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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#1
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352722/daily-intake-of-mucuna-pruriens-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-a-16-week-noninferiority-randomized-crossover-pilot-study
#2
Roberto Cilia, Janeth Laguna, Erica Cassani, Emanuele Cereda, Benedetta Raspini, Michela Barichella, Gianni Pezzoli
BACKGROUND: Thousands of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) in low-income countries have limited access to marketed levodopa preparations. Mucuna pruriens (MP), a levodopa-containing leguminous plant growing in tropical areas, may be a sustainable alternative therapy for indigent patients. Single-dose intake of MP proved noninferior to marketed levodopa preparations. METHODS: Fourteen PD patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias received MP powder (obtained from roasted seeds) and marketed levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) in a randomized order and crossover design over a 16-week period...
January 11, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352711/gold-cleaning-methods-for-preparation-of-cell-culture-surfaces-for-self-assembled-monolayers-of-zwitterionic-oligopeptides
#3
Junko Enomoto, Tatsuto Kageyama, Dina Myasnikova, Kisaki Onishi, Yuka Kobayashi, Yoko Taruno, Takahiro Kanai, Junji Fukuda
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352707/prenatal-exposure-to-lead-in-france-cord-blood-levels-and-associated-factors-results-from-the-perinatal-component-of-the-french-longitudinal-study-since-childhood-elfe
#4
Abdessattar Saoudi, Clémentine Dereumeaux, Sarah Goria, Bénédicte Berat, Serge Brunel, Marie Pecheux, Perrine de Crouy-Chanel, Abdelkrim Zeghnoun, Loïc Rambaud, Vérène Wagner, Alain le Tertre, Clémence Fillol, Stéphanie Vandentorren, Laurence Guldner
BACKGROUND: As a result of the ban on lead in gasoline on 2nd January 2000, the French population's exposure to lead has decreased in recent years. However, because of the acknowledged harmful cognitive effects of lead even at low levels, lead exposure remains a major public health issue. In France, few biomonitoring data are available for exposure to lead in pregnant women and newborn. The purpose of the perinatal component of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program was to describe levels of various biomarkers of exposure to several environmental pollutants, including lead, among mother-baby pairs...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#5
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352704/treatment-of-adult-chronic-indeterminate-chagas-disease-with-benznidazole-and-three-e1224-dosing-regimens-a-proof-of-concept-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352679/inter-sexual-habitat-and-isotopic-niche-segregation-of-the-endangered-monteiro-s-storm-petrel-during-breeding
#7
V H Paiva, J A Ramos, C Nava, V Neves, J Bried, M Magalhães
At-sea distribution and trophic ecology of small seabird species (i.e.<100 g) is far less known when compared to their larger relatives. We studied the habitat use (spatial ecology) and isotopic niches (trophic ecology) of the endangered Monteiro's storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi during the incubation and chick-rearing periods of 2013. There was a sexual foraging segregation of Monteiro's storm-petrels during the breeding period (tracking data) but also during the non-breeding stage (stable isotope analysis)...
December 30, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352666/handling-processing-and-disposal-of-stem-cell-products-in-europe-a-survey-by-the-cellular-therapy-and-immunobiology-working-party-of-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation
#8
Andreas Holbro, Helen Baldomero, Francesco Lanza, Christian Chabannon, John A Snowden, Andreas Buser, Laura Infanti, Nina Worel, Anna Sureda, Manuela Badoglio, Jakob Passweg, Chiara Bonini
BACKGROUND: There is considerable heterogeneity in processing of stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation across Europe. The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT)-Joint Accreditation Committee International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) (JACIE) standards provide minimum guidelines that, however, leave room for significant variations in practices at the individual transplantation center (TC)...
January 15, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352638/the-evaluation-of-the-hydrophilic-hydrophobic-interactions-and-their-effect-in-water-methanol-solutions-a-study-in-terms-of-the-thermodynamic-state-functions-in-the-frame-of-the-transition-state-theory
#9
Francesco Mallamace, Carmelo Corsaro, Sveva Longo, Sow-Hsin Chen, Domenico Mallamace
Aqueous solutions of amphiphilic molecules are characterized by the competition between hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions have a different energetic dependence with the temperature. Whereas hydrophilic interactions have been well characterized, a complete theory for the hydrophobic ones is still lacking as well as the comprehension of the effect that the solvent exerts on the solute and vice versa. In this paper from the measured relaxation time, we evaluated the thermodynamic state functions of water-methanol solutions in the frame of the transition state theory...
January 11, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352503/in-vivo-effects-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonist-peptidomimetics-following-acute-and-repeated-administration
#10
Jessica P Anand, Kelsey E Kochan, Anthony F Nastase, Deanna Montgomery, Nicholas W Griggs, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg, Emily M Jutkiewicz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mu opioid receptor (μ-receptor) agonists are used for pain management, but produce adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, and euphoria. The co-administration of a μ-receptor agonist with a delta opioid receptor (δ-receptor) antagonist has been shown to produce antinociception with reduced development of some side effects. We characterized the effects of three μ-receptor agonist/δ-receptor antagonist peptidomimetics in vivo after acute and repeated administration to determine if this profile provides a viable alternative to traditional opioid analgesics...
January 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352475/characteristics-of-proanthocyanidins-in-leaves-of-chamaecyparis-obtusa-var-formosana-as-strong-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors
#11
Chia-Yun Hsu, Gong-Min Lin, Huan-You Lin, Shang-Tzen Chang
BACKGROUND: In recent decades there has been a growing demand for natural products with a view to using them as α-glucosidase inhibitors for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. The hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder (Cupressaceae) (HWE) leaves and its soluble fractions were screened for α-glucosidase inhibition properties. The n-butanol soluble fraction of HWE was further fractionated into fourteen subfractions (B1-B14) using a Sephadex LH-20 column...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352470/a-laser-optical-method-for-predicting-adulteration-of-clover-honey-bee
#12
A E El-Raie, H E Hassan, A A Abd El-Rahman, R A Shaimaa
The authenticity of honey is great importance for commercial and health reasons. Adulteration of honey bee with cheaper sweetening materials has been used. The objectives of this study were: 1) To evaluate the quality of honey bee according to physicochemical characteristics, 2) To estimate the transmission property of prediction of honey using visible laser technique, and 3) Possibility of adulteration of honey bee according to high transmission intensity of laser beam through Clover honey bee. Helium-neon (He-Ne) laser in the visible light with wavelengths 632...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352397/bio-prospectus-of-cadmium-bioadsorption-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-mitigate-health-and-environmental-impacts
#13
REVIEW
Narendra Kumar, Vandna Kumari, Chand Ram, Kiran Thakur, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352350/groundwater-quality-assessment-in-semi-arid-regions-using-integrated-approaches-the-case-of-grombalia-aquifer-ne-tunisia
#14
Siwar Kammoun, Rim Trabelsi, Viviana Re, Kamel Zouari, Jihed Henchiri
As many arid and semi-arid regions in the Mediterranean Basin, the Grombalia coastal aquifer (NE Tunisia) is affected by severe groundwater exploitation and contamination. Therefore, quality assessments are becoming increasingly important as the long-term protection of water resources is at stake. Multidisciplinary investigations, like the one presented in this paper, are particularly effective in identifying the different origins of mineralization within an aquifer and investigating the impact of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352294/seasonal-variation-in-environmental-dna-detection-in-sediment-and-water-samples
#15
Andrew S Buxton, Jim J Groombridge, Richard A Griffiths
The use of aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect the presence of species depends on the seasonal activity of the species in the sampled habitat. eDNA may persist in sediments for longer than it does in water, and analysing sediment could potentially extend the seasonal window for species assessment. Using the great crested newt as a model, we compare how detection probability changes across the seasons in eDNA samples collected from both pond water and pond sediments. Detection of both aquatic and sedimentary eDNA varied through the year, peaking in the summer (July), with its lowest point in the winter (January): in all seasons, detection probability of eDNA from water exceeded that from sediment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352279/girls-in-the-boat-sex-differences-in-rowing-performance-and-participation
#16
Kevin G Keenan, Jonathon W Senefeld, Sandra K Hunter
Men outperform women in many athletic endeavors due to physiological and anatomical differences (e.g. larger and faster muscle); however, the observed sex differences in elite athletic performance are typically larger than expected, and may reflect sex-related differences in opportunity or incentives. As collegiate rowing in the United States has been largely incentivized for women over the last 20 years, but not men, the purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in elite rowing performance over that timeframe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352267/differential-susceptibility-of-striatal-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons-to-caspase-6
#17
Anastasia Noël, Libin Zhou, Bénédicte Foveau, P Jesper Sjöström, Andréa C LeBlanc
Active cysteinyl protease Caspase-6 is associated with early Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. Higher entorhinal cortex and hippocampal Caspase-6 levels correlate with lower cognitive performance in aged humans. Caspase-6 induces axonal degeneration in human primary neuron cultures and causes inflammation and neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus, and age-dependent memory impairment. To assess whether Caspase-6 causes damage to another neuronal system, a transgenic knock-in mouse overexpressing a self-activated form of Caspase-6 five-fold in the striatum, the area affected in Huntington disease, and 2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352249/guided-cracking-of-electrodes-by-stretching-prism-patterned-membrane-electrode-assemblies-for-high-performance-fuel-cells
#18
Chi-Yeong Ahn, Segeun Jang, Yong-Hun Cho, Jiwoo Choi, Sungjun Kim, Sang Moon Kim, Yung-Eun Sung, Mansoo Choi
Guided cracks were successfully generated in an electrode using the concentrated surface stress of a prism-patterned Nafion membrane. An electrode with guided cracks was formed by stretching the catalyst-coated Nafion membrane. The morphological features of the stretched membrane electrode assembly (MEA) were investigated with respect to variation in the prism pattern dimension (prism pitches of 20 μm and 50 μm) and applied strain (S ≈ 0.5 and 1.0). The behaviour of water on the surface of the cracked electrode was examined using environmental scanning electron microscopy...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352229/expression-dynamics-of-mirnas-and-their-targets-in-seed-germination-conditions-reveals-mirna-ta-sirna-crosstalk-as-regulator-of-seed-germination
#19
Shabari Sarkar Das, Sandeep Yadav, Archita Singh, Vibhav Gautam, Ananda K Sarkar, Asis K Nandi, Prakash Karmakar, Manoj Majee, Neeti Sanan-Mishra
Seed germination paves the way for the dormant embryo to establish itself as a new plant marking the first critical step in postembryonic plant growth and development. Germination starts with the uptake of water (imbibition), followed by induction of transcription, translation, energy metabolism, and cell division processes. Although small RNAs have been implicated in many developmental processes, their role during seed germination stages and conditions remained elusive. Here we show that seed germination conditions, like imbibition and temperature, dynamically regulate the expression of many developmentally important miRNAs and their targets...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352203/advanced-modified-polyacrylonitrile-membrane-with-enhanced-adsorption-property-for-heavy-metal-ions
#20
Xinfeng Zhang, Shujing Yang, Bing Yu, Qinglong Tan, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hailin Cong
Advanced modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane with high adsorption property for heavy metal ions was designed and fabricated for the first time. The introduced diazoresin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (DR-EDTA) layer could effectively absorb the metal ion, such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ in the waste water. The effects of layers, metal ion concentration, pH, temperature and cycle time were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms for Cu2+ were well fitted by Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the modified membrane for Cu2+ was approximately 47...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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