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Agata Leszczuk, Monika Chylinska, Artur Zdunek
Background and Aims: Changes in the arrangement of cell wall components determine cell wall properties (integrity, stiffness), thereby affecting the macro-scale properties of fruits, which are important for consumers and industry. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous components of the plant cell, in which they have various functions. Currently, AGPs are considered to be one of the less well-known, enigmatic proteoglycans, a consequence of their heterogeneous structure and unclear mechanism of activity...
July 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Meng-Lun Hsieh, Deborah M Hinton, Christopher M Waters
The small molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is known to affect bacterial gene expression in myriad ways. In Vibrio cholerae in vivo, the presence of c-di-GMP together with the response regulator VpsR results in transcription from PvpsL, a promoter of biofilm biosynthesis genes. VpsR shares homology with enhancer binding proteins that activate σ54-RNA polymerase (RNAP), but it lacks conserved residues needed to bind to σ54-RNAP and to hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate, and PvpsL transcription does not require σ54 in vivo...
July 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yan Jin, Hangzhou Xu, Chunxia Ma, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li, Shasha Zhang, Haiyan Pei
Removing harmful cyanobacteria intact by coagulation can prevent cell lysis and toxin release, which provides many benefits for drinking water production, including reduction of the burden on subsequent processes and guaranteeing the water quality. But the electronegativity and buoyancy of cyanobacterial cells make them settle slowly and their accumulation and concentration in flocs would still have severe adverse effects. In this study, we introduced a photocatalyst powder to act as a ballasting agent in the coagulation process and to degrade the cells and cyanotoxins during sludge storage...
July 7, 2018: Water Research
Peter Desmond, Eberhard Morgenroth, Nicolas Derlon
Increasing transmembrane pressure (TMP) can compress and increase the hydraulic resistance of membrane biofilms. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate how compression of membrane biofilms occurs and how structural rearrangement can affect hydraulic resistance. Biofilms with heterogeneous and homogeneous physical structures were grown in membrane fouling simulators (MFS) in dead-end mode for 20 days with either (i) a nutrient enriched condition with a nutrient ratio of 100:30:10 (C: N: P), (ii) a phosphorus limitation (C: N: P ratio: 100:30:0), or (iii) river water (C: N: P ratio: ca...
July 4, 2018: Water Research
Zhiqiang Dong, Yuping Qiu, Wen Zhang, Zhenglong Yang, Li Wei
A series of one-dimensional column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport and retention of micron-sized plastic spheres (MPs) with diameters of 0.1-2.0 μm in seawater-saturated sand. In seawater with salinity of 35 PSU (practical salinity units), the mass percentages recovered from the effluent (Meff ) of the larger MPs increased from 13.6% to 41.3%, as MP size decreased from 2.0 μm to 0.8 μm. This occurred because of the gradual reduction of physical straining effect of MPs in the pores between sands...
July 4, 2018: Water Research
Hassan Anwer, Jae-Woo Park
Synergy between surface adsorption and photocatalysis is key for effective contaminant degradation in the liquid phase. Herein, we report a heterojunction photocatalyst of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 )/silver phosphate (Ag3 PO4 ) that incorporates this synergy for 4-nitrophenol (PNP) removal. Compared with other photocatalyst combinations, ZrO2 and Ag3 PO4 coupling generates reactive species with greater degradation potential. ZrO2 and rGO were synthesized by a green approach using a one-step hydrothermal reaction in ethanol-water...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Wenbing Tan, Hanxia Yu, Caihong Huang, Dan Li, Hui Zhang, Xinyu Zhao, Renfei Li, Guoan Wang, Yuan Zhang, Xiaosong He, Beidou Xi
Whether crop intercropping can affect the uptake of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by plant roots from soils is unclear. In this study, we compare the PAE uptake by plant roots between the wheat/maize intercropping and the wheat and maize monocropping in a field work. We show that the PAE bioconcentration factors of wheat and maize roots are remarkably higher under wheat/maize intercropping than under monocropping, indicating that intercropping may significantly increase the biouptake of PAEs as compared to monocropping...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Barbara Mueller, Stephan J Hug
As widely known, in several countries in South East Asia, arsenic concentrations in ground water extracted from Quaternary alluvial sediments frequently exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The broadly accepted hypothesis states that reductive dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals releases As-oxyanions contained within these minerals. According to the results presented in this article, As and Fe concentrations in ground water in the lowlands (Terai) of Nepal are highly variable as a function of location and there is a de-coupling of As and Fe concentrations resulting in a loss of correlation between these two elements...
July 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Thanaa Shalaby, Hesham Hamad, Ebtihag Ibrahim, Ola Mahmoud, Affaf Al-Oufy
Safety of drinking-water is an urgent for human health. It is critical to promote the cheap technologies for water purification to guarantee the free-pathogens-drinking water. The present study has been investigated the antibacterial activity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers membranes which decorated by Ag, CuO or ZnO nanoparticles as bactericides. The hybrid nanofiber composites were fabricated by electrospinning technique and the obtained membranes were characterized using SEM, EDX and FTIR. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated against E...
July 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jie-Tao Chen, Xiao-Min Guo, Ping Yang, Qing Mu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The discovery of new anticancer compounds is of great significance. GG-8-6, cyclo-(Val1 -Leu2 -Pro3 -Ile4 -Leu5 -Leu6 -Leu7 -Val8 -Leu9 ), a new synthetic cyclic peptide, might be a potential candidate for developing new anti-HCC drugs. GG-8-6 shares no structural homology to current anti-HCC drugs. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a quantitative method for the determination of GG-8-6 in vivo. Herein, a simple, specific and sensitive liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the analysis of GG-8-6 in rat plasma...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Bożena Króliczewska, Dorota Miśta, Małgorzata Korzeniowska, Ewa Pecka-Kiełb, Andrzej Zachwieja
Since animal diets have a strong influence on meat quality, a comparative study on farmed brown hares and domestic rabbits offered the same diet was undertaken to assess the physical and chemical properties of their meat. Ten brown hares and ten domestic rabbits were used to characterize the traits of meat from the foreleg, hind leg, and Longissimus lumborum muscles. The study indicated higher protein content in hare meat than in rabbit meat. The meat of hares had a concentration of heme iron that was more than twice as high as that of rabbits...
July 4, 2018: Meat Science
Jordy Berger, Yuan H Brad Kim, Jerrad F Legako, Silvana Martini, Jiwon Lee, Paul Ebner, Stacy M Scramlin Zuelly
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry-aging on meat quality and microbiological properties of grass-fed beef loins. At 7 d postmortem, eighteen bone-in loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from 9 beef carcasses (USDA Select) were obtained. Each loin was cut in half yielding a total of 36 sections, which were assigned to three aging methods: wet-aging (WA); dry-aging (DA); and dry-aging in a water permeable bag (DW). DA resulted in greater shrink and trim loss compared to WA (P < 0...
July 4, 2018: Meat Science
Kendra Hargis, Heather M Buechel, Jelena Popovic, Eric M Blalock
Aging is associated with altered sleep architecture and worsened hippocampus-dependent cognition, highly prevalent clinical conditions that detract from quality of life for the elderly. Interestingly, exposure to psychosocial stress causes similar responses in young subjects, suggesting that age itself may act as a stressor. In prior work, we demonstrated that young animals show loss of deep sleep, deficits in cognition, and elevated body temperature after acute stress exposure, whereas aged animals are hyporesponsive on these measures...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Michel A Defo, Louis Bernatchez, Peter G C Campbell, Patrice Couture
The objective of this study was to determine if temporal variations in tissue metal concentrations are related to biomarkers of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress responses in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). To this end, kidney metal (Cd, Cu and Zn) concentrations were measured in fish sampled in spring and fall 2012 in four lakes representing a wide range of water and sediment metal contamination in the Rouyn-Noranda (Quebec) region. Lakes Opasatica and Hélène were considered as reference lakes while lakes Dufault and Marlon were metal-contaminated...
June 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jia Xue, Kevin Caton, Samendra Sherchan
Naegleria fowleri in recreational waters is a serious health threat. A rapid and accurate method to determine this pathogen in water is vital to develop effective control strategies. In this study, we compared two molecular methods: droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in identifying N. fowleri from clinical and environmental samples. Strong agreement between ddPCR and qPCR methods over clinical DNA samples was observed. The limit of detection (LOD) for ddPCR and qPCR assays were 2...
July 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Kristian Kjær Petersen, Carsten Dahl Mørch, Yosuke Imai, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Background and aims Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is a well-established phenomenon and several protocols have shown acceptable between-subject reliability [based on intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values] in pain-free controls. Recently, it was recommended that future CPM test-retest reliability studies should explicitly report CPM reliability based on CPM responders and non-responders (within-subject reliability) based on measurement error of the test stimulus. Identification of reliable CPM paradigms based on responders and non-responders may be a step towards using CPM as a mechanistic marker in diagnosis and individualized pain management regimes...
July 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Sada Nand Pandey, Naseer Iqbal, Prashant K Singh, Nilisha Rastogi, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, Tej P Singh
Ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) catalyzes the cleavage of glycosidic bond formed between adenine and ribose sugar of ribosomal RNA to inactivate ribosomes. Previous structural studies have shown that RNA bases, adenine, guanine and cytosine tend to bind to RIP in the substrate binding site. However, the mode of binding of uracil with RIP was not yet known. Here, we report crystal structures of two complexes of type 1 RIP from Momordica balsamina (MbRIP1) with base, uracil and nucleoside, uridine. The binding studies of MbRIP1 with uracil and uridine as estimated using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD ) were 1...
July 14, 2018: Proteins
Mahendra P Verma, Robert van Geldern, Johannes A C Barth, Gael Monvoisin, Karyne Rogers, Fausto Grassa, Daniel Carrizo, Antonio Delgado Huertas, Thomas Kretzschmar, Ruth Esther Villanueva Estrada, José Marcus Godoy, Roslanzairi Mostapa, Hugo Alberto Durán Cortés
RATIONALE: Knowledge of the accuracy and precision for oxygen (δ18 O values) and hydrogen (δ2 H values) stable isotope analyses of geothermal fluid samples is important to understand geothermal reservoir processes, such as partial boiling-condensation and encroachment of cold and reinjected waters. The challenging aspects of the analytical techniques for this specific matrix include memory effects and higher scatter of delta values with increasing total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations, deterioration of Pt-catalysts by dissolved/gaseous H2 S for hydrogen isotope equilibration measurements and isotope salt effects that offsets isotope ratios determined by gas equilibration techniques METHODS: An inter-laboratory comparison exercise for the determination of the δ18 O and δ2 H values of nine geothermal fluid samples was conducted among eleven laboratories from eight countries (CeMIEGeo2017)...
July 14, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Weiyang Tang, Kyung Ho Row
A hydrophobic ionic liquid modified thermo-responsive molecularly imprinted monolith was synthesized using N-isopropylacrylamide as a thermo-responsive monomer and a long-chain hydrophobic ionic liquid as an auxiliary modification monomer. The ionic-liquid-modified thermo-responsive molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. When the column temperature was 50°C, the synthesized monolithic column was successfully applied to the selective separation of homologue tanshinones within 7 min and eluted only by water (mobile phase) (theoretical plates more than 1...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Karsten Karczewski, Patricia Göbel, Elisabeth I Meyer
Modern agricultural practices have undeniably increased global food production. On the other hand, agricultural practices not only lead to a degradation of natural ecosystems but also affect the functioning of ecosystems and the related services they provide. Even though impacts of anthropogenic activities vary across ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems are among those affected to a higher degree. In comparison to surface water ecosystems, groundwater ecosystems are less affected by anthropogenic pollutants, as the overlaying soil retains organic and inorganic substances...
July 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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