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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724168/efficacy-and-safety-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-across-the-spectrum-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Lawrence A Leiter, Michael A Nauck
For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) generally exert robust glucose-lowering effects that are at least as effective as insulin. As monotherapies, changes from baseline in HbA1c with GLP-1RAs ranged from -1.9 to -0.7% in phase 3 trials. In addition, GLP-1RAs confer a low risk of hypoglycaemia and have a body-weight advantage (changes from baseline ranging from -4.0 to -0.4 kg). There is also evidence of significant reductions in risk for cardiovascular events with some of these agents, with a number of other trials underway...
July 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724048/impact-of-alcohol-consumption-among-patients-in-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment
#2
Andréa Carvalho Maia Vieira-Castro, Luiz Carlos Marques de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have questioned the recommendation of abstinence from alcohol for at least 6 months for alcoholic patients to be treated for hepatitis C. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the impact of alcohol consumption among patients undergoing hepatitis C treatment. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 121 patients [78 (64.5%) men; 28-70 years] were evaluated. They were divided as follows: patients who consumed <12 g of ethanol/day throughout life (Group 1), 12-59 g/day (Group 2) and ≥60 g/day (Group 3)...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723808/continuous-use-of-metformin-can-improve-survival-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#3
Shan-Bing Wang, Kai-Jian Lei, Jia-Pei Liu, Yu-Ming Jia
Evidence indicates that type 2 diabetes may stimulate the initiation and progression of several types of cancer. Metformin, a drug most commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, may inhibit cancer cell growth and reduce the risk of cancer. However, evidence of the antitumor effects of metformin on ovarian cancer is still limited.In this study, we retrospectively examined the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer patients with diabetes at our institution.We identified 568 consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer and treated between January 2011 and March 2014...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723725/meningeal-melanomatosis-following-discontinuation-of-dabrafenib-implications-for-the-maintenance-of-long-term-complete-remission
#4
Victoria Grätz, Nadine Lüttmann, Ozan Haase, Ewan A Langan, André Kemmling, Detlef Zillikens, Patrick Terheyden
A subset of 10-20% of patients under continuous BRAF inhibitor monotherapy achieve long-term progression-free and overall survival. Definitive criteria for the safe cessation of BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in treatment-responsive melanoma patients are lacking. We report a patient who remained in complete remission (CR) for 5 years under dabrafenib. The treatment was withdrawn because of concerns about cardiac toxicity. Four months thereafter the patient developed neurological symptoms, including diplopia and bilateral visual loss...
July 18, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723233/treatment-patterns-and-clinical-outcomes-with-pazopanib-in-patients-with-advanced-soft-tissue-sarcomas-in-a-compassionate-use-setting-results-of-the-spire-study
#5
Hans Gelderblom, Ian R Judson, Charlotte Benson, Ofer Merimsky, Giovanni Grignani, Daniela Katz, Klaus W Freivogel, Dara Stein, Minesh Jobanputra, Arron Mungul, Stephanie C Manson, Roberta Sanfilippo
BACKGROUND: A named patient program (NPP) was designed to provide patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (aSTS) access to pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The SPIRE study was a retrospective chart review of participating patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility criteria for the NPP and SPIRE mirrored those of the pivotal phase-III study, PALETTE, which compared pazopanib with placebo in patients ≥18 years with aSTS and whose disease had progressed during or following prior chemotherapy or were otherwise unsuitable for chemotherapy...
July 19, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723227/extended-release-guanfacine-does-not-show-a-large-effect-on-tic-severity-in-children-with-chronic-tic-disorders
#6
Tanya K Murphy, Thomas V Fernandez, Barbara J Coffey, Omar Rahman, Allison Gavaletz, Camille E Hanks, Caitlin S Tillberg, Laura Ibanez Gomez, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Lily Katsovich, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of extended-release guanfacine in children with chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's disorder (collectively referred to as CTD). METHODS: This was a multisite, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. Key secondary outcomes included the Improvement item of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale and the Tic Symptom Self-report (TSSR)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722790/switching-to-a-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-single-tablet-regimen-in-rna-suppressed-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-effectiveness-safety-and-costs-at-96%C3%A2-weeks
#7
Paula Arrabal-Durán, Carmen G Rodríguez-González, Esther Chamorro-de-Vega, Paloma Gijón-Vidaurreta, Ana Herranz-Alonso, María Sanjurjo-Sáez
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the effectiveness, safety and costs of switching to a rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (RPV/FTC/TDF) regimen in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with sustained virological suppression. METHODS: Observational, prospective study. Study population included all treatment-experienced patients with sustained virological suppression who switched to RPV/FTC/TDF during 2013 in a tertiary hospital. Patients were followed until they completed 96 weeks of treatment...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722255/drug-drug-interactions-between-triazole-antifungal-agents-used-to-treat-invasive-aspergillosis-and-immunosuppressants-metabolized-by-cytochrome-p450-3a4
#8
REVIEW
Andreas H Groll, Robert Townsend, Amit Desai, Nkechi Azie, Mark Jones, Marc Engelhardt, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffman, Robert J Brüggemann
Patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressant drugs following solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at particular risk for development of serious infections such as invasive aspergillosis. Four triazole antifungal drugs, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole, are approved to treat invasive aspergillosis either as first- or second-line therapy. All of these agents are inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4, which plays a key role in metabolizing immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus...
July 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722237/bone-involvement-histopathological-evidence-for-endoscopic-management-of-sinonasal-inverted-papilloma
#9
Na Liang, Zhenxiao Huang, Honggang Liu, Junfang Xian, Qian Huang, Bing Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide histopathological evidence for a better understanding of the excision of bone underlying tumor. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Thirty patients with histopathological diagnosis of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) were enrolled. All patients underwent preoperative radiography to define the tumor location. The primary tumor and underlying bone, removed during endoscopic surgery, were examined under microscope...
July 19, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721467/a-review-of-the-safety-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-delivery-of-nasal-oxytocin-in-children-therapeutic-potential-for-autism-and-prader-willi-syndrome-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#10
Marilena M DeMayo, Yun Ju C Song, Ian B Hickie, Adam J Guastella
In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of existing evidence for the safety and therapeutic potential of intranasal oxytocin in pediatric populations. Unique considerations for dosing and delivery of oxytocin to the nasal passageway in pediatric populations and methods to promote adherence are reviewed. Intranasal oxytocin has been administered to 261 children in three open-label studies and eight randomized controlled trials. To date, the only published results in pediatric populations have focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)...
July 18, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721333/pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-a-ruxolitinib-treated-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis
#11
Anna Hirano, Masahiro Yamasaki, Naomi Saito, Koji Iwato, Wakako Daido, Kunihiko Funaishi, Sayaka Ishiyama, Naoko Deguchi, Masaya Taniwaki, Nobuyuki Ohashi
We present the case of a 79-year-old man who showed multiple pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) after being treated for 6 months with ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and 2, to treat primary myelofibrosis. We examined the lesions by bronchoscopy, and the biopsy specimen revealed fungus bodies of Cryptococcus with granulomatous inflammation. As a result, the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis. The patient was treated with fluconazole (200 mg daily for 2 weeks) with concomitant ruxolitinib administration, but the pulmonary lesions progressed...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721023/persistence-to-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-canadian-cohort
#12
Dessalegn Y Melesse, Ruth Ann Marrie, James F Blanchard, Bo Nancy Yu, Charity Evans
PURPOSE: To examine the long-term persistence to the first-line injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify the factors associated with nonpersistence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada. All adult subjects who were diagnosed with MS and dispensed a first-line injectable DMT (beta-interferon-1b, beta-interferon-1a, and glatiramer acetate) between 1996 and 2011 and had a minimum of 1 year of follow-up were included...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720908/negative-reflecting-meta-mirrors
#13
Rui Yang, Dong Li, Dongxing Gao, Aofang Zhang, Bowei Hu, Pei Yang, Zhenya Lei, Jiacheng Li
Using the gradient phase discontinuities that meta-mirrors provide, we show that the incident wave can be reflected anomalously with a broad angle range of negative reflections. Such reversed behaviors promote the immediate applications for the planar meta-mirrors to steer the signals more arbitrarily and the convex meta-mirrors to focus and collimate electromagnetic fields. We practically implement these negative reflecting meta-mirrors through an arrangement of subwavelength ring patches and generate the desired phase distribution by also considering the incident angle...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720828/universal-mechanism-for-hybrid-percolation-transitions
#14
Deokjae Lee, Wonjun Choi, J Kertész, B Kahng
Hybrid percolation transitions (HPTs) induced by cascading processes have been observed in diverse complex systems such as k-core percolation, breakdown on interdependent networks and cooperative epidemic spreading models. Here we present the microscopic universal mechanism underlying those HPTs. We show that the discontinuity in the order parameter results from two steps: a durable critical branching (CB) and an explosive, supercritical (SC) process, the latter resulting from large loops inevitably present in finite size samples...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720633/factors-that-influence-treatment-completion-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#15
McKenna C Eastment, Adelaide H McClintock, Christy M McKinney, Masahiro Narita, Alexandra Molnar
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to describe factors associated with noncompletion of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) therapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults who initiated LTBI treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, or isoniazid-rifapentine at 5 clinics. Demographic, treatment, and monitoring characteristics were abstracted. We estimated descriptive statistics and compared differences between completers and noncompleters using t tests and χ(2) tests...
July 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720003/current-trends-in-the-management-of-ballistic-fractures-of-the-hand-and-wrist-experiences-of-a-high-volume-level-i-trauma-center
#16
Paul A Ghareeb, Charles Daly, Albert Liao, Diane Payne
BACKGROUND: Ballistic fractures of the carpus and hand are routinely treated in large urban centers. These injuries can be challenging due to many factors. Various treatment options exist for these complicated injuries, but there are limited data available. This report analyzes patient demographics, treatments, and outcomes at a large urban trauma center. METHODS: All ballistic fractures of the hand and wrist of the patients who presented to a single center from 2011 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719593/long-term-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-with-swallowed-topical-corticosteroids-development-and-evaluation-of-a-therapeutic-concept
#17
Thomas Greuter, Christian Bussmann, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Alain M Schoepfer, Luc Biedermann, Stephan R Vavricka, Alex Straumann
OBJECTIVES: Swallowed topical corticosteroids (STCs) are efficacious in inducing and presumably maintaining remission in patients with active eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Hitherto, it has not been evaluated whether long-lasting remission can be achieved, and whether treatment can be stopped once patients have achieved this remission. METHODS: Since 2007, EoE patients included into a large database at the Swiss EoE Clinics were put on STCs as induction/maintenance therapy...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719505/prevalence-of-persistent-renal-dysfunction-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents
#18
Torsak Bunupuradah, Tanit Phupitakphol, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Bunruan Sopa, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Ankanee Chanakul, Thanyawee Puthanakit
BACKGROUND: Persistent renal dysfunction (PRD) has been reported in up to 22% of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHA) in the US and Europe. There is limited data available on PRD among PHAs in resource-limited settings regarding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at more advanced HIV stages. METHODS: We retrospectively described the prevalence of PRD and associated factors in a Thai PHA cohort. Inclusion criteria were current age >10 years and at least 2 serum creatinine (Cr) measurements after ART initiation...
July 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719435/leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-and-dermal-perivascular-hemophagocytosis-associated-with-adalimumab-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Jun Muto, Jun Usami, Daisuke Watanabe
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors target TNF-α to effectively treat autoimmune inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, many cases of cutaneous and systemic vasculitis related to TNF-α inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Here, the authors report the first case of a 61-year-old Japanese woman who developed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with cutaneous perivascular hemophagocytosis, which was related to elevated cytokines and immune complexes after initiating adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis without evidence of hemophagocytic syndrome and rarely encountered in the skin...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719375/compounded-levofloxacin-triple-therapy-is-safe-and-effective-for-refractory-helicobacter-pylori
#20
Xian-Jun Mah, Vikas Gupta, Srey Neth Loch, Golo Ahlenstiel, David van de Poorten
Failure of first line and subsequent Helicobacter pylori therapy is a significant problem, as alternate treatments are cumbersome and difficult to access. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a compounded levofloxacin triple therapy in clinical practice as a second or third-line salvage regimen for Helicobacter pylori. Patients referred after first or subsequent treatment failures were prescribed compounded levofloxacin 500 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, and esomeprazole 40 mg, all twice daily for 10 days...
July 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
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