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regenerative medicine with stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096221/efficient-crispr-cas9-assisted-gene-targeting-enables-rapid-and-precise-genetic-manipulation-of-mammalian-neural-stem-cells
#1
Raul Bardini Bressan, Pooran Singh Dewari, Maria Kalantzaki, Ester Gangoso, Mantas Matjusaitis, Claudia Garcia-Diaz, Carla Blin, Vivien Grant, Harry Bulstrode, Sabine Gogolok, William C Skarnes, Steven M Pollard
Mammalian neural stem (NS) cell lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NS cells are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable - experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting - so critical for functional studies of embryonic stem cells - has not been exploited to date in NS cells...
January 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095687/patterned-poly-dopamine-films-for-enhanced-cell-adhesion
#2
Xi Chen, Christina Cortez-Jugo, Gwan H Choi, Mattias Björnmalm, Yunlu Dai, Pil J Yoo, Frank Caruso
Engineered materials that promote cell adhesion and cell growth are important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we produced poly(dopamine) (PDA) films with engineered patterns for improved cell adhesion. The patterned films were synthesized via the polymerization of dopamine at the air-water interface of a floating bed of spherical particles. Subsequent dissolution of the particles yielded free-standing PDA films with tunable geometrical patterns. Our results show that these patterned PDA films significantly enhance the adhesion of both cancer cells and stem cells, thus showing promise as substrates for cell attachment for various biomedical applications...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095177/integrated-colony-imaging-analysis-and-selection-device-for-regenerative-medicine
#3
Edward Kwee, Edward E Herderick, Thomas Adams, James Dunn, Robert Germanowski, Frank Krakosh, Cynthia Boehm, James Monnich, Kimerly Powell, George Muschler
Stem and progenitor cells derived from human tissues are being developed as cell sources for cell-based assays and therapies. However, tissue-derived stem and progenitor cells are heterogeneous. Differences in observed clones of stem cells likely reflect important aspects of the underlying state of the source cells, as well as future potency for cell therapies. This paper describes a colony analysis and picking device that provides quantitative analysis of heterogeneous cell populations and precise tools for cell picking for research or biomanufacturing applications...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094826/response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#4
REVIEW
T Faltus, U Storz
The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090751/a-safety-checkpoint-to-eliminate-cancer-risk-of-the-immune-evasive-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Jingjin He, Zhili Rong, Xuemei Fu, Yang Xu
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great promise in the regenerative therapy of many currently untreatable human diseases. One of the key bottlenecks is the immune rejection of hESC-derived allografts by the recipient. To overcome this challenge, we have established new approaches to induce immune protection of hESC-derived allografts through the co-expression of immune suppressive molecules CTLA4-Ig and PD-L1. However, this in turn raises a safety concern of cancer risk because these hESC-derived cells can evade immune surveillance...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#7
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087486/enhanced-articular-cartilage-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-enzymatically-mediated-transiently-rgds-functionalized-collagen-mimetic-hydrogels
#8
Paresh A Parmar, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Lesley W Chow, Christopher D Spicer, Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Jerome A Werkmeister, John A M Ramshaw, Molly M Stevens
: Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081156/generation-of-a-stable-transgenic-swine-model-expressing-a-porcine-histone-2b-egfp-fusion-protein-for-cell-tracking-and-chromosome-dynamics-studies
#9
Renan B Sper, Sehwon Koh, Xia Zhang, Sean Simpson, Bruce Collins, Jeff Sommer, Robert M Petters, Ignacio Caballero, Jeff L Platt, Jorge A Piedrahita
Transgenic pigs have become an attractive research model in the field of translational research, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapy due to their anatomic, genetic and physiological similarities with humans. The development of fluorescent proteins as molecular tags has allowed investigators to track cell migration and engraftment levels after transplantation. Here we describe the development of two transgenic pig models via SCNT expressing a fusion protein composed of eGFP and porcine Histone 2B (pH2B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075405/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-in-the-biological-activities-of-metallic-nanoparticles
#10
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Mohammed Kawser Hossain, Soo Bin Lee, Kyeongseok Kim, Subbroto Kumar Saha, Gwang-Mo Yang, Hye Yeon Choi, Ssang-Goo Cho
Nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them appropriate for various applications. The structural alteration of metallic NPs leads to different biological functions, specifically resulting in different potentials for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS produced by metallic NPs correlates with particle size, shape, surface area, and chemistry. ROS possess multiple functions in cellular biology, with ROS generation a key factor in metallic NP-induced toxicity, as well as modulation of cellular signaling involved in cell death, proliferation, and differentiation...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068081/peptide-decorated-nanofibrous-niche-augments-in-vitro-directed-osteogenic-conversion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Yi Deng, Yuanyi Yang, Shicheng Wei
Realization of clinical potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in bone regenerative medicine requires development of simple and safe biomaterials for expansion of hPSCs followed by directing their lineage commitment to osteoblasts. In the present study, a chemically defined peptide-decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous microenvironment was prepared through electrospinning technology and subsequent conjugation with vitronectin peptide to promote the culture and osteogenic potential of hPSCs in vitro...
January 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067107/physical-properties-and-biological-interactions-of-liposomes-developed-as-a-drug-carrier-in-the-field-of-regenerative-medicine
#13
Sławomir Lewicki, Monika Leśniak, Eugeniusz Krzysztof Machaj, Małgorzata Antos-Bielska, Elżbieta Anna Trafny, Janusz Kocik, Zygmunt Pojda
Liposomes are used for encapsulation of the active compounds in different therapies, with the increasing frequency. The important areas of clinical applications of liposomes are cancer targeted treatment, antibiotic delivery or regenerative medicine. The liposomes can transfer both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds and have the lipid bilayer which imitates the cell membrane. Liposomes additionally may extend half-live period of drugs and protect them against the elimination in different ways, such as phagocytosis, enzymatic cleavage or exclusion by detoxification...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063600/rna-in-situ-hybridization-characterization-of-non-enzymatic-derived-bovine-intervertebral-disc-cell-lineages-suggests-progenitor-cell-potential
#14
Petra Kraus, Rachel Yerden, Victoria Kocsis, Thomas Lufkin
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a meritorious target for therapeutic cell based regenerative medicine approaches, however, controversy over what defines the precise identity of mature IVD cells and lack of single cell based quality control measures is of concern. Bos taurus and human IVDs are histologically more similar than is Mus musculus. The mature bovine IVD is well suited as model system for technology development to be translated into therapeutic cell based regenerative medicine applications...
January 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063225/purification-of-small-molecule-induced-cardiomyocytes-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-reporter-system
#15
Geun Hye Hwang, So Mi Park, Ho Jae Han, Joong Sun Kim, Seung Pil Yun, Jung Min Ryu, Ho Jin Lee, Woochul Chang, Su-Jin Lee, Jeong-Hee Choi, Jin-Sung Choi, Min Young Lee
In order to realize the practical use of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes for the purpose of clinical use or cardiovascular research, the generation of large numbers of highly purified cardiomyocytes should be achieved. Here, we show an efficient method for cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in chemically defined conditions and purification of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using a reporter system. Regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in the induction of the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063063/identifying-candidate-reprogramming-genes-in-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Fang Gao, Jingyu Li, Heng Zhang, Xu Yang, Tiezhu An
Factor-based induced reprogramming approaches have tremendous potential for human regenerative medicine, but the efficiencies of these approaches are still low. In this study, we analyzed the global transcriptional profiles of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) from seven different labs and present here the first successful clustering according to cell type, not by lab of origin. We identified 2131 different expression genes (DEs) as candidate pluripotency-associated genes by comparing mESCs/miPSCs with somatic cells and 720 DEs between miPSCs and mESCs...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061966/new-treatments-for-hair-loss
#17
S Vañó-Galván, F Camacho
The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy...
January 3, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057922/membrane-translocation-of-t-snare-protein-syntaxin-4-abrogates-ground-state-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Natsumi Hagiwara-Chatani, Kota Shirai, Takumi Kido, Tomoatsu Horigome, Akihiro Yasue, Naoki Adachi, Yohei Hirai
Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are attractive tools for regenerative medicine therapies. However, aberrant cell populations that display flattened morphology and lose ground-state pluripotency often appear spontaneously, unless glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) are inactivated. Here, we show that membrane translocation of the t-SNARE protein syntaxin-4 possibly is involved in this phenomenon. We found that mouse ES cells cultured without GSK3β/MEK1/2 inhibitors (2i) spontaneously extrude syntaxin-4 at the cell surface and that artificial expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 induces appreciable morphological changes and mesodermal differentiation through dephosphorylation of Akt...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054239/the-protein-content-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-expanded-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-cd133-and-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-partially-explains-why-both-sources-are-advantageous-for-regenerative-medicine
#19
Addeli B B Angulski, Luiz G Capriglione, Michel Batista, Bruna H Marcon, Alexandra C Senegaglia, Marco A Stimamiglio, Alejandro Correa
Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133(+) cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133(+) cells and bone marrow-derived hMSCs with the intention of better understanding the functions performed by these vesicles/cells and delineating the most appropriate use of each EV in future therapeutic procedures...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049891/development-of-cellular-and-tissue-based-products-for-retinal-regenerative-medicine
#20
Fumitaka Osakada
 Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, much progress has been made in the fields of medical and pharmaceutical research, such as cell transplantation therapy. We have generated retinal cells and tissues, including retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), from human iPSCs. The ability to produce iPSCs from patients allows for autologous transplantation without causing immune rejection. The autologous transplantation of iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelial sheets to a patient with age-related macular degeneration was carried out in Japan in 2014 as a first-in-human clinical study...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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