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Adi Adar, Shlomit Shalitin, Ori Eyal, Neta Loewenthal, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Milana Levy, Orna Dally-Gottfried, Zohar Landau, Amnon Zung, Floris Levy-Khademi, David Zangen, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (<37 weeks). We aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of prematurity and early prematurity (<34 weeks) and birth season variability among T1DM and non-T1DM children. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted, with linkage of data from 13 pediatric diabetes centers and Israeli National Registries, including T1DM patients and general non-T1DM population, born during 2000-2013...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Katrin Fasler, Ghislaine L Traber, Gregor Peter Jaggi, Klara Landau
Amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy (AAON) is a controversial diagnosis with possible impact on vital cardiac therapy decisions. This retrospective case series aims for application of distinguishing features of AAON versus non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION): Bilaterality, mode of onset, degree of optic nerve dysfunction, structure of uninvolved disc (unilateral cases), and systemic toxic effects. Applying these criteria to patients with disc swelling under amiodarone, the authors identified four unilateral disc swellings, one with NAION-typical features only and three with one or more NAION-atypical features...
February 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Gordon Plant, Walter Jay, Klara Landau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
E Spiegel, I Shoham-Vardi, R Sergienko, D Landau, E Sheiner
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth weight at-term poses an increased risk for long-term pediatric endocrine morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective population-based cohort study compared the incidence of long-term pediatric hospitalizations due to endocrine morbidity of singleton children born SGA, appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and LGA at-term. A multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression model analysis was used to control for confounders...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Zhi-Neng Hong, Jun Jiang, Jiu-Yu Li, Ren-Kou Xu
Adhesion of bacteria onto minerals is a ubiquitous process that plays a central role in many biogeochemical, microbiology and environmental processes in soil and sediment. Although bacterial adhesion onto soil minerals such as phyllosilicates and Fe-oxides have been investigated extensively, little is known about the mechanisms for bacterial attachment onto Al-oxides. Here, we explored the adhesion of Bacillus subtilis onto gibbsite (γ-AlOOH) under various ionic strengths (1, 10, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and pHs (pH 4, 7, and 9) by in-situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy...
February 13, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Emanuel Clauss-Lendzian, Ankita Vaishampayan, Anne de Jong, Uwe Landau, Carsten Meyer, Jan Kok, Elisabeth Grohmann
Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, paired with their ability to form biofilms on medical and technical devices, represents a serious problem for effective and long-term decontamination in health-care environments and gives rise to an urgent need for new antimicrobial materials. Here we present the impact of AGXX® , a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial surface coating consisting of micro-galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium, on the transcriptome of Enterococcus faecalis. A clinical E...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Ji-Hae Choi, Seung-Hoon Jhi
Group-VIIB transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are known to be stabilized solely in a distorted 1T phase termed as 1T″ phase, which is compared to many stable or metastable phases in other TMDCs. Using first-principles calculations, we study the structural origin of 1T″ phase group-VIIB TMDCs. We find that quasi 1D Peierls-like instability is responsible for the transition to the 1T″ phase ReS2 monolayer from the 1T' phase, another distorted 1T phase. Two half-filled bands in 1T'-ReS2 make sharp peaks in the Lindhard function that prompt the charge density wave (CDW) phase with large band gap opening...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Nate McDowell, Craig D Allen, Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, Paulo Brando, Roel Brienen, Jeff Chambers, Brad Christoffersen, Stuart Davies, Chris Doughty, Alvaro Duque, Fernando Espirito-Santo, Rosie Fisher, Clarissa G Fontes, David Galbraith, Devin Goodsman, Charlotte Grossiord, Henrik Hartmann, Jennifer Holm, Daniel J Johnson, Abd Rahman Kassim, Michael Keller, Charlie Koven, Lara Kueppers, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Yadvinder Malhi, Sean M McMahon, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick Meir, Paul Moorcroft, Helene C Muller-Landau, Oliver L Phillips, Thomas Powell, Carlos A Sierra, John Sperry, Jeff Warren, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu
Tree mortality rates appear to be increasing in moist tropical forests (MTFs) with significant carbon cycle consequences. Here, we review the state of knowledge regarding MTF tree mortality, create a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses regarding the drivers, mechanisms and interactions that may underlie increasing MTF mortality rates, and identify the next steps for improved understanding and reduced prediction. Increasing mortality rates are associated with rising temperature and vapor pressure deficit, liana abundance, drought, wind events, fire and, possibly, CO 2 fertilization-induced increases in stand thinning or acceleration of trees reaching larger, more vulnerable heights...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Sabina Simon, Elena Voloshina, Julia Tesch, Felix Förschner, Vivien Enenkel, Charlotte Herbig, Timo Knispel, Alexander Tries, Jörg Kröger, Yuriy Dedkov, Mikhail Fonin
The electronic properties of graphene can be efficiently altered upon interaction with the underlying substrate resulting in a dramatic change of charge carrier behavior. Here, the evolution of the local electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on a metal upon the controlled formation of multilayers, which are produced by intercalation of atomic carbon in graphene/Ir(111), is investigated. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau-level spectroscopy, it is shown that for a monolayer and bilayers with small-angle rotations, Landau levels are fully suppressed, indicating that the metal-graphene interaction is largely confined to the first graphene layer...
February 16, 2018: Small
Ke Liu, Jonas Greitemann, Lode Pollet
Polyhedral nematics are examples of exotic orientational phases that possess a complex internal symmetry, representing highly nontrivial ways of rotational symmetry breaking, and are subject to current experimental pursuits in colloidal and molecular systems. The classification of these phases has been known for a long time; however, their transitions to the disordered isotropic liquid phase remain largely unexplored, except for a few symmetries. In this work, we utilize a recently introduced non-Abelian gauge theory to explore the nature of the underlying nematic-isotropic transition for all three-dimensional polyhedral nematics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Andrea Pelissetto, Antonio Tripodo, Ettore Vicari
We investigate the critical properties of the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic RP^{N-1} model, which is characterized by a global O(N) symmetry and a discrete Z_{2} gauge symmetry. We perform a field-theoretical analysis using the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) approach and a numerical Monte Carlo study. The LGW field-theoretical results are obtained by high-order perturbative analyses of the renormalization-group flow of the most general Φ^{4} theory with the same global symmetry as the model, assuming a gauge-invariant order-parameter field...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
M A Griffith, M A Continentino
Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
E I Kats, A R Muratov
In this paper we propose and explore a method of analysis of the scattering experimental data for uniform liquidlike systems. In our pragmatic approach we are not trying to introduce by hands an artificial small parameter to work out a perturbation theory with respect to the known results, e.g., for hard spheres or sticky hard spheres (all the more that in the agreement with the notorious Landau statement, there is no physical small parameter for liquids). Instead of it being guided by the experimental data we are solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation with a trial (variational) form of the interparticle interaction potential...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
J W Harter, D M Kennes, H Chu, A de la Torre, Z Y Zhao, J-Q Yan, D G Mandrus, A J Millis, D Hsieh
We have used a combination of ultrafast coherent phonon spectroscopy, ultrafast thermometry, and time-dependent Landau theory to study the inversion symmetry breaking phase transition at T_{c}=200  K in the strongly spin-orbit coupled correlated metal Cd_{2}Re_{2}O_{7}. We establish that the structural distortion at T_{c} is a secondary effect through the absence of any softening of its associated phonon mode, which supports a purely electronically driven mechanism. However, the phonon lifetime exhibits an anomalously strong temperature dependence that decreases linearly to zero near T_{c}...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
B Jordan Russell, Boyi Zhou, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, Erik A Henriksen
We study the infrared cyclotron resonance of high-mobility monolayer graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride, and simultaneously observe several narrow resonance lines due to interband Landau-level transitions. By holding the magnetic field strength B constant while tuning the carrier density n, we find the transition energies show a pronounced nonmonotonic dependence on the Landau-level filling factor, ν∝n/B. This constitutes direct evidence that electron-electron interactions contribute to the Landau-level transition energies in graphene, beyond the single-particle picture...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jing Li, Yevhen Tupikov, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jun Zhu
The E=0 octet of bilayer graphene in the filling factor range of -4<ν<4 is a fertile playground for many-body phenomena, yet a Landau level diagram is missing due to strong interactions and competing quantum degrees of freedom. We combine measurements and modeling to construct an empirical and quantitative spectrum. The single-particlelike diagram incorporates interaction effects effectively and provides a unified framework to understand the occupation sequence, gap energies, and phase transitions observed in the octet...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Zongping Gong, Ryusuke Hamazaki, Masahito Ueda
Discrete time crystals are a recently proposed and experimentally observed out-of-equilibrium dynamical phase of Floquet systems, where the stroboscopic dynamics of a local observable repeats itself at an integer multiple of the driving period. We address this issue in a driven-dissipative setup, focusing on the modulated open Dicke model, which can be implemented by cavity or circuit QED systems. In the thermodynamic limit, we employ semiclassical approaches and find rich dynamical phases on top of the discrete time-crystalline order...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Thea P Lillethorup, Andreas N Glud, Aage K O Alstrup, Trine W Mikkelsen, Erik H Nielsen, Hamed Zaer, Doris J Doudet, David J Brooks, Jens Christian H Sørensen, Dariusz Orlowski, Anne M Landau
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to slowness and stiffness of limb movement with rest tremor. Using ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitors, rodent models have shown nigrostriatal degeneration and motor impairment. We translated this model to the Göttingen minipig by administering lactacystin into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Minipigs underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (+)-α-[11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ), a marker of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 availability, at baseline and three weeks after the unilateral administration of 100 μg lactacystin into the MFB...
February 8, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Benjamin J Feinberg, Jeff C Hsiao, Jaehyun Park, Andrew L Zydney, William H Fissell, Shuvo Roy
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled the fabrication of silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) with uniform non-overlapping "slit shaped" pores. The application of SNM has been suggested for high selectivity of biomolecules in a variety of medical filtration applications. The aim of this study was to rigorously quantify the differences in sieving between slit pore SNM and more commonly modeled cylindrical pore membranes, including effects of the extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (XDLVO) interactions...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Michael F Carilli, Kris T Delaney, Glenn H Fredrickson
Using the zero-temperature string method, we investigate nucleation of a stable lamellar phase from a metastable disordered phase of the renormalized Landau-Brazovskii model at parameters explicitly connected to those of an experimentally accessible diblock copolymer melt. We find anisotropic critical nuclei in qualitative agreement with previous experimental and analytic predictions; we also find good quantitative agreement with the predictions of a single-mode analysis. We conduct a thorough search for critical nuclei containing various predicted and experimentally observed defect structures...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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