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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646524/risk-factors-for-severe-respiratory-depression-from-prescription-opioid-overdose
#1
Lindsay M Fox, Robert S Hoffman, David Vlahov, Alex F Manini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prescription opioid overdose is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with clinical severity in emergency department patients with prescription opioid overdose. DESIGN: This was a secondary data analysis of adult prescription opioid overdoses from a large prospective cohort of acute overdoses. We examined elements of a typical emergency department evaluation using a multivariable model to determine which characteristics were associated with clinical severity, specifically severe respiratory depression (SRD)...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645092/examining-effectiveness-of-tailorable-computer-assisted-therapy-programmes-for-substance-misuse-programme-usage-and-clinical-outcomes-data-from-breaking-free-online
#2
Sarah Elison, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Ward, Glyn Davies, Stephanie Dugdale
RATIONALE: When evaluating complex, tailorable digital behavioural interventions, additional approaches may be required alongside established methodologies such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Research evaluating a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Online (BFO), is informed by Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance recommending examination of 'mechanisms of action' of individual intervention strategies, which is relevant when evaluating digital interventions with content that may evolve over time...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641217/the-aggressor-at-the-mirror-psychiatric-correlates-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-male-prison-inmates
#3
N Verdolini, A Murru, L Attademo, R Garinella, I Pacchiarotti, C Del Mar Bonnin, L Samalin, L Pauselli, M Piselli, A Tamantini, R Quartesan, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, A Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version...
April 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639495/substance-use-in-adolescents-with-mental-illness-in-durban-south-africa
#4
Bhoodeo Taukoor, Saeeda Paruk, Enver Karim, Jonathan K Burns
Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 adolescents, using a structured data sheet, over a two-year period. Substance use was more significant in older adolescents and those with severe mental illness. Sixty-two (38.3%) adolescents used substances...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#5
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631373/the-risk-of-violence-associated-with-novel-psychoactive-substance-misuse-in-patients-presenting-to-acute-mental-health-services
#6
Abu Shafi, Paul Gallagher, Neil Stewart, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
Novel psychoactive substance (NPS) availability is increasing at a phenomenal rate and so is their associated misuse. Currently, the harms associated with NPS misuse are unclear. This report presents the initial findings of a continuing study looking into the impact of NPS misuse on admissions to an acute mental health facility in London. Violence preadmission and violence during admission have been found to be significant in NPS misusers compared to non-NPS substance misusers. Our findings have important consequences for acute mental health, emergency, and public health services...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630556/how-drug-control-policy-and-practice-undermine-access-to-controlled-medicines
#7
Naomi Burke-Shyne, Joanne Csete, Duncan Wilson, Edward Fox, Daniel Wolfe, Jennifer J K Rasanathan
Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627903/predictors-of-substance-use-in-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Franco Scalzo, Carol A Hulbert, Jennifer K Betts, Sue M Cotton, Andrew M Chanen
Concomitant substance misuse in adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with a more severe course of illness and poorer outcomes. Previous research has found an association between the number of borderline personality features and substance misuse in community samples. This study examined the relationship between substance use and severity of BPD in youth presenting for the first time for treatment (first presentation) of BPD. Participants were 117 help-seeking youth aged 15-25 years (93 females; Mage = 19...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622136/exploring-medical-student-s-conceptions-of-substance-use-a-follow-up-evaluation
#9
Dawn L Lindsay, Holly Hagle, Piper Lincoln, Jessica Williams, Peter F Luongo
BACKGROUND: Despite the devastating impact of alcohol and other drug involvement and misuse within society, medical students still receive very limited exposure to these issues. The Scaife Advanced Medical Student Fellowship in Alcohol and Other Drug Dependency, offered by the Institute for Research, Education and Training in Addictions for over 10 years, offers a unique, three-week intensive educational experience including didactic, observation and experiential learning in these topics to first year medical students...
June 16, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617997/a-market-on-both-sides-of-the-law-the-use-of-the-hidden-web-for-the-sale-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#10
Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Andreas Kimergård, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: The hidden Web is used for the anonymous sale of drugs, and with the UK Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016, implemented on May 26th 2016; it could increase as a platform for obtaining new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study aims to describe the NPS market on the visible and hidden Web preban, and assess whether the hidden Web is a likely place for the sale of NPS postban. METHODS: Data collection of 113 online shops took place in October 2015. Data collection of 22 cryptomarkets took place every 2 months from October 2015 to 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA project...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613454/changes-in-undergraduates-marijuana-heavy-alcohol-and-cigarette-use-following-legalization-of-recreational-marijuana-use-in-oregon
#11
David C R Kerr, Harold Bae, Sandi Phibbs, Adam C Kern
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-2016 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study...
June 14, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605304/report-on-the-international-workshop-on-drug-prevention-and-treatment-in-rural-settings-organized-by-united-nation-office-on-drugs-and-crime-unodc-and-world-health-organization-who
#12
Giulia Milano, Elizabeth Saenz, Nicolas Clark, Anja Busse, John Gale, Giovanna Campello, Elizabeth Mattfeld, Wadih Maalouf, Hanna Heikkila, Antonietta Martelli, Brian Morales, Gilberto Gerra
Very little evidence has been reported in literature regarding the misuse of substances in rural areas. Despite the common perception of rural communities as a protective and risk-mitigating environment, the scientific literature demonstrated the existence of many risk factors in rural communities. The Drug Prevention and Health Branch (DHB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and the World Health Organization (WHO), in June 2016, organized a meeting of experts in treatment and prevention of SUDs in rural settings...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603825/the-profile-of-drug-users-in-tunisia-implications-for-prevention
#13
Rim Sellami, Ines Feki, Abdelmajid Zahaf, Jawaher Masmoudi
BACKGROUND: Despite cultural, religious, and legal constraints on Muslims against the consumption of drugs, usage and misuse do exist. Drug addiction in Tunisia is a wide-spread problem and is destroying the lives of many individuals and families. AIMS: To examine the socio-demographic characteristics of substance users and to identify the drugs commonly used. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the addiction treatment center ''Aide et Ecoute'' in the period from January 2014 to September 2014 formed the sample of the present study...
August 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602044/the-dynamic-interaction-between-pain-and-opioid-misuse
#14
REVIEW
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Jose A Moron
In 2014, drug overdose surpassed automobile accidents as the number one cause of accidental death for the first time in US history. The overdose epidemic is largely driven by opioids, and genuine prescription opioid analgesics play the biggest role in this phenomenon. Despite advancements in abuse deterrent formulations, prescription drug monitoring programs, and clinical assessments for the detection of abuse potential, drug overdoses continue to escalate. The CDC has recently issued new guidelines for opioid prescription, yet even these recommendations have their shortcomings...
June 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601497/comparison-of-long-acting-and-oral-antipsychotic-treatment-effects-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-comorbid-substance-abuse-and-a-history-of-recent-incarceration-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-pride-study
#15
H Lynn Starr, Jason Bermak, Lian Mao, Steve Rodriguez, Larry Alphs
INTRODUCTION: Comorbid substance abuse is known to blunt response to treatment for underlying psychiatric disorders, but it has not been investigated in schizophrenia when comparing the effects of long-acting injectable antipsychotics with those of oral antipsychotics. METHODS: This exploratory analysis compared once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) with daily oral antipsychotics on time to treatment failure in patients with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597537/the-challenge-of-complex-drug-use-associated-use-of-codeine-containing-medicines-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-european-cross-sectional-online-population
#16
Andreas Kimergård, Michelle Foley, Zoe Davey, Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines in combination with new psychoactive substances (NPS) is inadequately described. This study characterises codeine consumption amongst NPS users and non-NPS users to provide warning of health issues. METHODS: Online survey conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. RESULTS: Out of 340 respondents, residing in a country in Europe and using codeine recently, 63.8% were female. Mean age: 34.9 years (SD = 12...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593690/stigma-experience-of-families-supporting-an-adult-member-with-substance-misuse
#17
Terence V McCann, Dan I Lubman
Stigmatization of families supporting an adult member with substance misuse is common and undermines their capacity to support the person and maintain their own well-being. The aims of the present study were to understand affected family members (AFMs)' experience of stigma within the context of substance misuse, and to explicate what steps, if any, they took to try to counteract stigma and social isolation. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 AFMs from Victoria in Australia...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590391/misuse-of-novel-synthetic-opioids-a-deadly-new-trend
#18
Matthew P Prekupec, Peter A Mansky, Michael H Baumann
: Novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) include various analogs of fentanyl and newly emerging non-fentanyl compounds. Together with illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), these drugs have caused a recent spike in overdose deaths, whereas deaths from prescription opioids have stabilized. NSOs are used as stand-alone products, as adulterants in heroin, or as constituents of counterfeit prescription medications. During 2015 alone, there were 9580 deaths from synthetic opioids other than methadone. Most of these fatalities were associated with IMF rather than diverted pharmaceutical fentanyl...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580748/opioid-addiction-and-misuse-in-adult-and-adolescent-patients-with-cancer
#19
Ross Pinkerton, Janet R Hardy
In the context of a therapeutic opioid epidemic, particularly in the USA, where increasingly stringent screening for 'at risk' individuals and close monitoring of opioid prescription and use is strongly recommended, the issue of misuse within the cancer population must be addressed. Most patients with advanced cancer will have pain requiring opioid therapy at some stage during their disease course. In the majority, this will provide good pain relief with no short- or longer-term adverse sequelae. A subset will present with substance misuse issues that will influence management and prescribing practice...
June 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578812/determinants-of-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-among-first-episode-psychosis-patients-in-denmark-a-nationwide-register-based-study
#20
Lene Halling Hastrup, Ulrik Helt Haahr, Jens Einar Jansen, Erik Simonsen
BACKGROUND: Information on determinants of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is still needed to inform campaigns targeting people with first episode psychosis (FEP). This nation-wide study analysed the association between demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and geographic area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. METHOD: The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20...
May 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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