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facial expressions and personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#1
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886521/seeing-the-world-through-others-minds-inferring-social-context-from-behaviour
#2
Yvonne Teoh, Emma Wallis, Ian D Stephen, Peter Mitchell
Past research tells us that individuals can infer information about a target's emotional state and intentions from their facial expressions (Frith & Frith, 2012), a process known as mentalising. This extends to inferring the events that caused the facial reaction (e.g. Pillai, Sheppard, & Mitchell, 2012; Pillai et al., 2014), an ability known as retrodictive mindreading. Here, we enter new territory by investigating whether or not people (perceivers) can guess a target's social context by observing their response to stimuli...
November 22, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874846/communications-and-relationships-between-patient-and-nurse-in-intensive-care-unit-knowledge-knowledge-of-the-work-knowledge-of-the-emotional-state
#3
Chiara Foà, Lisa Cavalli, Alessia Maltoni, Nicoletta Tosello, Chiara Sangilles, Ilaria Maron, Marina Borghini, Giovanna Artioli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) the communication between nurse and patient, the core of the care, is often hindered by patient's cognitive alterations and critical situation, by devices employed for the mechanical ventilation, and by the clinical and care-giving setting. How to overcome these barriers? How is the relational and communicative approach between nurse and patient unable to express him or herself to be managed? The available literature reveals that studies on communication with difficult patients, such as those treated in ICU are currently scarce...
November 22, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864643/robust-representations-of-individual-faces-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-but-not-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#4
Jessica Taubert, Kimberly B Weldon, Lisa A Parr
Being able to recognize the faces of our friends and family members no matter where we see them represents a substantial challenge for the visual system because the retinal image of a face can be degraded by both changes in the person (age, expression, pose, hairstyle, etc.) and changes in the viewing conditions (direction and degree of illumination). Yet most of us are able to recognize familiar people effortlessly. A popular theory for how face recognition is achieved has argued that the brain stabilizes facial appearance by building average representations that enhance diagnostic features that reliably vary between people while diluting features that vary between instances of the same person...
November 19, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859920/emotion-and-personal-space-neural-correlates-of-approach-avoidance-tendencies-to-different-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-coldhearted-psychopathic-traits
#5
Joana B Vieira, Tamara P Tavares, Abigail A Marsh, Derek G V Mitchell
In social interactions, humans are expected to regulate interpersonal distance in response to the emotion displayed by others. Yet, the neural mechanisms implicated in approach-avoidance tendencies to distinct emotional expressions have not been fully described. Here, we investigated the neural systems implicated in regulating the distance to different emotions, and how they vary as a function of empathy. Twenty-three healthy participants assessed for psychopathic traits underwent fMRI scanning while they viewed approaching and withdrawing angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral faces...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#6
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836135/microplastics-in-personal-care-products-exploring-perceptions-of-environmentalists-beauticians-and-students
#7
A G Anderson, J Grose, S Pahl, R C Thompson, K J Wyles
Microplastics enter the environment as a result of larger plastic items breaking down ('secondary') and from particles originally manufactured at that size ('primary'). Personal care products are an important contributor of secondary microplastics (typically referred to as 'microbeads'), for example in toothpaste, facial scrubs and soaps. Consumers play an important role in influencing the demand for these products and therefore any associated environmental consequences. Hence we need to understand public perceptions in order to help reduce emissions of microplastics...
November 8, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832746/exome-sequencing-identifies-pathogenic-variants-of-vps13b-in-a-patient-with-familial-16p11-2-duplication
#8
Jila Dastan, Chieko Chijiwa, Flamingo Tang, Sally Martell, Ying Qiao, Evica Rajcan-Separovic, M E Suzanne Lewis
BACKGROUND: The recurrent microduplication of 16p11.2 (dup16p11.2) is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) confounded by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. This inter- and intra-familial clinical variability highlights the importance of personalized genetic counselling in individuals at-risk. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to look for other genomic alterations that could explain the clinical variability in a family with a boy presenting with NDD who inherited the dup16p11...
November 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776504/a-quasi-randomized-feasibility-pilot-study-of-specific-treatments-to-improve-emotion-recognition-and-mental-state-reasoning-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#9
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762568/validating-emotional-attention-regulation-as-a-component-of-emotional-intelligence-a-stroop-approach-to-individual-differences-in-tuning-in-to-and-out-of-nonverbal-cues
#10
Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Daisung Jang, Sudeep Sharma, Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks
Emotional intelligence (EI) has captivated researchers and the public alike, but it has been challenging to establish its components as objective abilities. Self-report scales lack divergent validity from personality traits, and few ability tests have objectively correct answers. We adapt the Stroop task to introduce a new facet of EI called emotional attention regulation (EAR), which involves focusing emotion-related attention for the sake of information processing rather than for the sake of regulating one's own internal state...
October 20, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736931/incongruence-between-verbal-and-non-verbal-information-enhances-the-late-positive-potential
#11
Shu Morioka, Michihiro Osumi, Mayu Shiotani, Satoshi Nobusako, Hiroshi Maeoka, Yohei Okada, Makoto Hiyamizu, Atsushi Matsuo
Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736108/recognizing-spontaneous-facial-expressions-of-emotion-in-a-small-scale-society-of-papua-new-guinea
#12
Carlos Crivelli, James A Russell, Sergio Jarillo, José-Miguel Fernández-Dols
We report 2 studies on how residents of Papua New Guinea interpret facial expressions produced spontaneously by other residents of Papua New Guinea. Members of a small-scale indigenous society, Trobrianders (Milne Bay Province; N = 32, 14 to 17 years) were shown 5 facial expressions spontaneously produced by members of another small-scale indigenous society, Fore (Eastern Highlands Province) that Ekman had photographed, labeled, and published in The Face ofMan (1980), each as an expression of a basic emotion: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust...
October 13, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717769/peering-into-the-brain-to-predict-behavior-peer-reported-but-not-self-reported-conscientiousness-links-threat-related-amygdala-activity-to-future-problem-drinking
#13
Johnna R Swartz, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Ahmad R Hariri
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality...
October 4, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683555/the-dissociation-between-polarity-semantic-orientation-and-emotional-tone-as-an-early-indicator-of-cognitive-impairment
#14
Susana A Arias Tapia, Rafael Martínez-Tomás, Héctor F Gómez, Víctor Hernández Del Salto, Javier Sánchez Guerrero, J A Mocha-Bonilla, José Barbosa Corbacho, Azizudin Khan, Veronica Chicaiza Redin
The present study aims to identify early cognitive impairment through the efficient use of therapies that can improve the quality of daily life and prevent disease progress. We propose a methodology based on the hypothesis that the dissociation between oral semantic expression and the physical expressions, facial gestures, or emotions transmitted in a person's tone of voice is a possible indicator of cognitive impairment. Experiments were carried out with phrases, analyzing the semantics of the message, and the tone of the voice of patients through unstructured interviews in healthy people and patients at an early Alzheimer's stage...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683087/identity-information-content-depends-on-the-type-of-facial-movement
#15
Katharina Dobs, Isabelle Bülthoff, Johannes Schultz
Facial movements convey information about many social cues, including identity. However, how much information about a person's identity is conveyed by different kinds of facial movements is unknown. We addressed this question using a recent motion capture and animation system, with which we animated one avatar head with facial movements of three types: (1) emotional, (2) emotional in social interaction and (3) conversational, all recorded from several actors. In a delayed match-to-sample task, observers were best at matching actor identity across conversational movements, worse with emotional movements in social interactions, and at chance level with emotional facial expressions...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672555/disorder-specific-characteristics-of-borderline-personality-disorder-with-co-occurring-depression-and-its-comparison-with-major-depression-an-fmri-study-with-emotional-interference-task
#16
Natalia Chechko, Thilo Kellermann, Marc Augustin, Michael Zvyagintsev, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both associated with abnormalities in the regulation of emotion, with BPD being highly comorbid with MDD. Disorder-specific dysfunctions in BPD, however, have hardly been addressed, hence the lack of knowledge pertaining to the specificity of emotion processing deficits and their commonality with MDD. 24 healthy comparison subjects, 21 patients with MDD, and 13 patients with comorbid BPD and MDD (BPD + MDD group) were studied using functional MRI...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671503/the-role-of-personality-in-dyadic-interaction-a-psychophysiological-study
#17
Mikko Salminen, Pentti Henttonen, Niklas Ravaja
Psychophysiological activity was recorded during development discussions of 44 manager-subordinate pairs to examine the effects of the Big Five personality traits Extraversion and Conscientiousness, and personality similarity during dyadic social interaction. Facial electromyography and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry were collected continuously during the 30-min discussions. Different actor and partner effects and Actor×Partner interactions were observed. Matching levels of Extraversion led to higher periocular muscle activity, indicating positive valence emotional expressions...
November 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616987/virtual-avatar-for-emotion-recognition-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#18
Samuel Marcos-Pablos, Emilio González-Pablos, Carlos Martín-Lorenzo, Luis A Flores, Jaime Gómez-García-Bermejo, Eduardo Zalama
Persons who suffer from schizophrenia have difficulties in recognizing emotions in others' facial expressions, which affects their capabilities for social interaction and hinders their social integration. Photographic images have traditionally been used to explore emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia patients, but they lack of the dynamism that is inherent to facial expressiveness. In order to overcome those inconveniences, over the last years different authors have proposed the use of virtual avatars...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599007/developmental-toxicity-of-the-common-uv-filter-benophenone-2-in-zebrafish-embryos
#19
Henry C H Fong, Jeff C H Ho, Angela H Y Cheung, K P Lai, William K F Tse
Benozophenone (BP) type UV filters are extensively used in the personal care products to provide protection against the harmful effects of UV radiation. BPs are one of the primary components in the UV filter family, in which benophenone-2 (BP2) is widely used as a UV filter reagent in the sunscreen. Humans used these personal care products directly on skin and the chemicals will be washed away to the water system. BP2 has been identified as one of the endocrine disruptor chemicals, which can inference the synthesis, metabolism, and action of endogenous hormones...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598562/context-influences-interpretation-of-eyewitness-confidence-statements
#20
Daniella K Cash, Sean M Lane
When an eyewitness makes an identification from a lineup, he or she is asked to provide a confidence statement to help jurors assess credibility. However, these are verbal statements and people must rely on metacognitive processes to correctly interpret them. Recently, Dodson and Dobolyi (2015) argued that a person's interpretation of a witness's verbal confidence is influenced by the diagnosticity of the features used to justify his or her identification. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 found that, relative to a confidence-only control, participants reduced their ratings of confidence when statements were justified using a facial feature that was shared by lineup members, but not when the feature was unique to the member chosen from the lineup...
September 5, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
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