walk process in phase space into many separate, one-dimensional random-walk processes in well-defined subspaces. Each of these random walks is constrained to a different set of values of the macroscopic order parameters. When the multivariable density of states is obtained for one set of values of fieldlike model parameters, the density of states for any other values of these parameters can be obtained by a simple transformation of the total system energy...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612878/a-phenomenological-order-approach-to-the-volume-phase-transition-in-microgel-particles
#13
Fernando Rodríguez-Díaz, Aly Castellanos-Suárez, Aileen Lozsán
We proposed a model to describe the volume phase transition of microgel particles, based on constitutive relations that consider the mechano-chemical coupling of deformation and solvency processes, as well as the phenomenological cooperative effect of molecular orientation of solvatable segments in the particles. We regard a nematic-isotropic like transition and define a tensor order parameter allowing analysis of the collective behaviour of water solvation mechanisms based on the Landau-De Gennes theory for liquid crystal elastomers...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598894/left-lateral-table-tilt-for-elective-cesarean-delivery-under-spinal-anesthesia-has-no-effect-on-neonatal-acid-base-status-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Allison J Lee, Ruth Landau, James L Mattingly, Margaret M Meenan, Beatriz Corradini, Shuang Wang, Stephanie R Goodman, Richard M Smiley
BACKGROUND: Current recommendations for women undergoing cesarean delivery include 15° left tilt for uterine displacement to prevent aortocaval compression, although this degree of tilt is practically never achieved. We hypothesized that under contemporary clinical practice, including a crystalloid coload and phenylephrine infusion targeted at maintaining baseline systolic blood pressure, there would be no effect of maternal position on neonatal acid base status in women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia...
June 9, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598620/a-full-investigation-of-angle-dependence-in-dip-coating-sol-gel-films
#15
Thomas Bottein, Jérôme Loizillon, David Grosso
Dip-coating is one of the most convenient methods used in laboratory and industry to deposit a solid layer onto a surface with a controlled thickness from a chemical solution. The present article investigates the influence of the withdrawal speed on the film thickness and homogeneity with respect to the dipping angle ranging from 90° (conventional vertical configuration) to 1° (quasi-horizontal configuration). Several advantages were found in the latter extreme low-dipping angle conditions that are an available wider range of thickness, the elimination of the perturbations/effects induced by evaporation, and the compatibility with large surface and single face deposition at high throughput and using a minimal amount of solution...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594763/patterns-of-opioid-prescription-and-use-after-cesarean-delivery
#16
Brian T Bateman, Naida M Cole, Ayumi Maeda, Sara M Burns, Timothy T Houle, Krista F Huybrechts, Caitlin R Clancy, Stephanie B Hopp, Jeffrey L Ecker, Holly Ende, Kasey Grewe, Beatriz Raposo Corradini, Robert E Schoenfeld, Keerthana Sankar, Lori J Day, Lynnette Harris, Jessica L Booth, Pamela Flood, Melissa E Bauer, Lawrence C Tsen, Ruth Landau, Lisa R Leffert
OBJECTIVE: To define the amount of opioid analgesics prescribed and consumed after discharge after cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a survey at six academic medical centers in the United States from September 2014 to March 2016. Women who had undergone a cesarean delivery were contacted by phone 2 weeks after discharge and participated in a structured interview about the opioid prescription they received on discharge and their oral opioid intake while at home...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594762/a-shared-decision-making-intervention-to-guide-opioid-prescribing-after-cesarean-delivery
#17
Malavika Prabhu, Emily McQuaid-Hanson, Stephanie Hopp, Sara M Burns, Lisa R Leffert, Ruth Landau, Julie C Lauffenburger, Niteesh K Choudhry, Anjali Kaimal, Brian T Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a shared decision-making intervention decreases the quantity of oxycodone tablets prescribed after cesarean delivery. TECHNIQUE: A tablet computer-based decision aid formed the basis of a shared decision-making session to guide opioid prescribing after cesarean delivery. Women first received information on typical trajectories of pain resolution and expected opioid use after cesarean delivery and then chose the number of tablets of 5 mg oxycodone they would be prescribed up to the institutional standard prescription of 40 tablets...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590943/suppressed-play-behaviour-and-decreased-oxytocin-receptor-binding-in-the-amygdala-after-prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-valproic-acid
#18
Freja Bertelsen, Davide Folloni, Arne Møller, Anne M Landau, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Michael Winterdahl
To better understand the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we investigated potential deficits in social play behaviour and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) density alterations in the amygdala in a rodent model of ASD. Pregnant rats were injected daily with 20 or 100 mg/kg valproic acid (VPA) or saline from day 12 until the end of pregnancy. The number of pinning and pouncing events was assessed at postnatal days 29-34. Brains from male offspring (n=7/group) were removed at postnatal day 50...
June 6, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588397/causal-dissipation-for-the-relativistic-dynamics-of-ideal-gases
#19
Heinrich Freistühler, Blake Temple
We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587897/comparison-of-multiple-tau-pet-measures-as-biomarkers-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Anne Maass, Susan Landau, Suzanne L Baker, Andy Horng, Samuel N Lockhart, Renaud La Joie, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
The recent development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables in vivo quantification of regional tau pathology, one of the key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau PET imaging may become a useful biomarker for clinical diagnosis and tracking of disease progression but there is no consensus yet on how tau PET signal is best quantified. The goal of the current study was to evaluate multiple whole-brain and region-specific approaches to detect clinically relevant tau PET signal...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
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