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G G Hanna, L Murray, R Patel, S Jain, K L Aitken, K N Franks, N van As, A Tree, P Hatfield, S Harrow, F McDonald, M Ahmed, F H Saran, G J Webster, V Khoo, D Landau, D J Eaton, M A Hawkins
Six UK studies investigating stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) are currently open. Many of these involve the treatment of oligometastatic disease at different locations in the body. Members of all the trial management groups collaborated to generate a consensus document on appropriate organ at risk dose constraints. Values from existing but older reviews were updated using data from current studies. It is hoped that this unified approach will facilitate standardised implementation of SABR across the UK and will allow meaningful toxicity comparisons between SABR studies and internationally...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Alexis D Henry, John Gettens, Judith A Savageau, Doris Cullen, Anna Landau
The smoking rate among non-elderly Medicaid enrollees is more than double the rate for those privately insured; smoking-related conditions account for 15% of Medicaid expenditures. Under state health reform, Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) made tobacco cessation treatment available beginning in 2006. We used surveys conducted in 2008 and 2014 to examine changes in smoking abstinence rates among MassHealth members identified as smokers and to identify factors associated with being a former smoker. Members previously identified as smokers were surveyed by mail or phone; 2008 and 2014 samples included 3,116 and 2,971 members, respectively...
2017: PloS One
Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Javier Martínez, Dhanashree Paranjpe, Verónica D'Amico, Rocío Aguilar, María Gabriela Palacios, Robert Cooper, Francisco Ferri-Yáñez, Barry Sinervo, Santiago Merino
BACKGROUND: Species of Schellackia Reichenow, 1919 have been described from the blood of reptiles distributed worldwide. Recently, Schellackia spp. detected in European and Asian lizards have been molecularly characterised. However, parasites detected in American lizard hosts remain uncharacterised. Thus, phylogenetic affinities between the Old and New World parasite species are unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we characterised morphologically and molecularly the hemococcidian parasites (sporozoites) that infect three lizard hosts from North America and two from South America...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Yusuke Sato, Yasuyuki Kusaka, Motoyoshi Kobayashi
To understand the charging and aggregation of cellulose nanofiber (CNF), we performed the following experimental and theoretical studies. The charging behavior of CNF was characterized by potentiometric acid-base titration measuring the density of deprotonated carboxyl groups at different KCl concentrations. The charging behavior from the titration was quantitatively described by the 1-pK Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) model for a cylinder. The electrophoretic mobility of CNF was measured as a function of pH by electrophoretic light scattering...
October 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Andrew J A James, Robert M Konik, Philippe Lecheminant, Neil Robinson, Alexei M Tsvelik
We review two important non-perturbative approaches for extracting the physics of low- dimensional strongly correlated quantum systems. Firstly, we start by providing a comprehensive review of non-Abelian bosonization. This includes an introduction to the basic elements of confor- mal field theory as applied to systems with a current algebra, and we orient the reader by presenting a number of applications of non-Abelian bosonization to models with large symmetries. We then tie this technique into recent advances in the ability of cold atomic systems to realize complex symme- tries...
October 9, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Anna Seydell-Greenwald, Katrina Ferrara, Catherine E Chambers, Elissa L Newport, Barbara Landau
In this paper, we examine brain lateralization patterns for a complex visual-spatial task commonly used to assess general spatial abilities. Although spatial abilities have classically been ascribed to the right hemisphere, evidence suggests that at least some tasks may be strongly bilateral. For example, while functional neuroimaging studies show right-lateralized activations for some spatial tasks (e.g., line bisection), bilateral activations are often reported for others, including classic spatial tasks such as mental rotation...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Jacob W Vogel, Monika Varga Doležalová, Renaud La Joie, Shawn M Marks, Henry D Schwimmer, Susan M Landau, William J Jagust
OBJECTIVE: To assess in a longitudinal study whether subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and brain β-amyloid (Aβ) contribute unique information to cognitive decline. METHODS: One hundred thirty-six healthy elderly from the Berkeley Aging Cohort Study were followed up for a mean of 4 years. SCD and affective measures were generated from the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) with factor analysis on data from a larger set of 347 healthy, nondepressed (GDS <11) elderly individuals...
October 6, 2017: Neurology
Y Wang, A J Yee, C Sirard, S Landau, N Raje, U Mahmood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
J I A Li, C Tan, S Chen, Y Zeng, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, J Hone, C R Dean
The unique Landau level spectrum of bilayer graphene (BLG) is predicted to support a non-Abelian even-denominator fractional quantum Hall state (FQHE) similar to the [Formula: see text] state first identified in GaAs. However, the nature of this state has remained difficult to characterize. Here we report transport measurements of a robust sequence of even denominator FQHE in dual gated BLG devices. Parallel field measurement confirms the spin-polarized nature of the ground state, consistent with the Pfaffian/anti-Pfaffian description...
October 5, 2017: Science
Le Van Lich, Takahiro Shimada, Jie Wang, Takayuki Kitamura
Topological field structures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, are important features found in ordered systems with spontaneously broken symmetry. A plethora of topological field structures have been discovered in magnetic and ordered soft matter systems due to the presence of inherent chiral interactions, and this has provided a fruitful platform for unearthing additional groundbreaking functionalities. However, despite being one of the most important classes of ordered systems, ferroelectrics scarcely form topological polarization structures due to their lack of intrinsic chiral interactions...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
Fei Liu, Aram Klaassen, Cunlu Zhao, Frieder Mugele, Dirk van den Ende
We use dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to investigate the forces involved in squeezing out thin films of aqueous electrolyte between an AFM tip and silica substrates at variable pH and salt concentration. From amplitude and phase of the AFM signal we determine both conservative and dissipative components of the tip sample interaction forces. The measured dissipation is enhanced by up to a factor of 5 at tip-sample separations of $\approx$ one Debye length compared to the expectations based on classical hydrodynamic Reynolds damping with bulk viscosity...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ofer Beharier, Eyal Sheiner, Ruslan Sergienko, Daniela Landau, Irit Szaingurten-Solodkin, Asnat Walfisch
PURPOSE: To investigate whether children born with isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) at term are at an increased risk for long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity. METHODS: Design: a population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term, pediatric hospitalizations due to respiratory morbidity in children born with and without iSUA at term. SETTING: Soroka University Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: all singleton pregnancies of women who delivered between 1991 and 2013...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Shigeo Hayakawa
High energy collision processes for singly charged positive ions using an alkali metal target are confirmed, as a charge inversion mass spectrometry, to occur by electron transfers in successive collisions and the dissociation processes involve the formation of energy-selected neutral species from near-resonant neutralization with alkali metal targets. A doubly charged thermometer molecule was made to collide with alkali metal targets to give singly and doubly charged positive ions. The internal energy resulting from the electron transfer with the alkali metal target was very narrow and centered at a particular energy...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
Mickaël D Chekroun, Dmitri Kondrashov
Harmonic decompositions of multivariate time series are considered for which we adopt an integral operator approach with periodic semigroup kernels. Spectral decomposition theorems are derived that cover the important cases of two-time statistics drawn from a mixing invariant measure. The corresponding eigenvalues can be grouped per Fourier frequency and are actually given, at each frequency, as the singular values of a cross-spectral matrix depending on the data. These eigenvalues obey, furthermore, a variational principle that allows us to define naturally a multidimensional power spectrum...
September 2017: Chaos
Meytal Landau
The synuclein family has long been associated with Parkinson's disease and dementia. Although the self-assembly of α-synuclein (αS) into oligomers and amyloid fibrils is well established, the aggregation propensity of other members of the family and their role in disease is still under debate. Moriarty et al. now suggest that the pH switching that occurs between different cellular environments could control β-synuclein (βS) aggregation via altering its charge distribution, thus opening new possible roles for βS in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Misia Landau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Clinical Chemistry
Takuya Higuchi, Christian Heide, Konrad Ullmann, Heiko B Weber, Peter Hommelhoff
The ability to steer electrons using the strong electromagnetic field of light has opened up the possibility of controlling electron dynamics on the sub-femtosecond (less than 10(-15) seconds) timescale. In dielectrics and semiconductors, various light-field-driven effects have been explored, including high-harmonic generation, sub-optical-cycle interband population transfer and the non-perturbative change of the transient polarizability. In contrast, much less is known about light-field-driven electron dynamics in narrow-bandgap systems or in conductors, in which screening due to free carriers or light absorption hinders the application of strong optical fields...
October 12, 2017: Nature
J B Gonpe Tafo, L Nana, T C Kofane
We investigate the behavior of traveling waves in a defect turbulence regime with the periodic boundary conditions by using the lowest-order complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE), and we show the effect of the nonlinear gradient terms in the system. It is found that the nonlinear gradient terms which appear at the same order as the quintic term can change the behavior of the wave patterns. The presence of the nonlinear gradient terms can cause major changes in the behavior of the solution. They can be considered like the stabilizing terms...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Matthew R Edwards, Julia M Mikhailova, Nathaniel J Fisch
Plasma-based parametric amplification using stimulated Brillouin scattering offers a route to coherent x-ray pulses orders of magnitude more intense than those of the brightest available sources. Brillouin amplification permits amplification of shorter wavelengths with lower pump intensities than Raman amplification, which Landau and collisional damping limit in the x-ray regime. Analytic predictions, numerical solutions of the three-wave-coupling equations, and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that Brillouin amplification in solid-density plasmas will allow compression of current x-ray free-electron laser pulses to subfemtosecond durations and unprecedented intensities...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Markus Gross, Andrea Gambassi, S Dietrich
The effect of imposing a constraint on a fluctuating scalar order parameter field in a system of finite volume is studied within statistical field theory. The canonical ensemble, corresponding to a fixed total integrated order parameter (e.g., the total number of particles), is obtained as a special case of the theory. A perturbative expansion is developed which allows one to systematically determine the constraint-induced finite-volume corrections to the free energy and to correlation functions. In particular, we focus on the Landau-Ginzburg model in a film geometry (i...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
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