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regenerative medicine with stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548249/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-reactivation-in-xenopus-models-of-retinal-degeneration
#1
Rahul Langhe, Albert Chesneau, Gabriele Colozza, Magdalena Hidalgo, Divya Ail, Morgane Locker, Muriel Perron
A striking aspect of tissue regeneration is its uneven distribution among different animal classes, both in terms of modalities and efficiency. The retina does not escape the rule, exhibiting extraordinary self-repair properties in anamniote species but extremely limited ones in mammals. Among cellular sources prone to contribute to retinal regeneration are Müller glial cells, which in teleosts have been known for a decade to re-acquire a stem/progenitor state and regenerate retinal neurons following injury...
May 26, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545927/stem-cells-to-restore-insulin-production-and-cure-diabetes
#2
V Sordi, S Pellegrini, M Krampera, P Marchetti, A Pessina, G Ciardelli, G Fadini, C Pintus, G Pantè, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge in the field of regenerative medicine is increasing the therapeutic expectations of patients and clinicians on cell therapy approaches. Within these, stem cell therapies are often evoked as a possible therapeutic option for diabetes, already ongoing or possible in the near future. AIM: The purpose of this document is to make a point of the situation on existing knowledge and therapies with stem cells to treat patients with diabetes by focusing on some of the aspects that most frequently raise curiosity and discussion in clinical practice and in the interaction with the patient...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#3
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536871/impact-of-early-subcultures-on-stemness-migration-and-angiogenic-potential-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-and-their-resistance-to-in-vitro-ischemic-condition
#4
Hossein Faghih, Arash Javeri, Masoumeh Fakhr Taha
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are capable of multipotential differentiation and express several angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory markers. These features make adipose tissue as a promising source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. However, for efficient translational use, culture-induced changes in the gene expression profile and resistance of the ADSCs to ischemic environment should be taken into consideration. We compared the expression of some clinically important markers between the unpassaged and third-passaged ADSCs by RT-PCR, qPCR and flow cytometry...
May 23, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536700/fabrication-and-evaluation-of-electrospun-3d-bioplotted-and-combination-of-electrospun-3d-bioplotted-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#5
Liliana F Mellor, Pedro Huebner, Shaobo Cai, Mahsa Mohiti-Asli, Michael A Taylor, Jeffrey Spang, Rohan A Shirwaiker, Elizabeth G Loboa
Electrospun scaffolds provide a dense framework of nanofibers with pore sizes and fiber diameters that closely resemble the architecture of native extracellular matrix. However, it generates limited three-dimensional structures of relevant physiological thicknesses. 3D printing allows digitally controlled fabrication of three-dimensional single/multimaterial constructs with precisely ordered fiber and pore architecture in a single build. However, this approach generally lacks the ability to achieve submicron resolution features to mimic native tissue...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534946/differentiation-of-nestin%C3%A2-negative-human-hair-follicle-outer-root-sheath-cells-into-neurons-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Wei Wu, Xiao-Li Wu, Yu-Qing Ji, Zhen Gao
A specialized quiescent population of hair follicle stem cells, residing in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells (ORSCs), has previously demonstrated pluripotency for differentiation into neural stem cells (NSCs). A previous study indicated that nestin‑positive hair follicle ORSCs are able to differentiate into neurons. However, little has been reported on the isolation of nestin‑negative human ORSCs and whether they can successfully differentiate into neurons in vitro. In the present study, nestin‑positive ORSCs were significantly reduced with a prolonged incubation time in vitro...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#7
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534085/atp-induced-ca-2-signalling-mechanisms-in-the-regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration
#8
REVIEW
Lin-Hua Jiang, Fatema Mousawi, Xuebin Yang, Sėbastien Roger
The ability of cells to migrate to the destined tissues or lesions is crucial for physiological processes from tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and immune responses, and also for stem cell-based regenerative medicines. Cytosolic Ca(2+) is a primary second messenger in the control and regulation of a wide range of cell functions including cell migration. Extracellular ATP, together with the cognate receptors on the cell surface, ligand-gated ion channel P2X receptors and a subset of G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors, represents common autocrine and/or paracrine Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532113/nanofibers-of-human-tropoelastin-inspired-peptides-structural-characterization-and-biological-properties
#9
Valeria Secchi, Stefano Franchi, Marco Fioramonti, Giovanni Polzonetti, Giovanna Iucci, Brigida Bochicchio, Chiara Battocchio
Regenerative medicine is taking great advantage from the use of biomaterials in the treatments of a wide range of diseases and injuries. Among other biomaterials, self-assembling peptides are appealing systems due to their ability to spontaneously form nanostructured hydrogels that can be directly injected into lesions. Indeed, self-assembling peptide scaffolds are expected to behave as biomimetic matrices able to surround cells, to promote specific interactions, and to control and modify cell behavior by mimicking the native environment as well...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529644/3-3-diindolylmethane-stimulates-exosomal-wnt11-autocrine-signaling-in-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-enhance-wound-healing
#10
Hui Shi, Xiao Xu, Bin Zhang, Jiahao Xu, Zhaoji Pan, Aihua Gong, Xu Zhang, Rong Li, Yaoxiang Sun, Yongmin Yan, Fei Mao, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) are suggested as a promising therapeutic tool in regenerative medicine, however, their efficacy requires improvement. Small molecules and drugs come up to be a convenient strategy in regulating stem cells fate and function. Here, we evaluated 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural small-molecule compound involved in the repairing effects of hucMSCs on a deep second-degree burn injury rat model. HucMSCs primed with 50 μM of DIM exhibited desirable repairing effects compared with untreated hucMSCs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529265/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-identifies-reprogramming-and-differentiation-genes-differentially-expressed-in-uipscs-and-escs
#11
Liang Shi, Yazhou Cui, Xiaoyan Zhou, Jing Luan, Linli Wang, Jinxiang Han
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) technology has garnered worldwide attention for its therapeutic applications in vivo. Researchers have previously shown that non-viral induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from urine. As a potential alternative, Urinary iPSCs (UiPSCs) are highly similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in many aspects such as morphology, expression of pluripotency markers and the capacity to develop into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. However, the degree of gene expression similarity between iPSCs and ESCs has not been completely elucidated...
May 20, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529132/efficient-selective-removal-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-ecto-alkaline-phosphatase-mediated-aggregation-of-synthetic-peptides
#12
Yi Kuang, Kenji Miki, Callum J C Parr, Karin Hayashi, Ikue Takei, Jie Li, Mio Iwasaki, Masato Nakagawa, Yoshinori Yoshida, Hirohide Saito
The incomplete differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) poses a serious safety risk owing to their potential tumorigenicity, hindering their clinical application. Here, we explored the potential of phospho-D-peptides as novel iPSC-eliminating agents. Alkaline phosphatases overexpressed on iPSCs dephosphorylate phospho-D-peptides into hydrophobic peptides that aggregate and induce cell death. We isolated a peptide candidate, D-3, that selectively and rapidly induced toxicity in iPSCs within 1 hr but had little influence on various non-iPSCs, including primary hepatocytes and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes...
May 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527889/enhanced-cardiomyogenic-induction-of-mouse-pluripotent-cells-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#13
Akankshya Shradhanjali, Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim
The cardiac milieu is mechanically active with spontaneous contraction beginning from early development and persistent through maturation and homeostasis, suggesting that mechanical loading may provide biomimetic myocardial developmental signal. In this study, we tested the role of cyclic mechanical stretch loading in the cardiomyogenesis of pluripotent murine embryonic (P19) stem cells. A Flexcell tension system was utilized to apply equiaxial stretch (12% strain, 1.25 Hz frequency) to P19 cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs)...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526089/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-liposuction-and-resected-fat-are-feasible-sources-for-regenerative-medicine
#15
Sandra Schneider, Marina Unger, Martijn van Griensven, Elizabeth R Balmayor
BACKGROUND: The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in research and in regenerative medicine has progressed. Bone marrow as a source has drawbacks because of subsequent morbidities. An easily accessible and valuable source is adipose tissue. This type of tissue contains a high number of MSCs, and obtaining higher quantities of tissue is more feasible. Fat tissue can be harvested using different methods such as liposuction and resection. First, a detailed isolation protocol with complete characterization is described...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523560/stem-cell-technology-for-epi-genetic-brain-disorders
#16
Renzo J M Riemens, Edilene S Soares, Manel Esteller, Raul Delgado-Morales
Despite the enormous efforts of the scientific community over the years, effective therapeutics for many (epi)genetic brain disorders remain unidentified. The common and persistent failures to translate preclinical findings into clinical success are partially attributed to the limited efficiency of current disease models. Although animal and cellular models have substantially improved our knowledge of the pathological processes involved in these disorders, human brain research has generally been hampered by a lack of satisfactory humanized model systems...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520465/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-regenerative-medicine-past-present-and-future
#17
Ourania Trohatou, Maria G Roubelakis
The concept of Regenerative Medicine combined with Cell based Therapy and Tissue Engineering represents the fourth pillar of healthcare and provides a promising approach for the treatment of serious diseases. Recently, cell based therapies are focused on the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Human MSCs, that represent a mesoderm derived population of progenitors, are easily expanded in culture. They are capable to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes and exhibit the potential to repair or regenerate damaged tissues...
May 18, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518082/maturation-of-human-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-in-biowires-using-electrical-stimulation
#18
Xuetao Sun, Sara S Nunes
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) have been a promising cell source and have thus encouraged the investigation of their potential applications in cardiac research, including drug discovery, disease modeling, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. However, cells produced by existing protocols display a range of immaturity compared with native adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. Many efforts have been made to mature hPSC-CMs, with only moderate maturation attained thus far. Therefore, an engineered system, called biowire, has been devised by providing both physical and electrical cues to lead hPSC-CMs to a more mature state in vitro...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513656/restoring-the-biophysical-properties-of-decellularized-patches-through-recellularization
#19
Gigi Chi Ting Au-Yeung, Udi Sarig, Hadar Sarig, Hanumakumar Bogireddi, Tomer Bronshtein, Limor Baruch, Avihai Spizzichino, Jacob Bortman, Boey Yin Chiang Freddy, Marcelle Machluf, Subbu S Venkatraman
Various extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds, isolated through decellularization, were suggested as ideal biomimetic materials for 'Functional tissue engineering' (FTE). The decellularization process comprises a compromise between damaging and preserving the ultrastructure and composition of ECM-previously shown to affect cell survival, proliferation, migration, organization, differentiation and maturation. Inversely, the effects of cells on the ECM constructs' biophysical properties, under physiological-like conditions, remain still largely unknown...
May 17, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513544/morphogenetically-active-barrier-membrane-for-guided-bone-regeneration-based-on-amorphous-polyphosphate
#20
Xiaohong Wang, Maximilian Ackermann, Meik Neufurth, Shunfeng Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
We describe a novel regeneratively-active barrier membrane which consists of a durable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) net covered with a morphogenetically-active biohybrid material composed of collagen and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). The patch-like fibrous collagen structures are decorated with small amorphous polyP nanoparticles (50 nm) formed by precipitation of this energy-rich and enzyme-degradable (alkaline phosphatase) polymer in the presence of calcium ions. The fabricated PCL-polyP/collagen hybrid mats are characterized by advantageous biomechanical properties, such as enhanced flexibility and stretchability with almost unaltered tensile strength of the PCL net...
May 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
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