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Susanne Stemmer, S James Allen
Understanding the anomalous transport properties of strongly correlated materials is one of the most formidable challenges in condensed matter physics. For example, one encounters metal-insulator transitions, deviations from Landau Fermi liquid behavior, longitudinal and Hall scattering rate separation, a pseudogap phase, and bad metal behavior. These properties have been studied extensively in bulk materials, such as the unconventional superconductors and heavy fermion systems. Oxide heterostructures have recently emerged as new platforms to probe, control, and understand strong correlation phenomena...
April 13, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Rebecca Van der Westen, Jelmer Sjollema, Robert Molenaar, Prashant K Sharma, Henny C Van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Models for bacterial adhesion to substratum surfaces all include uncertainty with respect to the (ir)reversibility of adhesion. In a model, based on vibrations exhibited by adhering bacteria parallel to a surface, adhesion was described as a result of reversible binding of multiple bacterial tethers that detach from and successively re-attach to a surface, eventually making bacterial adhesion irreversible. Here, we use Total Internal Reflection Microscopy to determine whether adhering bacteria also exhibit variations over time in their perpendicular distance above surfaces...
April 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Karla Therese L Sy, Alexandra Landau, Yelena Bodien, Sureyya Dikmen, Elizabeth R Felix, Joseph T Giacino, Laura Gibbons, Flora M Hammond, Tessa Hart, Doug Johnson-Greene, Jeannie Lengenfelder, Anthony Lequerica, Jody Newman, Thomas Novack, Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Gale Whiteneck
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairment, and trajectories of cognitive functioning can vary tremendously over time across survivors. Traditional approaches to measuring cognitive performance require face-to-face administration of a battery of objective neuropsychological tests, which can be time- and labor-intensive. There are numerous clinical and research contexts in which in-person testing is undesirable or unfeasible, including clinical monitoring of older adults or individuals with disability for whom travel is challenging, and epidemiological studies of geographically dispersed participants...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Salvatore A Mastrolia, Tamar Wainstock, Eyal Sheiner, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of failed vacuum delivery leading to an emergency cesarean delivery on the long-term pediatric hematological morbidity of the offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In this population-based cohort study, the risk of long-term hematological morbidity (up to the age of 18 y) was evaluated in children born following successful vacuum vaginal delivery, as compared with that of children born following a failed procedure leading to an emergent cesarean delivery...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Omri Zamstein, Eyal Sheiner, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
AIMS: To assess the implications of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on long-term respiratory related hospitalizations of the offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort analysis including singleton pregnancies delivered between the years 1991 to 2014 in a tertiary referral hospital was conducted. Incidence of hospitalizations (up to age 18 years) due to various respiratory diseases was compared between offspring of GDM-complicated pregnancies and normoglycemic pregnancies...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Ravit Malishev, Einav Tayeb-Fligelman, Shimrit David, Michael M Meijler, Meytal Landau, Raz Jelinek
Phenol-soluble modulin α3 (PSMα3) is a functional amyloid secreted by the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. This 22-residue peptide serves as a key virulence determinant, toxic to human cells via the formation of unique cross-α amyloid-like fibrils. We demonstrate that bilayer vesicles accelerated PSMα3 fibril formation, and the fibrils, in turn, inserted deeply into bilayers mimicking mammalian cell membranes, accounting for PSMα3 cellular toxicity. Importantly, a mere amphipathic helical conformation was not a sufficient determinant for membrane-activity of PSMα3, pointing to the functional role of cross-α fibrils...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Limor Besser, Liat Sabag-Shaviv, Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Danielle Landau, Ruthy Beer-Weisel, Vered Klaitman, Neta Benshalom-Tirosh, Moshe Mazor, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVE: In the last few decades, attention has been focused on morbidity and mortality associated with late preterm delivery (34-36 + 6/7 weeks), accounting for 60-70% of all preterm births. This study is aimed to determine: 1) the prevalence of late preterm deliveries (spontaneous and medically indicated) in our population; and 2) the rate of neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as maternal complications associated with the different phenotypes of late preterm deliveries. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective population based cohort study, included 96 176 women who had 257 182 deliveries, occurred between 1988 and 2011, allocated into three groups: term (n = 242 286), spontaneous (n = 10 063) and medically indicated (n = 4833) late preterm deliveries...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yue Sun, Donglin Liu, Qiang Li, Jaeshik Shim, Wenhui He, Huajing Fang, Qingfeng Yan
A tetragonal (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3 (BCZT) single crystal was grown by a flux method, and the piezoelectric coefficient ( d33 ) was characterized. The piezoelectric response was proved to be associated with polarization extension, which was successfully used to explain the variation in d33 * . From the intrinsic aspect, the compositional effect on Landau free-energy profiles was discussed, showing an "extender" nature of the as-grown crystal and the increasing tendency of structural instability toward the morphotropic phase boundary...
April 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Takeshi Ota, Kenichi Hitachi, Koji Muraki
Landau-Zener (LZ) transition has received renewed interest as an alternative approach to control single-qubit states. An LZ transition occurs when a system passes through an avoided crossing that arises from quantum mechanical coupling of two levels, taking the system to a coherent superposition of the two states. Then, multiple LZ transitions induce interference known as Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) interference whose amplitude strongly depends on the velocity or adiabaticity of the passage. Here, we study the roles of LZ transitions and LZS interference in coherent charge oscillations of a one-electron semiconductor double quantum dot by time-domain experiments using standard rectangular voltage pulses...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangyu Cao, Alexandre Nicolas, Denny Trimcev, Alberto Rosso
The deformation of disordered solids relies on swift and localised rearrangements of particles. The inspection of soft vibrational modes can help predict the locations of these rearrangements, while the strain that they actually redistribute mediates collective effects. Here, we study soft modes and strain redistribution in a two-dimensional continuous mesoscopic model based on a Ginzburg-Landau free energy for perfect solids, supplemented with a plastic disorder potential that accounts for shear softening and rearrangements...
April 3, 2018: Soft Matter
Esther M Gottwald, Michael Duss, Milica Bugarski, Dominik Haenni, Claus D Schuh, Ehud M Landau, Andrew M Hall
Kidney proximal tubules (PTs) contain a high density of mitochondria, which are required to generate ATP to power solute transport. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous kidney diseases. Damaged mitochondria are thought to produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to oxidative stress and activation of cell death pathways. MitoQ is a mitochondrial targeted anti-oxidant that has shown promise in preclinical models of renal diseases. However, recent studies in nonkidney cells have suggested that MitoQ might also have adverse effects...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Andrew Katirai, Mark J Landau, Jack M Berger
BACKGROUND: Patients who experience trauma with severe hemorrhage requiring immediate surgery and massive blood transfusion often present with markedly abnormal laboratory values. These cases require valuable resources; however, little is known regarding prognostic factors that correlate with mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether abnormal initial arterial blood gas (ABG) pH, a marker for severe blood loss, could serve as a prognostic indicator for these patients...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
K Premalatha, V K Chandrasekar, M Senthilvelan, M Lakshmanan
We investigate the occurrence of collective dynamical states such as transient amplitude chimera, stable amplitude chimera, and imperfect breathing chimera states in a locally coupled network of Stuart-Landau oscillators. In an imperfect breathing chimera state, the synchronized group of oscillators exhibits oscillations with large amplitudes, while the desynchronized group of oscillators oscillates with small amplitudes, and this behavior of coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations fluctuates with time...
March 2018: Chaos
Zhongkui Sun, Rui Xiao, Xiaoli Yang, Wei Xu
Oscillation quenching has been widely studied during the past several decades in fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering, but investigations have so far been restricted to oscillators with an integer-order derivative. Here, we report the first study of amplitude death (AD) in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with partial and/or complete conjugate couplings to explore oscillation quenching patterns and dynamics. It has been found that the fractional-order derivative impacts the AD state crucially...
March 2018: Chaos
Noa Leybovitz-Haleluya, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is a well-known reproductive toxicant. We aimed to study the long-term effect of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on the risk for childhood cardiovascular morbidity of the offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing total and subtypes of cardiovascular related pediatric hospitalizations among offspring of smoking mothers versus offspring of non-smoking mothers. The analysis included all singletons born between the years 1999-2014...
March 28, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Daniel Leightley, Zoe Chui, Margaret Jones, Sabine Landau, Paul McCrone, Richard D Hayes, Simon Wessely, Nicola T Fear, Laura Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) are created to capture summaries of care and contact made to healthcare services. EHRs offer a means to analyse admissions to hospitals for epidemiological research. In the United Kingdom (UK), England, Scotland and Wales maintain separate data stores, which are administered and managed exclusively by devolved Government. This independence results in harmonisation challenges, not least lack of uniformity, making it difficult to evaluate care, diagnoses and treatment across the UK...
May 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Niklas Mattsson, Colin Groot, Willemijn J Jansen, Susan Landau, Victor Villemagne, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Mark Mintun, Alberto Lleo, José Luis Molinuevo, William Jagust, Giovanni B Frisoni, Adrian Ivanoiu, Gaël Chételat, Catarina Resende de Oliveira, Karen M Rodrigue, Johannes Kornhuber, Anders Wallin, Aleksandra Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Ramesh Kandimella, Julius Popp, Pauline P Aalten, Dag Aarsland, Daniel Alcolea, Ina S Almdahl, Inês Baldeiras, Mark A van Buchem, Enrica Cavedo, Kewei Chen, Ann D Cohen, Stefan Förster, Juan Fortea, Kristian S Frederiksen, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Kiran Dip Gill, Olymbia Gkatzima, Timo Grimmer, Harald Hampel, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Peter Johannsen, Koen van Laere, Mony de Leon, Wolfgang Maier, Jan Marcusson, Olga Meulenbroek, Hanne M Møllergård, John C Morris, Barbara Mroczko, Arto Nordlund, Sudesh Prabhakar, Oliver Peters, Lorena Rami, Eloy Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Catherine M Roe, Eckart Rüther, Isabel Santana, Johannes Schröder, Sang W Seo, Hilkka Soininen, Luiza Spiru, Erik Stomrud, Hanne Struyfs, Charlotte E Teunissen, Frans R J Verhey, Stephanie J B Vos, Linda J C van Waalwijk van Doorn, Gunhild Waldemar, Åsa K Wallin, Jens Wiltfang, Rik Vandenberghe, David J Brooks, Tormod Fladby, Christopher C Rowe, Alexander Drzezga, Marcel M Verbeek, Marie Sarazin, David A Wolk, Adam S Fleisher, William E Klunk, Duk L Na, Pascual Sánchez-Juan, Dong Young Lee, Agneta Nordberg, Magda Tsolaki, Vincent Camus, Juha O Rinne, Anne M Fagan, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Gil D Rabinovici, Oskar Hansson, Bart N M van Berckel, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Pieter Jelle Visser, Rik Ossenkoppele
INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. METHODS: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location...
March 27, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Samantha J Ziegler, Chang Liu, Mark Landau, Olga Buzovetsky, Belete A Desimmie, Qi Zhao, Tomoaki Sasaki, Ryan C Burdick, Vinay K Pathak, Karen S Anderson, Yong Xiong
Human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (A3) proteins are a family of cytidine deaminases that catalyze the conversion of deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuridine (dU) in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). A3 proteins act in the innate immune response to viral infection by mutating the viral ssDNA. One of the most well-studied human A3 family members is A3G, which is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1. Each A3 protein prefers a specific substrate sequence for catalysis-for example, A3G deaminates the third dC in the CCCA sequence motif...
2018: PloS One
Erin Martin, Barbara Vickers, Ruth Landau, Sarah Reece-Stremtan
A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols, free from commercial interest or influence, for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.
March 29, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Mojtaba Rismanchi
OBJECTIVES: Functioning, but injured cerebral connections are hypothesized to inhibit cortical plasticity. Study of neural networks can validate this hypothesis, and provide further practical clues for clinical and surgical options to restore function in eloquent brain areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cortical lesions in eloquent areas were simulated by means of artificial neural networks. Next, functional restoration of these networks after lesional bypass was studied...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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