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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#1
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334457/a-bibliometric-review-of-drug-and-alcohol-research-focused-on-indigenous-peoples-of-australia-new-zealand-canada-and-the-united-states
#2
REVIEW
Anton Clifford, Anthony Shakeshaft
ISSUES: Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States experience a disproportionately high burden of harms from substance misuse. Research is therefore required to improve our understanding of substance use in Indigenous populations and provide evidence on strategies effective for reducing harmful use. APPROACH: A search of 13 electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2014 focusing on substance use and Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#3
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331860/quetiapine-misuse-and-abuse-is-it-an-atypical-paradigm-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Sean Kim, Gayoung Lee, Eric Kim, Hyejin Jung, Jongwha Chang
Recent case reports in medical literatures suggest that more and more second-generation atypical antipsychotics (AAs) have been prescribed for off-label use; quetiapine (Brand name: Seroquel(®)) showed increase in its trend for off-label use. Little is known about the reasons behind this trend, although historical sedative and hypnotic prescription patterns suggest that despite relatively superior safety profiles of quetiapine (especially for movement disorders), it may be used for treating substance abuse disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331751/subcutaneous-oleomas-following-sunflower-oil-injection-a-novel-case-and-review-of-literature
#5
Özgür Sarıca, Arda Kayhan, Hüseyin Cengiz Demirkürek, Ayşenur Akyıldız İğdem
Liquid foreign material injection has been used as an early medical intervention since the end of nineteenth century for the augmentation of body shape. Nowadays, these types of procedures have been abandoned by health professionals due to late onset of serious complications. However, it is still misused by some subcultures such as bodybuilders, passive homosexuals, transsexuals, and patients with mental illness. This article discusses a male patient who injected himself with a large amount of sunflower oil, which became complicated by an inflammatory response-abscess formation and sclerosing lipogranuloma of breasts...
July 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328384/the-surgeon-general-s-facing-addiction-report-an-historic-document-for-healthcare
#6
Sharon Levy, J Paul Seale, Victoria A Osborne, Kevin L Kraemer, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Baxter, Deborah S Finnell, Hillary Kunins, Alexander Y Walley, David C Lewis, Doreen MacLane-Baeder, Adam J Gordon
The publication of Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health presents an historic moment not only for the field of addiction medicine, but also for the United States as a nation. The Board of Directors of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA), on behalf of our organization, would like to express our appreciation of the efforts of Dr. Vivek Murthy and the Surgeon General's Office to publish the first surgeon general's report covering substance misuse and substance use disorders...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328314/from-education-to-practice-addressing-opioid-misuse-through-healthcare-provider-training-a-special-issue-of-saj
#7
Adam J Gordon, John Daniel Harding
Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328312/adolescent-substance-use-assessing-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-a-school-based-health-center-workforce
#8
Mary M Ramos, Rachel A Sebastian, Mary Murphy, Kristin Oreskovich, Timothy P Condon
BACKGROUND: Recent attention has focused on the potential for school-based health centers (SBHCs) to provide access points for adolescent substance use care. In 2015, the University of New Mexico began screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) training for providers at New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH)-funded SBHCs across the state. This study assesses baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the New Mexico SBHC provider workforce regarding adolescent substance use and provision of services...
February 8, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325505/clinical-interpretation-of-urine-drug-tests-what-clinicians-need-to-know-about-urine-drug-screens
#9
REVIEW
Karen E Moeller, Julie C Kissack, Rabia S Atayee, Kelly C Lee
Urine drug testing is frequently used in clinical, employment, educational, and legal settings and misinterpretation of test results can result in significant adverse consequences for the individual who is being tested. Advances in drug testing technology combined with a rise in the number of novel misused substances present challenges to clinicians to appropriately interpret urine drug test results. Authors searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify published literature written in English between 1946 and 2016, using urine drug test, screen, false-positive, false-negative, abuse, and individual drugs of abuse as key words...
March 18, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325167/virtual-reality-in-the-assessment-understanding-and-treatment-of-mental-health-disorders
#10
D Freeman, S Reeve, A Robinson, A Ehlers, D Clark, B Spanlang, M Slater
Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted...
March 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323765/misuse-of-opioids-in-orthopaedic-postoperative-patients
#11
Anup Gangavalli, Ajith Malige, George Terres, Saqib Rehman, Chinenye Nwachuku
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent uptrend in the prescription of opioids, this study seeks to identify patterns of opioid misuse among orthopaedic postoperative patients and principal external sources in obtaining these medications. DESIGN: Ten-month survey-based study. SETTING: Two Level I trauma centers (urban and suburban). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven patients between the ages of 18 and 89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones, or periarticular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow, and wrist...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323548/referral-to-treatment-for-hospitalized-medical-patients-with-an-alcohol-use-disorder-a-proof-of-concept-brief-intervention-study
#12
Lisa Berger, Jennifer Hernandez-Meier, John Hyatt, Michael Brondino
Substance misuse intervention in healthcare settings is becoming a US national priority, especially in the dissemination and implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). Yet, the referral to treatment component of SBIRT is understudied. This proof-of-concept investigation tested an enhanced coordinated hospital-community two session brief intervention designed to facilitate the referral to treatment of hospitalized medical patients with an alcohol use disorder. Participants (N = 9) attended the second session of the brief intervention held in the community in most cases (56%), while one out of three (33%) received some level of post-brief intervention alcohol and/or other drug treatment...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323502/head-injury-and-substance-use-in-young-adults
#13
Lisa A Kort-Butler
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest a link between head injuries and substance use but do not routinely capture mechanisms connecting the two. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to explore whether past head injuries predicted current substance use among young adults, taking factors such as stress, self-esteem, temper, and risk-taking into consideration. METHODS: Data were drawn from a web-based survey conducted in 2014 and 2015 at a public university in the United States (n = 897)...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321919/borderline-personality-disorder-and-regularly-drinking-alcohol-before-sex
#14
Ronald G Thompson, Nicholas R Eaton, Mei-Chen Hu, Deborah S Hasin
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320355/severe-war-related-trauma-and-personality-pathology-a-case-control-study
#15
Jasna Munjiza, Dolores Britvic, Maja Radman, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. METHODS: A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314553/is-alexithymia-related-to-cannabis-use-disorder-results-from-a-case-control-study-in-outpatient-adolescent-cannabis-abusers
#16
Géraldine Dorard, Catherine Bungener, Olivier Phan, Yves Edel, Maurice Corcos, Sylvie Berthoz
OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, alexithymia has been considered a risk factor for multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions. Yet, whereas alexithymia has been extensively studied in adults with a substance misuse, only one study has reported data on cannabis abusers from the general population. Hence, our main objective was to explore alexithymia in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking young outpatients with a DSM-IV cannabis dependence or abuse diagnosis compared to controls. METHODS: 120 young patients (95 males - mean age 17...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314523/detection-of-anabolic-and-androgenic-steroids-and-or-their-esters-in-horse-hair-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#17
Karen Y Kwok, Timmy L S Choi, Wai Him Kwok, Jenny K Y Wong, Terence S M Wan
Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296989/premature-mortality-among-patients-recently-discharged-from-their-first-inpatient-psychiatric-treatment
#18
Florian Walter, Matthew J Carr, Pearl L H Mok, Aske Astrup, Sussie Antonsen, Carsten B Pedersen, Jenny Shaw, Roger T Webb
Importance: Nationwide cohorts provide sufficient statistical power for examining premature, cause-specific mortality in patients recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric services. Objective: To investigate premature mortality in a nationwide cohort of patients recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric treatment at ages 15 to 44 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-cohort design included all persons born in Denmark (N = 1 683 385) between January 1, 1967, and December 31, 1996...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292491/joint-utility-estimators-in-substance-use-disorders
#19
Eve Wittenberg, Jeremy W Bray, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Brandon Aden, Bohdan Nosyk, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: Although co-occurring conditions are common with substance use disorders (SUDs), estimation methods for joint health state utilities have not yet been tested in this context. OBJECTIVES: To compare joint health state utility estimators in SUD to inform economic evaluation. METHODS: We conducted two Internet-based surveys of US adults to collect community perspective standard gamble utilities for SUD and common co-occurring conditions...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287773/alcohol-use-and-service-utilization-among-veterans-in-treatment-for-schizophrenia
#20
Eric R Pedersen, Wenjing Huang, Amy N Cohen, Alexander S Young
Comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders are treatable and have substantial effects on outcomes and health care utilization in people with schizophrenia. While these substance use disorders (SUDs) are thought to be common in patients with schizophrenia, it has been difficult to characterize prevalence and treatment utilization of this population, since administrative data and medical records may not identify patients with schizophrenia who have an SUD diagnosis. In this study, we used an in-person, population-based survey of 801 individuals with schizophrenia who were in treatment within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to inform service delivery for patients with these problems...
March 13, 2017: Psychological Services
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