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meningococcal review

Yaowen Zhang, Dong Wei, Xinzhen Guo, Mai Han, Lichao Yuan, Moe H Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia in children and young adults worldwide. The disease burden associated with N. meningitidis infections has not been systematically assessed in China. Therefore, we undertook this study to determine the burden of meningococcal disease in China. METHOD: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles on N. meningitidis incidence, carriage, seroprevalence and mortality rates in China by searching the Chinese BioMedical Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database and PubMed for publications from January 2005 to Aug 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
Yassar Alamri, Aaron Keene, Alan Pithie
Neisseria are usually harmless inhabitants of otherwise asymptomatic persons' upper respiratory mucosal surfaces. It is, therefore, expected that a disturbance in the physiology leads to non-gonococcal, non-meningococcal Neisseria becoming pathogenic. We report the case of a diabetic man who initially presented with non-specific symptoms and was later found to have cystitis caused by N. oralis. We also review the pertinent literature and discuss available evidence on pathophysiological mechanisms of infection with such commensal bacteria...
November 23, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Ray Borrow, Jin-Soo Lee, Julio A Vázquez, Godwin Enwere, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Hajime Kamiya, Hwang Min Kim, Dae Sun Jo
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region...
October 22, 2016: Vaccine
Karolina Akinosoglou, Angelos Alexopoulos, Nikolaos Koutsogiannis, Charalampos Gogos, Aleksandra Lekkou
Meningococcal meningitis is a well established potential fatal infection characterized by fever, headache, petechial rash, and vomiting in the majority of cases. However, protean manifestations including abdominal pain, sore throat, diarrhea and cough, even though rare, should not be overlooked. Similarly, although disseminated infection could potentially involve various organ-targets, secondary immune related complications including joints or pericardium should be dealt with caution, since they remain unresponsive to appropriate antibiotic regimens...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jun Hirai, Takeshi Kinjo, Takaaki Tome, Mao Hagihara, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideta Nakamura, Shusaku Haranaga, Hiroshige Mikamo, Jiro Fujita
Neisseria meningitidis often causes meningitis and meningococcemia; however, meningococcal pneumonia is quite rare. Herein, we report a case of non-invasive meningococcal pneumonia initially misdiagnosed as pneumonia due to Moraxella catarrhalis on the basis of a Gram stain in a 43-year-old woman with asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and schizophrenia. She visited our hospital following a 3-day history of fever, productive cough, and shortness of breath. Since her sputum smear revealed Gram-negative diplococcus and the chest radiograph showed infiltration in the lower right lung field, her initial diagnosis was pneumonia caused by M...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Cilian Ó Maoldomhnaigh, Richard J Drew, Patrick Gavin, Mary Cafferkey, Karina M Butler
BACKGROUND: In 1999, invasive meningococcal disease was hyperendemic in Ireland at 14.75/100 000 population, with 60% group B and 30% group C diseases. National sepsis guidelines and meningococcal C vaccines were introduced in 2000. Despite a spontaneous decline in group B infection, invasive meningococcal disease remains a leading cause of sepsis. This study characterises the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland since the introduction of meningococcal C vaccine and reviews its clinical presentation, hospital course and outcome in anticipation of meningococcal B vaccine introduction...
August 26, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Merijn W Bijlsma, Matthijs C Brouwer, Patrick M Bossuyt, Martijn W Heymans, Arie van der Ende, Michael W T Tanck, Diederik van de Beek
OBJECTIVES: To perform an external validation study of risk scores, identified through a systematic review, predicting outcome in community-acquired bacterial meningitis. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1960 and August 2014. Performance was evaluated in 2108 episodes of adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis from two nationwide prospective cohort studies by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the calibration curve, calibration slope or Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the distribution of calculated risks...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Infection
Alexander Simonis, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
The Gram-negative extracellular bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common aetiological agents of bacterial meningitis affecting predominantly young children worldwide. This bacterium is normally a quiescent coloniser of the upper respiratory tract, but in some individuals it enters the blood stream and causes invasive diseases, such as septicaemia and meningitis. Interactions of N. meningitidis with human endothelial cells are crucially involved in pathogencitiy, and great efforts have been made to understand these molecular interactions...
November 2016: FEBS Letters
Wiebke Hellenbrand, Heike Claus, Susanne Schink, Ulrich Marcus, Ole Wichmann, Ulrich Vogel
BACKGROUND: We undertook investigations in response to an invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) outbreak in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Berlin 2012-2013 to better understand meningococcal transmission and IMD risk in MSM. METHODS: We retrospectively searched for further IMD cases in MSM in Germany through local health departments and undertook exploratory interviews. We performed antigen sequence typing, characterized fHbp and aniA genes of strains with the outbreak finetype and reviewed epidemiologically or spatiotemporally linked cases from 2002-2014...
2016: PloS One
Ashesh Gandhi, Paul Balmer, Laura J York
Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, often leading to permanent sequelae or death. N. meningitidis is classified into serogroups based on the composition of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide; the 6 major disease-causing serogroups are designated A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Four of the 6 disease-causing serogroups (A, C, Y, and W) can be effectively prevented with available quadrivalent capsular polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines; however, capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are not effective against meningococcal serogroup B (MnB)...
August 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Justin Baroy, Danny Chung, Ryan Frisch, David Apgar, Marion K Slack
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact that pharmacist immunization programs have on immunization rates. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Ovid/Medline, and Google Scholar were searched. References were checked and citation searches using identified studies conducted. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis if the study compared pharmacist as immunizer versus usual care. Any study design that involved a comparison group was acceptable...
July 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Matthias Vossen, Dieter Mitteregger, Christoph Steininger
Neisseria meningitidis remains the most important cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide, particularly in children and young adults. The second most common and a potentially severe end-organ manifestation of invasive meningococcal disease (excluding systemic sepsis) is meningococcal pneumonia. It occurs in between 5% and 15% of all patients with invasive meningococcal disease and is thus the second most common non-systemic end-organ manifestation. To establish the diagnosis requires a high level of clinical awareness - the incidence is therefore very likely underreported and underestimated...
August 17, 2016: Vaccine
Allen O Applegate, Vanessa C Fong, Kara Tardivel, Susan A Lippold, Sheilah Zarate
On June 2, 2015, CDC was notified that a male airline passenger, aged 41 years, with a fever of 105.4°F, headache, nausea, photophobia, diarrhea, and vomiting, which began approximately 3 hours after departure, was arriving to San Francisco, California, on a flight from Frankfurt, Germany. His symptoms reportedly started with neck stiffness 1 day earlier. Upon arrival, the patient was immediately transported to a local hospital, where he was in septic shock, which was followed by multisystem organ failure...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Merryn Voysey, Manish Sadarangani, Elizabeth Clutterbuck, Barbara Bolgiano, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccine, induce immunological memory and longer lasting protection than plain polysaccharide vaccines. The most common proteins used as carriers are tetanus toxoid (TT) and cross reacting material-197 (CRM), a mutant form of diphtheria toxoid. CRM conjugate vaccines have been reported to suppress antibody responses to co-administered Hib-TT vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in which infants were randomised to receive meningococcal or pneumococcal conjugate vaccines along with Hib-TT...
July 25, 2016: Vaccine
Bruce Atkinson, Ashesh Gandhi, Paul Balmer
Invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis presents a significant public health concern. Meningococcal disease is rare but potentially fatal within 24 hours of onset of illness, and survivors may experience permanent sequelae. This review presents the epidemiology, incidence, and outbreak data for invasive meningococcal disease in the United States since 1970, and it highlights recent changes in vaccine recommendations to prevent meningococcal disease. Relevant publications were obtained by database searches for articles published between January 1970 and July 2015...
August 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Esther Benamu, José G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eculizumab inhibits complement effector functions and has significantly impacted the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. However, the risks of potentially life-threatening infections, notably with Neisseria spp. in addition to its cost, are major challenges in clinical practice. In this review, we characterize and summarize the infectious complications reported with the use of eculizumab in the context of its typical and expanding indications...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Elena Gianchecchi, Alessandro Torelli, Giulia Piccini, Simona Piccirella, Emanuele Montomoli
N. meningitidis infections represent a global health problem that can lead to the development of serious permanent sequelae. Although the use of antibiotics and prevention via vaccination have reduced the incidence of meningococcal disease, our understanding regarding N. meningitidis pathogenesis is still limited, especially of those mechanisms responsible for IMD and fulminant or deadly septic shock. These severe clinical presentations occur in a limited number of subjects, whereas about 10% of healthy individuals are estimated to carry the bacteria as a commensal...
2016: Vaccines
A Salmon-Rousseau, E Piednoir, V Cattoir, A de La Blanchardière
BACKGROUND: The Hajj is the largest annual mass gathering event in the world, thus favoring the transmission of various infections: 183 different nationalities, high temperatures, coincidence with the start of the flu season in the Northern hemisphere, a long barefoot walk, tent-type accommodation, communal toilet facilities, absence of food control, and sharing of razors. Infections are the first cause of hospital admission, which often occurs in the home country of pilgrims. METHODS: Literature review on PubMed from 1952 to November 2015 on the epidemiology and prevention of infections contracted during the Hajj, using the keywords "Hajj" and "infections"...
October 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Pauline Gras, Anne-Charlotte Bailly, Marion Lagrée, Benoit Dervaux, Alain Martinot, François Dubos
Vaccine-preventable diseases still occur although measured coverage rates at 2 y of age are high. The occurrence of these diseases may be explained in part by untimely, that is, late vaccination. Our objective was to identify potentially dangerous vaccination delays for each dose of each vaccine in children younger than 2 y. A 3-round Delphi process was conducted by e-mail. We recruited 37 French experts in vaccines for children: 16 from the Infovac-France group and 21 from the French study group for pediatric infectious diseases...
August 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Giulia Piccini, Alessandro Torelli, Elena Gianchecchi, Simona Piccirella, Emanuele Montomoli
Neisseria meningitidis infections represent a serious health problem that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), a life-threatening condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. IMD could however be preventable via vaccination. During the past five decades, vaccines against N. meningitidis capsular groups A, C, W and Y were introduced into the market. Recently, group B vaccines based on N. meningitidis recombinant antigens and outer membrane vescicles have been developed and novel vaccine candidates are under evaluation in order to broaden the protection...
May 9, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
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