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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161165/alcohol-misuse-in-reserve-soldiers-and-their-partners-cross-spouse-effects-of-deployment-and-combat-exposure
#1
Bonnie M Vest, Sarah Cercone Heavey, D Lynn Homish, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: Military deployment and combat are associated with worse outcomes, including alcohol misuse. Less is known about how these experiences affect soldiers' spouses. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to explore relationships between deployment, combat exposure, and alcohol misuse; especially cross-spouse effects (effect of one partner's experiences/behavior on the other partner), which has been under-examined in military samples. METHODS: U...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154567/faces-and-facets-the-variability-of-emotion-recognition-in-psychopathy-reflects-its-affective-and-antisocial-features
#2
Artemis Igoumenou, Catherine J Harmer, Min Yang, Jeremy W Coid, Robert D Rogers
Psychopathy consists of a constellation of affective-interpersonal features including lack of empathy, callousness, manipulativeness and interpersonal charm, impulsiveness and irresponsibility. Despite its theoretical and predictive value in forensic contexts, the relationships between the psychometric dimensions of psychopathy, including its antisocial features, and the construct's neuropsychological characteristics remain uncertain. In this study, 685 personality-disordered prisoners with histories of serious violent or sexual offenses were assessed for psychopathy before completing a computerized and well-validated assessment of the ability to recognize emotional expressions in the face...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153783/patterns-and-correlates-of-medical-cannabis-use-for-pain-among-patients-prescribed-long-term-opioid-therapy
#3
Shannon M Nugent, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Ning X Smith, Steven K Dobscha, Richard A Deyo, Carla A Green, Benjamin J Morasco
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about co-occurring long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) and medical cannabis use. We compared characteristics of patients prescribed LTOT who endorsed using medical cannabis for pain to patients who did not report cannabis use. METHOD: Participants (n=371) prescribed LTOT completed self-report measures about pain, substance use, and mental health. RESULTS: Eighteen percent of participants endorsed using medical cannabis for pain...
November 8, 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150151/evaluating-short-and-long-term-impacts-of-a-medicaid-lock-in-program-on-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-prescriptions-dispensed-to-beneficiaries
#4
Rebecca B Naumann, Stephen W Marshall, Jennifer L Lund, Nisha C Gottfredson, Christopher L Ringwalt, Asheley C Skinner
BACKGROUND: Insurance-based "lock-in" programs (LIPs) have become a popular strategy to address controlled substance (CS) (e.g., opioid) misuse. However, little is known about their impacts. We examined changes in CS dispensing to beneficiaries in the 12-month North Carolina Medicaid LIP. METHODS: We analyzed Medicaid claims linked to Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) records for beneficiaries enrolled in the LIP between October 2010 and September 2012 (n=2702)...
November 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148264/negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-clinical-correlates-and-1-year-follow-up-outcomes-in-london-early-intervention-services
#5
Aikaterini Rammou, Helen L Fisher, Sonia Johnson, Barnaby Major, Nikola Rahaman, Nick Chamberlain-Kent, James M Stone
AIM: Negative symptoms (NS) have been associated with poor outcome and remain difficult to treat in patients with psychosis. This study examined the association of NS with clinical features at first presentation to mental health services for psychosis and with outcomes at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: Clinical data were utilized from five London Early Intervention Services (EIS) included in the MiData audit database. The sample comprised 484 first-episode psychosis patients with complete Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale data at baseline and 1-year follow-up...
November 16, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145409/predictors-of-suicide-ideation-among-older-adults-with-bipolar-disorder
#6
Norm O'Rourke, Marnin J Heisel, Sarah L Canham, Andrew Sixsmith
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions as 25%-50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt, and about 15% will intentionally end their lives. Among young adults with BD, substance misuse, medication non-adherence, age at onset, and comorbid psychiatric conditions each predict self-harm. It is currently unclear if these same factors or others predict suicide ideation among older adults with BD. METHODS: We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection (Mean = 58...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124080/demographic-and-mental-health-characteristics-of-individuals-who-present-to-community-health-clinics-with-substance-misuse
#7
Praise O Iyiewuare, Colleen McCullough, Allison Ober, Kirsten Becker, Karen Osilla, Katherine E Watkins
Introduction: Community health clinics (CHCs) are an opportune setting to identify and treat substance misuse. This study assessed the characteristics of patients who presented to a CHC with substance misuse. Methods: Personnel at a large CHC administered a 5-question screener to patients between June 3, 2014, and January 15, 2016, to assess past 3-month alcohol use, prescription opioid misuse, or illicit drug use. We stratified screen-positive patients into 4 diagnostic groups: (1) probable alcohol use disorder (AUD) and no comorbid opioid use disorder (OUD); (2) probable heroin use disorder; (3) probable prescription OUD, with or without comorbid AUD; and (4) no probable substance use disorder...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122794/consensus-validation-of-the-posamino-potentially-serious-alcohol-medication-interactions-in-older-adults-criteria
#8
Alice E Holton, Paul J Gallagher, Cristín Ryan, Tom Fahey, Gráinne Cousins
OBJECTIVES: Older adults are particularly vulnerable to adverse effects from concurrent alcohol and medication use. However, there is limited evidence regarding the prevalence of these adverse outcomes among older adults, and there is a lack of consensus regarding what constitutes an alcohol-interactive medicine. The objective of this study was to develop an explicit list of potentially serious alcohol-medication interactions for use in older adults. DESIGN: Following a systematic review, review of drug compendia and clinical guidance documents, a two-round Delphi consensus method was conducted...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120279/substance-use-in-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#9
Franco Scalzo, Carol A Hulbert, Jennifer K Betts, Sue M Cotton, Andrew M Chanen
Co-occurring substance misuse and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults is associated with more severe dysfunction and poorer prognosis than BPD alone. However, it is unknown to what extent substance use in youth with BPD is normative for this age group or pathological. This study compared substance use in 117 help-seeking youth (aged 15-25 years) with their first presentation for treatment of BPD, with an epidemiological general population sample and with healthy age- and gender-matched controls...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119924/deaths-in-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-united-kingdom-communities-associated-with-ghb-and-precursors
#10
John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118731/the-indirect-effect-of-emotion-regulation-on-minority-stress-and-problematic-substance-use-in-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-individuals
#11
Andrew H Rogers, Ilana Seager, Nathaniel Haines, Hunter Hahn, Amelia Aldao, Woo-Young Ahn
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of problematic alcohol and substance use than their heterosexual peers. This disparity is linked to the experience of LGB-specific stressors, termed minority stress. Additionally, bisexual individuals show increased rates of psychopathology, including problematic alcohol and substance use, above and beyond lesbian and gay individuals. However, not everyone experiencing minority stress reports increased rates of alcohol and substance misuse. Emotion regulation (ER), which plays a critical role in psychopathology in general, is theorized to modulate the link between minority stress and psychopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116987/a-substance-use-cost-calculator-for-us-employers-with-an-emphasis-on-prescription-pain-medication-misuse
#12
Eric Goplerud, Sarah Hodge, Tess Benham
OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorders are among the most common and costly health conditions affecting Americans. Despite estimates of national costs exceeding $400 billion annually, individual companies may not see how substance use impacts their bottom lines through lost productivity and absenteeism, turnover, health care expenses, disability, and workers' compensation. METHODS: Data on employed adults (18 years and older) from 3 years (2012 to 2014) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health Public Use Data Files were analyzed...
November 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103016/alcohol-and-other-substance-use-among-medical-and-law-students-at-a-uk-university-a-cross-sectional-questionnaire-survey
#13
Paul Bogowicz, Jennifer Ferguson, Eilish Gilvarry, Farhad Kamali, Eileen Kaner, Dorothy Newbury-Birch
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine the use of alcohol and other substances among medical and law students at a UK university. STUDY DESIGN: Anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire survey of first, second and final year medical and law students at a single UK university. RESULTS: 1242 of 1577 (78.8%) eligible students completed the questionnaire. Over half of first and second year medical students (first year 53.1%, second year 59.7%, final year 35...
November 4, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096544/a-systematic-review-investigating-the-behaviour-change-strategies-in-interventions-to-prevent-misuse-of-anabolic-steroids
#14
Geoff Bates, Emma Begley, David Tod, Lisa Jones, Conan Leavey, Jim McVeigh
We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093960/developing-substance-misuse-services-in-united-arab-emirates-the-national-rehabilitation-centre-experience
#15
Hamad A Al Ghaferi, Ahmed Y Ali, Tarek A Gawad, Shamil Wanigaratne
In 2001 a directive was issued to establish the National Rehabilitation Centre (NRC) to deal with the growing problem of substance misuse in the United Arab Emirates. The NRC has achieved many goals as a treatment and rehabilitation facility as well as a drug and alcohol demand reduction response centre. It is now working towards being an international centre of excellence.
November 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092669/the-clinical-impact-of-a-positive-family-history-of-psychosis-or-mental-illness-in-psychotic-and-non-psychotic-mentally-ill-adolescents
#16
Saeeda Paruk, Khatija Jhazbhay, Keshika Singh, Benn Sartorius, Jonathan K Burns
BACKGROUND: A family history of psychosis is associated with negative clinical characteristics of psychosis. AIM: We aimed to determine the relationship between a family history (in first-degree relatives) of psychosis (FHP) or of any mental illness (FHM), and the clinical features (including cannabis use) of first episode early onset psychosis (EOP). METHOD: Forty-five adolescents with first episode EOP presenting to psychiatric services were assessed by clinical interview with the following tools: socio-demographic questionnaire, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory, and the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for cannabis misuse...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091525/measurement-of-chronic-pain-and-opioid-use-evaluation-in-community-based-persons-with-serious-illnesses
#17
Kathleen Puntillo, Ramana K Naidu
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain associated with serious illnesses is having a major impact on population health in the United States. Accountability for high quality care for community-dwelling patients with serious illnesses requires selection of metrics that capture the burden of chronic pain whose treatment may be enhanced or complicated by opioid use. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate options for assessing pain in seriously ill community dwelling adults, to discuss the use/abuse of opioids in individuals with chronic pain, and to suggest pain and opioid use metrics that can be considered for screening and evaluation of patient responses and quality care...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076012/prescribers-views-and-experiences-of-assessing-the-appropriateness-of-prescribed-medications-in-a-specialist-addiction-service
#18
Adejoke Obirenjeyi Oluyase, Duncan Raistrick, Elizabeth Hughes, Charlie Lloyd
Background Mental and physical health problems are common in people with substance misuse problems and medications are often required in their management. Given the extent of prescribing for service users who attend specialist addiction services, it is important to consider how prescribers in this setting assess the appropriateness of service users' prescribed medications. Objective To explore prescribers' views and experiences of assessing the appropriateness of medications prescribed for service users coming in for treatment as well as the differences between prescribers...
December 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072473/associations-between-posttraumatic-stress-and-legal-charges-among-substance-using-veterans
#19
Diana C Bennett, David H Morris, Minden B Sexton, Erin E Bonar, Stephen T Chermack
Substance misuse is prevalent among veterans entering the criminal justice system, and is related to recidivism. Research demonstrates that trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, which commonly co-occur with substance misuse, also increase the risk of legal involvement and recidivism. However, it is unclear whether the associations between trauma, PTS symptoms and violent and nonviolent crime may be conflated by substance use. The aim of the present study was to understand the association between PTS symptoms and criminal justice involvement (both violent and nonviolent crime) among substance-using veterans seeking Veterans Affairs (VA) specialty mental health care after accounting for substance use frequency and demographics including age, gender, and ethnicity...
October 26, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064735/opioid-misuse-trends-in-treatment-seeking-populations-revised-prescription-opioid-policy-and-temporally-corresponding-changes
#20
Lauren A Hoffman, Ben Lewis, Sara Jo Nixon
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, U.S. rates of prescription opioid (PO) misuse have risen drastically. In response, federal and state governments have begun to implement new PO policies. Recent legislative changes warrant up-to-date assessments of today's misuse rates. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential changes in opioid misuse trends among substance-using treatment seekers, in temporal relation to legislative response. METHODS: Substance-use data were collected from two cross-sectional Florida-based inpatient cohorts during periods preceding (pre-policy; n = 647) and following (post-policy; n = 396) statewide PO policy initiatives...
October 24, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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