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Lakshmi Prasanna V, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan
Pure and doped ZnO (cation and anion doping) compositions have been designed in order to manipulate oxygen vacancy and antibacterial activity of ZnO. In this connection, we have synthesized and characterized micron sized ZnO, N doped micron sized ZnO, nano ZnO, nano Na and La doped ZnO. The intrinsic vacancies in pure ZnO and the vacancies created by N and Na doping in ZnO have been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and Photoluminiscence Spectroscopy(PL). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and H2O2 responsible for antibacterial activity have been estimated by PL, UV-Vis spectroscopy and KMnO4 titrations respectively...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Evgenia Gurevich, Daniel Landau
Hypophosphatasia is the inborn error of metabolism that is characterized by low serum alkaline-phosphatase activity, due to loss-of-function mutations within the gene for tissuenonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase [TNSALP]. The manifestations of hypophosphatasia range from neonatal death with almost no skeletal mineralization to dental problems in adults without any bone symptoms. There are no case reports of infantile hypophosphatasia in Israel. The existence of enzymatic replacement treatment for this disease makes it important to diagnose this problem as soon as possible...
January 2017: Harefuah
Eli Fried, Vladimir Yutkin, Dov Pode, Amos Shapiro, Guy Hidas, Ilan Gielchinsky, Ezekiel H Landau, Shilo Rosenberg, Mordechai Duvdevani, Ofer N Gofrit
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognosis of patients who underwent surgery for invasive bladder cancer and to search for prognostic factors. METHODS: The files of all the patients who underwent radical or partial cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer between 1992 and 2014 were reviewed. The effect of various prognostic factors was evaluated by uni- and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were included in the study and were followed for a median period of 25...
November 2016: Harefuah
Jacob Urkin, Zachi Grossman, Gil Chapnick, Daniella Landau
AIMS: To check information items in newborn discharge letters from various delivery rooms and compare them to the expectations of community pediatricians. BACKGROUND: The newborn discharge letter is the document that supports the transition of care from the hospital stay to life at home and in the community. It usually summarizes medical information related to the baby's family, maternal pregnancies, delivery and the stay in hospital until discharge. It is primarily a communication tool between healthcare professionals...
November 2016: Harefuah
Zengwei Zhu, Jinhua Wang, Huakun Zuo, Benoît Fauqué, Ross D McDonald, Yuki Fuseya, Kamran Behnia
The Fermi surface of elemental bismuth consists of three small rotationally equivalent electron pockets, offering a valley degree of freedom to charge carriers. A relatively small magnetic field can confine electrons to their lowest Landau level. This is the quantum limit attained in other dilute metals upon application of sufficiently strong magnetic field. Here we report on the observation of another threshold magnetic field never encountered before in any other solid. Above this field, Bempty, one or two valleys become totally empty...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
J P Eisenstein, L N Pfeiffer, K W West
Double layer two-dimensional electron systems at high perpendicular magnetic field are used to realize magnetic tunnel junctions in which the electrons at the Fermi level in the two layers have either parallel or antiparallel spin magnetizations. In the antiparallel case the tunnel junction, at low temperatures, behaves as a nearly ideal spin diode. At elevated temperatures the diode character degrades as long-wavelength spin waves are thermally excited. These tunnel junctions provide a demonstration that the spin polarization of the electrons in the N=1 Landau level at filling factors ν=5/2 and 7/2 is essentially complete, and, with the aid of an in-plane magnetic field component, that Landau level mixing at these filling factors is weak in the samples studied...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Feng Cao, Xiangjun Gong, Chuanxin He, To Ngai
Total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) measures the interactions between a colloidal particle and a flat surface in aqueous solution. Recently, TIRM has further integrated with video microscopy (VM) and enabled the simultaneous measurements of multi-particle colloid-surface interactions in the same ensemble. However, there still remain challenges about accurate image acquisition due to blooming. Blooming means the number of photons reaching the detector exceeds its maximum capacity, and the excess photons will either spill to adjacent pixels or not be counted, leading to an obstacle from precise determination of intensity...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Zijian Zhou, Rui Tian, Zhenyu Wang, Zhen Yang, Yijing Liu, Gang Liu, Ruifang Wang, Jinhao Gao, Jibin Song, Liming Nie, Xiaoyuan Chen
Clustering of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is perhaps the most effective, yet intriguing strategy to enhance T2 relaxivity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood and the attempts to generalize the classic outersphere theory from single particles to clusters have been found to be inadequate. Here we show that clustering of MNPs enhances local field inhomogeneity due to reduced field symmetry, which can be further elevated by artificially involving iron oxide NPs with heterogeneous geometries in terms of size and shape...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
M D Thomson, K Rabia, F Meng, M Bykov, S van Smaalen, H G Roskos
Charge density waves (CDWs), i.e. the periodic spatial modulation of coupled electronic and lattice density, are ubiquitous in low-dimensional conductors and have taken on renewed relevance due their role in state-of-the-art materials, e.g. high-T c superconductors, topological insulators and low-dimensional carbon. As CDWs are described by a complex order parameter to represent both the amplitude and phase, they are formally analogous to BCS superconductors and spin-waves, providing a prototype of collective phenomena for the further development of field theories and ab-initio calculations of complex solids...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Ayelet Landau, Luca Fornia, Gabriella Cerri, Paola Borroni
Observation of others' actions evokes in primary motor cortex and spinal circuits of observers a subliminal motor resonance response, which reflects the motor program encoding observed actions. We investigated the role of attention in human motor resonance with four experimental conditions, explored in different subject groups: in the first explicit condition, subjects were asked to observe a rhythmic hand flexion-extension movement performed live in front of them. In two other conditions subjects had to monitor the activity of a LED light mounted on the oscillating hand...
2017: PloS One
Anne M Landau, Aage Ko Alstrup, Helene Audrain, Steen Jakobsen, Mette Simonsen, Arne Møller, Poul Videbech, Gregers Wegener, Albert Gjedde, Doris J Doudet
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a direct form of brain stimulation, is an effective antidepressant. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of ECT are mediated by increased dopaminergic neurotransmission, in which the baseline activity of D1 receptors may predict the response to ECT. We established a novel model of brain stimulation in Göttingen minipigs based on the protocol of ECT applied in humans. With positron emission tomography (PET), we determined a measure of dopaminergic neurotransmission with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist [(11)C]SCH23390...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
M A Aliev, N Yu Kuzminyh, E A Ugolkova
The phase behavior of the monodisperse melt of V-shaped molecules composed of two rigid segments of different lengths joined at their ends at an external angle α has been examined within the Landau-de Gennes approach. Each rigid segment consists of a sequence of monomer units; the anisotropic interactions in the system are assumed to be of the Maier-Saupe form. The coefficients of the Landau-de Gennes free-energy expansion have been found from a microscopic model of V-shaped molecule. A single Landau point at which the system undergoes direct continuous transition from isotropic to biaxial nematic phase is found for asymmetry parameter ϕ=1/3 or ϕ=2/3, where ϕ is the number fraction of monomer units in one of the segments...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Gordon Robb, Antonio Politi
Thorough numerical studies reveal that spatially extended dissipative systems with long-range interactions may give rise to a large-scale dynamics. This phenomenon, which generalizes mean-field chaos, can be interpreted as a form of subtle pattern formation, where a chaotic microscopic dynamics coexists with a macroscopic irregular behavior, sustained by the spontaneous emergence of long-wavelength "hydrodynamic" modes. This regime can emerge only if the coupling is sufficiently long ranged, otherwise normal space-time chaos is observed...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Vazha Loladze, Ramaz Khomeriki
We consider Landau-Zener tunneling of solitons in a weakly coupled two-channel system, for this purpose we construct a simple mechanical system using two weakly coupled chains of nonlinear oscillators with gradually decreasing (first chain) and increasing (second chain) masses. The model allows us to consider soliton propagation and Landau-Zener tunneling between the chains. It is shown that soliton tunneling characteristics become drastically dependent on its amplitude in nonlinear regime. The validity of the developed tunneling theory is justified via comparison with direct numerical simulations on oscillator ladder system...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
K Sathiyadevi, S Karthiga, V K Chandrasekar, D V Senthilkumar, M Lakshmanan
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important phenomenon observed in various fields including physics and biology. In this connection, we here show that the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings can induce spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous system of coupled oscillators. With a simple model of a system of two coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators, we demonstrate how the tendency of attractive coupling in inducing in-phase synchronized (IPS) oscillations and the tendency of repulsive coupling in inducing out-of-phase synchronized oscillations compete with each other and give rise to symmetry breaking oscillatory states and interesting multistabilities...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Aleksandar Gjurchinovski, Eckehard Schöll, Anna Zakharova
We investigate the influence of time-delayed coupling in a ring network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators upon chimera states, i.e., space-time patterns with coexisting partially coherent and partially incoherent domains. We focus on amplitude chimeras, which exhibit incoherent behavior with respect to the amplitude rather than the phase and are transient patterns, and we show that their lifetime can be significantly enhanced by coupling delay. To characterize their transition to phase-lag synchronization (coherent traveling waves) and other coherent structures, we generalize the Kuramoto order parameter...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Samo Kralj, Bryce S Murray, Charles Rosenblatt
We study decomposition of geometrically enforced nematic topological defects bearing relatively large defect strengths m in effectively two-dimensional planar systems. Theoretically, defect cores are analyzed within the mesoscopic Landau-de Gennes approach in terms of the tensor nematic order parameter. We demonstrate a robust tendency of defect decomposition into elementary units where two qualitatively different scenarios imposing total defect strengths on a nematic region are employed. Some theoretical predictions are verified experimentally, where arrays of defects bearing charges m=±1 and even m=±2 are enforced within a plane-parallel nematic cell using an atomic force microscopy scribing method...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Dan Wu, Lei He, Ruonan Sun, Meiping Tong, Hyunjung Kim
The influence of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria in quartz sand was examined in both NaCl (10 and 25 mM) and CaCl2 solutions (1.2 and 5 mM) by comparing the breakthrough curves and retained profiles of cell with BPA in suspensions versus those without BPA. Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were employed as model cells in the present study. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interaction energy calculation revealed that the presence of BPA in cell suspensions led to a lower repulsive interaction between the cells and the quartz sand...
May 7, 2017: Water Research
Sajid Humayun, Lauren Herlitz, Melanie Chesnokov, Moira Doolan, Sabine Landau, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Youth offending and antisocial behavior (ASB) are associated with low quality mental health and relationships and usually lead to poor adult functioning; they are very costly for society. Family interventions are effective in children but there are few reliably effective and inexpensive interventions for adolescents. Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based intervention but seldom tested outside the United States. METHODS: One hundred and eleven adolescents (10-17 years of age, M = 15...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Hani Hassoun, Mikhail Roshal, Joshua Sabari, James Nguyen, Qi Gao, Sean M Devlin, Heather Landau, Nikoletta Lendvai, David J Chung, Alexander M Lesokhin, Neha Korde, Sham Mailankody, Ahmet Dogan, Sergio A Giralt, C Ola Landgren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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