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Ž L Jelić, M V Milošević, A V Silhanek
An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present work we introduce a method combining conventional transport measurements and a frequency-tuned flashing pinning potential to obtain reliable estimates of the vortex velocity. The proposed device is characterized using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism, where the velocimetry method exploits the resonances in mean vortex dissipation when temporal commensuration occurs between the vortex crossings and the flashing potential...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Koichi Hattori, Yi Yin
We investigate novel transport phenomena in a chiral fluid originated from an interplay between a vorticity and strong magnetic field, which induces a redistribution of vector charges in the system and an axial current along the magnetic field. The corresponding transport coefficients are obtained from an energy-shift argument for the chiral fermions in the lowest Landau level due to a spin-vorticity coupling and also from diagrammatic computations on the basis of the linear response theory. Based on consistent results from both methods, we observe that the transport coefficients are proportional to the anomaly coefficient and are independent of temperature and chemical potential...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lina Jaurigue, Eckehard Schöll, Kathy Lüdge
Many physical systems involve time-delayed feedback or coupling. In such delay systems, noise can give rise to undesirable oscillations at frequencies resonant to the delay times. We investigate how an additional feedback term can suppress noise-induced modulations in delay systems with self-feedback that exhibit deterministic oscillatory dynamics. A simple characteristic equation is derived to predict optimal delay times for the prototypical example of a Stuart-Landau oscillator subject to two feedback terms...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jennifer Trinh, Ekkes Brück, Theo Siegrist, Rebecca Flint, Premala Chandra, Piers Coleman, Arthur P Ramirez
The heavy fermion compound URu_{2}Si_{2} continues to attract great interest due to the unidentified hidden order it develops below 17.5 K. The unique Ising character of the spin fluctuations and low-temperature quasiparticles is well established. We present detailed measurements of the angular anisotropy of the nonlinear magnetization that reveal a cos^{4}θ Ising anisotropy both at and above the ordering transition. With Landau theory, we show this implies a strongly Ising character of the itinerant hidden order parameter...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Stavros Sfoungaristos, Ioannis Mykoniatis, Ayman Isid, Ofer N Gofrit, Shilo Rosenberg, Guy Hidas, Ezekiel H Landau, Dov Pode, Mordechai Duvdevani
Objective. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of retrograde versus antegrade ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large proximal ureteral stones. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with proximal ureteral stones >15 mm, treated in our institution from January 2011 to January 2016. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative outcomes, and complications were recorded and compared between the two techniques. Results. Our analysis included 57 patients...
2016: BioMed Research International
Judith Brody, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Zohar Landau, Adi Adar, Tzvy Bistritzer, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both vitamin D (VitD) deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased worldwide over the last few decades. The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of VitD deficiency and insufficiency among Israeli youth with T1DM and (2) to assess the association between VitD status, seasonality and T1D glycemic control characteristics. METHODS: This was a multi-centered, cross-sectional study. VitD levels were routinely tested during the years 2008-2011 in T1DM patients aged up to 21 years...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Haidong Tian, Yinfeng Zhang, Jingzhi Han, Zhuang Xu, Xiaodong Zhang, Shunquan Liu, Changsheng Wang, Yingchang Yang, Li Han, Jinbo Yang
Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets are prepared through electron beam exposure with a greatly reduced annealing time of 0.1 s. This is by far the most effective approach due to the effect of an extremely high heating rate featuring a rapid thermal process. The impact that the rapid thermal process has on crystallization is expounded by the introduction of the Landau model and Langevin dynamical simulations. The change of crystallization sequence from the α-Fe phase preceding the Nd2Fe14B phase under conventional annealing conditions, to synergetic crystallization under electron beam conditions is investigated...
October 19, 2016: Nanoscale
Israel Pena, Erin Y Chew, Barcleigh P Landau, Joseph T Breen, Jose P Zevallos, Jeffrey T Vrabec
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of vestibular schwannoma (VS) and asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss in the Veterans Administration hospital population and analyze a more efficient method of diagnosing VS in a population with significant noise exposure. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of South Central (VISN 16) Veterans Administration hospitals. METHODS: Record query for ICD-9 codes for asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss or VS between 1999 and 2012...
October 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Hagit Shoffel-Havakuk, Yonatan Lahav, Barak Meidan, Yaara Haimovich, Meir Warman, Moshe Hain, Yaniv Hamzany, Alexander Brodsky, Tali Landau-Zemer, Doron Halperin
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The primary suspicion for glottic malignancy during office laryngoendoscopy is based on lesion appearance. Previous studies investigating laryngeal use of narrow band imaging (NBI) are mostly descriptive. The additive value of NBI relative to white light (WL) requires further investigation. STUDY DESIGN: Observational matched study. METHODS: NBI was compared with WL images of 45 vocal fold lesions suspected for malignancy (21 carcinoma, 22 dysplasia, two benign)...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Eyal Sheiner, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between sex and long-term pediatric cardiovascular morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort study was performed that compared the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidity (up to the age of 18 years) of children according to sex. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991 and 2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to compare cumulative cardiovascular morbidity incidence...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
D Giridharan, P Sabareesan, M Daniel
We investigate nonlinear localized magnetic excitations in a one-dimensional bicomponent magnonic crystal under a periodic magnetic field of spatially varying strength. The governing Landau-Lifshitz equation is transformed into a variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (VCNLS) equation using stereographic projection. In general, the VCNLS equation is nonintegrable and by using Painlevé analysis, we obtain necessary conditions for the VCNLS equation to pass the Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale Painlevé test. A sufficient integrability condition is obtained by further exploring a transformation, which can map the VCNLS equation into the well-known standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Gyula I Tóth
In this paper general dynamic equations describing the time evolution of isothermal quasi-incompressible multicomponent liquids are derived in the framework of the classical Ginzburg-Landau theory of first order phase transformations. Based on the fundamental equations of continuum mechanics, a general convection-diffusion dynamics is set up first for compressible liquids. The constitutive relations for the diffusion fluxes and the capillary stress are determined in the framework of gradient theories. Next the general definition of incompressibility is given, which is taken into account in the derivation by using the Lagrange multiplier method...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Gérald Faussurier, Christophe Blancard
We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jean Wolff, Shigeyuki Komura, David Andelman
We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
W Yu, Y Jiang, J Yang, Z L Dun, H D Zhou, Z Jiang, P Lu, W Pan
A three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal (DS) is an analogue of graphene, but with linear energy dispersion in all (three) momentum directions. 3D DSs have been a fertile playground in discovering novel quantum particles, for example Weyl fermions, in solid state systems. Many 3D DSs were theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. We report here the results in exfoliated ZrTe5 thin flakes from the studies of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and low temperature magneto-transport measurements...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adebayo Ogunniyi, Mabel Rodriguez, Sean Devlin, Nelly Adel, Heather Landau, David J Chung, Nikoletta Lendvai, Alexander Lesokhin, Guenther Koehne, Sham Mailankody, Neha Korde, Lilian Reich, Ola Landgren, Sergio Giralt, Hani Hassoun
Plerixafor (P), an agent that selectively and reversibly binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4, has been approved in combination with G-CSF (P + G-CSF) for stem cell (SC) mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The goal of this study was to determine the SC collection success rate of P + G-CSF using a clinically relevant outcome defined as the ability to collect at least 5 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg to allow safely two transplants, and identify risk factors impacting SC mobilization...
October 13, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Emre Bukusoglu, Xiaoguang Wang, Ye Zhou, José A Martínez-González, Mohammad Rahimi, Qi Wang, Juan J de Pablo, Nicholas L Abbott
We report on the internal configurations of aqueous dispersions of droplets of cholesteric liquid crystals (LCs; 5-50 μm-in-diameter; comprised of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl and 4-(1-methylheptyloxycarbonyl)phenyl-4-hexyloxybenzoate) and their influence on the positioning of surface-adsorbed colloids (0.2 or 1 μm-in-diameter polystyrene (PS)). When N = 2D/P was less than 4, where D is the droplet diameter and P is the cholesteric pitch, the droplets adopted a twisted bipolar structure (TBS) and colloids were observed to assume positions at either the poles or equator of the droplets...
October 5, 2016: Soft Matter
Ye Zhou, Ashley Guo, Rui Zhang, Julio C Armas-Perez, José A Martínez-González, Mohammad Rahimi, Monirosadat Sadati, Juan J de Pablo
There is considerable interest in understanding and controlling topological defects in nematic liquid crystals (LCs). Confinement, in the form of droplets, has been particularly effective in that regard. Here, we employ a Landau-de Gennes formalism to explore the geometrical frustration of nematic order in shell geometries, and focus on chiral materials. By varying the chirality and thickness in uniform shells, we construct a phase diagram that includes tetravalent structures, bipolar structures (BS), bent structures and radial spherical structures (RSS)...
September 30, 2016: Soft Matter
Nawras Ghanem, Bärbel Kiesel, Rene Kallies, Hauke Harms, Antonis Chatzinotas, Lukas Y Wick
Although several studies examined the transport of viruses in the terrestrial systems only few studies exist on marine phages (i.e. non-terrestrial viruses infecting marine host bacteria) as sensitively detectable microbial tracers for subsurface colloid transport and water flow. Here, we systematically quantified and compared for the first time the effects of size, morphology and physico-chemical surface properties of six marine phages and two coliphages (MS2, T4) during transport in sand-filled percolated columns...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tae Heon Kim, Peter Grünberg, Song Hee Han, Beongki Cho
The spin-torque driven dynamics of antiferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) were investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation with antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic order parameters (l and m, respectively). We demonstrate that antiferromagnets including DMI can be described by a 2-dimensional pendulum model of l. Because m is coupled with l, together with DMI and exchange energy, close examination of m provides fundamental understanding of its dynamics in linear and nonlinear regimes...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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