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facial expressions and personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240700/high-speed-video-system-for-micro-expression-detection-and-recognition
#1
Diana Borza, Radu Danescu, Razvan Itu, Adrian Darabant
Micro-expressions play an essential part in understanding non-verbal communication and deceit detection. They are involuntary, brief facial movements that are shown when a person is trying to conceal something. Automatic analysis of micro-expression is challenging due to their low amplitude and to their short duration (they occur as fast as 1/15 to 1/25 of a second). We propose a fully micro-expression analysis system consisting of a high-speed image acquisition setup and a software framework which can detect the frames when the micro-expressions occurred as well as determine the type of the emerged expression...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182453/women-outperform-men-in-distinguishing-between-authentic-and-nonauthentic-smiles
#2
Miss Maren Spies, Alexander Timur Sevincer
Women tend to be more accurate in decoding facial expressions than men. We hypothesized that women's better performance in decoding facial expressions extends to distinguishing between authentic and nonauthentic smiles. We showed participants portrait photos of persons who smiled because either they saw a pleasant picture (authentic smile) or were instructed to smile by the experimenter (nonauthentic smile) and asked them to identify the smiles. Participants judged single photos of persons depicting either an authentic or a nonauthentic smile and they judged adjacent photos of the same person, depicting an authentic smile and a nonauthentic smile...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170760/the-long-reach-of-early-adversity-parenting-stress-and-neural-pathways-to-antisocial-behavior-in-adulthood
#3
Arianna M Gard, Rebecca Waller, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes, Ahmad R Hariri, Luke W Hyde
Background: Early life adversities including harsh parenting, maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and low family economic resources are more prevalent in low-income urban environments and are potent predictors of psychopathology, including, for boys, antisocial behavior (AB). However, little research has examined how these stressful experiences alter later neural function. Moreover, identifying genetic markers of greater susceptibility to adversity is critical to understanding biopsychosocial pathways from early adversity to later psychopathology...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157845/face-perception-in-social-anxiety-visuocortical-dynamics-reveal-propensities-for-hypervigilance-or-avoidance
#4
Lisa M McTeague, Marie-Claude Laplante, Hailey W Bulls, Joshua R Shumen, Peter J Lang, Andreas Keil
BACKGROUND: Theories of aberrant attentional processing in social anxiety, and anxiety disorders more broadly, have postulated an initial hypervigilance or facilitation to clinically relevant threats and consequent defensive avoidance. However, existing objective measurements utilized to explore this phenomenon lack the resolution to elucidate attentional dynamics, particularly covert influences. METHODS: We utilized a continuous measure of visuocortical engagement, the steady-state visual evoked potential in response to naturalistic angry, fearful, happy, and neutral facial expressions...
October 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150757/invisible-side-of-emotions-somato-motor-responses-to-affective-facial-displays-in-alexithymia
#5
Cristina Scarpazza, Elisabetta Làdavas, Luigi Cattaneo
According to recent theories, the detection of emotions involves somatic experiences. In this study, we investigated the relation between somatic responses to affective stimuli, emotion perception, and alexithymia. Variations in automatic rapid facial reactions (RFRs) were measured in a selected population of participants with high and low levels of alexithymia (HA and LA, respectively). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major, while participants performed a gender classification task on faces expressing various emotional states...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126962/your-attention-makes-me-smile-direct-gaze-elicits-affiliative-facial-expressions
#6
Jari K Hietanen, Terhi M Helminen, Helena Kiilavuori, Anneli Kylliäinen, Heidi Lehtonen, Mikko J Peltola
Facial electromyographic responses and skin conductance responses were measured to investigate whether, in a neutral laboratory environment, another individual's direct gaze elicits a positive or negative affective reaction in the observer. The results showed that greater zygomatic responses associated with positive affect were elicited by seeing another person with direct as compared to averted gaze. The zygomatic responses were greater in response to another person's direct gaze both when the participant's own gaze was directed towards the other and when the participant was not looking directly towards the other...
November 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075185/insensitivity-to-fearful-emotion-for-early-erp-components-in-high-autistic-tendency-is-associated-with-lower-magnocellular-efficiency
#7
Adelaide Burt, Laila Hugrass, Tash Frith-Belvedere, David Crewther
Low spatial frequency (LSF) visual information is extracted rapidly from fearful faces, suggesting magnocellular involvement. Autistic phenotypes demonstrate altered magnocellular processing, which we propose contributes to a decreased P100 evoked response to LSF fearful faces. Here, we investigated whether rapid processing of fearful facial expressions differs for groups of neurotypical adults with low and high scores on the Autistic Spectrum Quotient (AQ). We created hybrid face stimuli with low and high spatial frequency filtered, fearful, and neutral expressions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068935/orthognathic-surgery-has-a-significant-effect-on-perceived-personality-traits-and-emotional-expressions
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniel M Mazzaferro, Ari M Wes, Sanjay Naran, Rebecca Pearl, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: The effects of orthognathic surgery go beyond objective cephalometric correction of facial and dental disproportion and malocclusion, respectively. The authors hypothesized that there is tangible improvement following surgery that alters publicly perceived personality traits and emotions. METHODS: The authors used Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how preoperative and postoperative images of orthognathic surgery patients were perceived on six personality traits and six emotional expressions based on posteroanterior and lateral photographs...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060147/facial-geometry-and-speech-analysis-for-depression-detection
#9
A Pampouchidou, O Simantiraki, C-M Vazakopoulou, C Chatzaki, M Pediaditis, A Maridaki, K Marias, P Simos, F Yang, F Meriaudeau, M Tsiknakis
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders, burdening many people world-wide. A system with the potential of serving as a decision support system is proposed, based on novel features extracted from facial expression geometry and speech, by interpreting non-verbal manifestations of depression. The proposed system has been tested both in gender independent and gender based modes, and with different fusion methods. The algorithms were evaluated for several combinations of parameters and classification schemes, on the dataset provided by the Audio/Visual Emotion Challenge of 2013 and 2014...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048304/trustworthiness-of-a-smile-as-a-function-of-changes-in-the-eye-expression
#10
Andrés Fernández-Martín, Patricia Álvarez-Plaza, Laura Carqué, Manuel G Calvo
BACKGROUND: Trusting other people is necessary for satisfactory and successful social interaction. A person’s perceived trustworthiness is related to perceived facial happiness. We investigated how trustworthy someone with a smiling face looks depending on changes in eye expression. METHOD: Video-clips of dynamic expressions were presented, with different combinations of the mouth (smiling vs. neutral) and the eyes (happy, neutral, surprised, sad, fearful, disgusted, or angry)...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046652/how-context-influences-our-perception-of-emotional-faces-a-behavioral-study-on-the-kuleshov-effect
#11
Marta Calbi, Katrin Heimann, Daniel Barratt, Francesca Siri, Maria A Umiltà, Vittorio Gallese
Facial expressions are of major importance in understanding the mental and emotional states of others. So far, most studies on the perception and comprehension of emotions have used isolated facial expressions as stimuli; for example, photographs of actors displaying facial expressions corresponding to one of the so called 'basic emotions.' However, our real experience during social interactions is different: facial expressions of emotion are mostly perceived in a wider context, constituted by body language, the surrounding environment, and our beliefs and expectations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043113/simultaneous-tracking-of-cardiorespiratory-signals-for-multiple-persons-using-a-machine-vision-system-with-noise-artifact-removal
#12
Ali Al-Naji, Javaan Chahl
Most existing non-contact monitoring systems are limited to detecting physiological signs from a single subject at a time. Still, another challenge facing these systems is that they are prone to noise artifacts resulting from motion of subjects, facial expressions, talking, skin tone, and illumination variations. This paper proposes an efficient non-contact system based on a digital camera to track the cardiorespiratory signal from a number of subjects (up to six persons) at the same time with a new method for noise artifact removal...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022724/age-differences-in-positive-feelings-and-their-expression
#13
Margund K Rohr, Cornelia Wieck, Ute Kunzmann
Although various studies point to the importance of positive emotions for health and well-being across the entire life span, current research on age differences in emotional reactivity mainly focuses on negative emotions. Empirical evidence on positive emotions is scarce and mixed. Part of the inconsistencies may be related to study differences in the stimuli used and the emotional response systems considered. Thus, the present study examined different response systems (i.e., subjective feelings, facial and verbal expressions) and used internal stimuli of high personal relevance to all participants...
October 12, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977026/infants-predict-expressers-cooperative-behavior-through-facial-expressions
#14
Toshinori Kaneshige, Etsuko Haryu
This study investigated infants' ability to use facial expressions to predict the expressers' subsequent cooperative behavior. To explore this problem, Experiment 1 tested 10- and 14-month-olds (N = 16, respectively) by using a violation-of-expectation procedure. In the experiment, all infants were first familiarized with two models, one with a happy facial expression and the other with an angry expression. They were also familiarized with an event in which a duck puppet tried to open a box but failed. During the test phase, infants in the helping condition saw two test scenes; one in which the happy model helped the duck open the box, and the other in which the angry model helped the duck...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963465/the-oxytocinergic-system-modulates-sadistic-context-dependent-empathy-in-humans
#15
Siyang Luo, Yiyi Zhu, Ying Xu, Qianting Kong
The oxytocinergic system is crucial for sociality and well-being and is associated with empathy. It is suggested that the oxytocinergic system exerts context- and person-dependent effects. We examined how sexual sadistic contexts influenced the effects of the oxytocinergic system on empathic-related behaviors and brain activity in healthy adults. Combining genetic neuroimaging, pharmacological techniques and a psychological paradigm of empathy, we recorded EEG neural responses in female OXTR rs53756 G/G and A/A carriers and measured subjective empathic ratings after intranasal administration of oxytocin/placebo in healthy male adults during the perception of painful facial expressions in sadistic/general social contexts...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891526/facial-expressions-triggered-by-imagining-the-future
#16
Mohamad El Haj, Pascal Antoine, Jean Louis Nandrino
A body of research has investigated the cognitive and affective features of imagining the future. Our study aimed at extending this research by evaluating expressions that are triggered by future thinking. Participants were asked to remember and to imagine personal events. Both past and future thinking were video-recorded and the recording was later analyzed by a software for facial analysis that detects and classifies basic emotional expressions (i.e., happy, sad, angry, surprised, scared, disgusted and neutral)...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878699/bodily-reactions-to-emotional-words-referring-to-own-versus-other-people-s-emotions
#17
Patrick P Weis, Cornelia Herbert
According to embodiment theories, language and emotion affect each other. In line with this, several previous studies investigated changes in bodily responses including facial expressions, heart rate or skin conductance during affective evaluation of emotional words and sentences. This study investigates the embodiment of emotional word processing from a social perspective by experimentally manipulating the emotional valence of a word and its personal reference. Stimuli consisted of pronoun-noun pairs, i.e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872339/beyond-personality-traits-which-facial-expressions-imply-dominance-in-two-person-interaction-scenes
#18
Yoshiyuki Ueda, Sakiko Yoshikawa
The ability to perceive a person's dominance plays an important role in survival and pro-social behavior. Perceived dominance has been investigated via assessments of facial expressions in 1-on-1 interaction situations, with expressions of anger and disgust judged to be more dominant. Given that human social interactions are complex, and multiple individuals interact at the same time, we investigated perceptions of trait dominance (an individual's competence and tendency to engage in dominant behavior) and relative dominance (an individual's social dominance within a social group)...
September 4, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865940/oxytocin-improves-facial-emotion-recognition-in-young-adults-with-antisocial-personality-disorder
#19
Marion Timmermann, Haang Jeung, Ruth Schmitt, Sabrina Boll, Christine M Freitag, Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Deficient facial emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie aggression in individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). As the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been shown to improve facial emotion recognition, it might also exert beneficial effects in individuals providing so much harm to the society. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 22 individuals with ASPD and 29 healthy control (HC) subjects (matched for age, sex, intelligence, and education) were intranasally administered either OT (24 IU) or a placebo 45min before participating in an emotion classification paradigm with fearful, angry, and happy faces...
August 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861702/simulation-of-facial-expressions-using-person-specific-semg-signals-controlling-a-biomechanical-face-model
#20
Merijn Eskes, Alfons J M Balm, Maarten J A van Alphen, Ludi E Smeele, Ian Stavness, Ferdinand van der Heijden
PURPOSE: Functional inoperability in advanced oral cancer is difficult to assess preoperatively. To assess functions of lips and tongue, biomechanical models are required. Apart from adjusting generic models to individual anatomy, muscle activation patterns (MAPs) driving patient-specific functional movements are necessary to predict remaining functional outcome. We aim to evaluate how volunteer-specific MAPs derived from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals control a biomechanical face model...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
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