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facial expressions and personality

M Riehle, S Mehl, T M Lincoln
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether people with schizophrenia and prominent expressive negative symptoms (ENS) show reduced facial expressions in face-to-face social interactions and whether this expressive reduction explains negative social evaluations of these persons. METHOD: We compared participants with schizophrenia with high ENS (n = 18) with participants with schizophrenia with low ENS (n = 30) and with healthy controls (n = 39). Participants engaged in an affiliative role-play that was coded for the frequency of positive and negative facial expression and rated for social performance skills and willingness for future interactions with the respective role-play partner...
April 17, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Ralf Rummer, Judith Schweppe
One prestudy based on a corpus analysis and four experiments in which participants had to invent novel names for persons or objects (N = 336 participants in total) investigated how the valence of a face or an object affects the phonological characteristics of the respective novel name. Based on the articulatory feedback hypothesis, we predicted that /i:/ is included more frequently in fictional names for faces or objects with a positive valence than for those with a negative valence. For /o:/, the pattern should reverse...
April 16, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Stefan Lautenbacher, Anna Lena Walz, Miriam Kunz
BACKGROUND: For patients with advanced dementia, pain diagnosis and assessment requires observations of pain-indicative behavior by others. One type of behavior that has been shown to be a promising candidate is the facial response to pain. To further test how pain-indicative facial responses are, we investigated the predictive power of observational facial descriptors to (i) predict the self-report of pain and (ii) to differentiate between non-painful and painful conditions. In addition, the expertise of the observers (nurses vs...
April 11, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Tal Eyal, Mary Steffel, Nicholas Epley
Taking another person's perspective is widely presumed to increase interpersonal understanding. Very few experiments, however, have actually tested whether perspective taking increases accuracy when predicting another person's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or other mental states. Those that do yield inconsistent results, or they confound accuracy with egocentrism. Here we report 25 experiments testing whether being instructed to adopt another person's perspective increases interpersonal insight. These experiments include a wide range of accuracy tests that disentangle egocentrism and accuracy, such as predicting another person's emotions from facial expressions and body postures, predicting fake versus genuine smiles, predicting when a person is lying or telling the truth, and predicting a spouse's activity preferences and consumer attitudes...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jeffrey M Girard, Wen-Sheng Chu, László A Jeni, Jeffrey F Cohn, Fernando De la Torre, Michael A Sayette
Despite the important role that facial expressions play in interpersonal communication and our knowledge that interpersonal behavior is influenced by social context, no currently available facial expression database includes multiple interacting participants. The Sayette Group Formation Task (GFT) database addresses the need for well-annotated video of multiple participants during unscripted interactions. The database includes 172,800 video frames from 96 participants in 32 three-person groups. To aid in the development of automated facial expression analysis systems, GFT includes expert annotations of FACS occurrence and intensity, facial landmark tracking, and baseline results for linear SVM, deep learning, active patch learning, and personalized classification...
May 2017: Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition
Mehdi Bakhshaee, Masoud Asghari, Mohammad Reza Sharifian, Sogol Jafari Ashtiyani, Bashir Rasoulian
Introduction: Although the psychological aspects of rhinoplasty have been fully investigated in the medical literature, the religiosity of rhinoplasty candidates has not been taken into consideration. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the religious attitudes of 157 rhinoplasty candidates were compared with those of 74 subjects who had not requested rhinoplasty. A domestic validated reliable questionnaire was completed by all subjects to classify them with respect to religious attitude...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Hendrik P Buimer, Marian Bittner, Tjerk Kostelijk, Thea M van der Geest, Abdellatif Nemri, Richard J A van Wezel, Yan Zhao
In face-to-face social interactions, blind and visually impaired persons (VIPs) lack access to nonverbal cues like facial expressions, body posture, and gestures, which may lead to impaired interpersonal communication. In this study, a wearable sensory substitution device (SSD) consisting of a head mounted camera and a haptic belt was evaluated to determine whether vibrotactile cues around the waist could be used to convey facial expressions to users and whether such a device is desired by VIPs for use in daily living situations...
2018: PloS One
Nicole L Nelson, Catherine J Mondloch
The majority of studies of emotion perception have relied on static isolated facial expressions. These expressions differ markedly from real-world expressions that include movement and multiple cues (e.g., bodies), leaving our understanding of how expression perception develops incomplete. We examined the looking patterns of younger children (4- and 5-year-olds), older children (8- and 9-year-olds), and adults while watching dynamic video clips or static images of four different emotional expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Çağdaş Topçu, Hilmi Uysal, Ömer Özkan, Özlenen Özkan, Övünç Polat, Merve Bedeloğlu, Arzu Akgül, Ela Naz Döğer, Refik Sever, Ömer Halil Çolak
BACKGROUND: We assessed the recovery of 2 face transplantation patients with measures of complexity during neuromuscular rehabilitation. Cognitive rehabilitation methods and functional electrical stimulation were used to improve facial emotional expressions of full-face transplantation patients for 5 months. Rehabilitation and analyses were conducted at approximately 3 years after full facial transplantation in the patient group. We report complexity analysis of surface electromyography signals of these two patients in comparison to the results of 10 healthy individuals...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Aida Gutiérrez-García, David Beltrán, Manuel G Calvo
Prior research has found a relationship between perceived facial attractiveness and perceived personal trustworthiness. We examined the time course of attractiveness relative to trustworthiness evaluation of emotional and neutral faces. This served to explore whether attractiveness might be used as an easily accessible cue and a quick shortcut for judging trustworthiness. Detection thresholds and judgment latencies as a function of expressive intensity were measured. Significant correlations between attractiveness and trustworthiness consistently held for six emotional expressions at four intensities, and neutral faces...
February 26, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Andrew Mienaltowski, Elizabeth A Lemerise, Kaitlyn Greer, Lindsey Burke
Multi-label tasks confound age differences in perceptual and cognitive processes. We examined age differences in emotion perception with a technique that did not require verbal labels. Participants matched the emotion expressed by a target to two comparison stimuli, one neutral and one emotional. Angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad facial expressions of varying intensity were used. Although older adults took longer to respond than younger adults, younger adults only outmatched older adults for the lowest intensity disgust and fear expressions...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Lilah Inzelberg, David Rand, Stanislav Steinberg, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein
Human facial expressions are a complex capacity, carrying important psychological and neurological information. Facial expressions typically involve the co-activation of several muscles; they vary between individuals, between voluntary versus spontaneous expressions, and depend strongly on personal interpretation. Accordingly, while high-resolution recording of muscle activation in a non-laboratory setting offers exciting opportunities, it remains a major challenge. This paper describes a wearable and non-invasive method for objective mapping of facial muscle activation and demonstrates its application in a natural setting...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yilun Wang, Michal Kosinski
We show that faces contain much more information about sexual orientation than can be perceived or interpreted by the human brain. We used deep neural networks to extract features from 35,326 facial images. These features were entered into a logistic regression aimed at classifying sexual orientation. Given a single facial image, a classifier could correctly distinguish between gay and heterosexual men in 81% of cases, and in 71% of cases for women. Human judges achieved much lower accuracy: 61% for men and 54% for women...
February 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Tomomi Fujimura, Hiroyuki Umemura
The present study describes the development and validation of a facial expression database comprising five different horizontal face angles in dynamic and static presentations. The database includes twelve expression types portrayed by eight Japanese models. This database was inspired by the dimensional and categorical model of emotions: surprise, fear, sadness, anger with open mouth, anger with closed mouth, disgust with open mouth, disgust with closed mouth, excitement, happiness, relaxation, sleepiness, and neutral (static only)...
January 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Henning Daus, Natalia Kislicyn, Stephan Heuer, Matthias Backenstrass
BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based disease management has become increasingly interesting for research in the field of bipolar disorders. This article investigates the attitudes of persons affected by this disorder towards the appropriation of mobile apps or assistance systems for the management of their disease. METHODS: We conducted two separate studies. Study 1 was an online survey with 88 participants. In study 2 we consulted 15 participants during a semi-structured interview...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
P P L Or, J W Y Chung, T K S Wong
AIM: To investigate room temperature and relative humidity affecting nurses' comfort and protection in wearing N95 respirators during clinical bedside procedures. BACKGROUND: N95 respirators are most commonly used to protect healthcare workers against airborne diseases. The elastic head straps required for tight fit may cause headache, facial pain and/or ear lobe discomfort. Although some past fit test results showed that these respirators are likely to fit comfortably, in reality any discomfort from use may influence negatively their appeal and acceptability and thus lower their effectiveness to protect the wearers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Annelore H van Dalen-Kok, Wilco P Achterberg, Wieke E Rijkmans, Sara A Tukker-van Vuuren, Suzanne Delwel, Henrica Cw de Vet, Frank Lobbezoo, Margot Wm de Waal
Objectives: Detection and measurement of pain in persons with dementia by using observational pain measurement tools is essential. However, the evidence for the psychometric properties of existing observational tools remains limited. Therefore, a new meta-tool has been developed: Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC), as a collaborative EU action. The aim is to describe the translation procedure and content validity of the Dutch version of the PAIC. Methods: Translation of the PAIC into Dutch followed the forward-backward approach of the Guidelines for Establishing Cultural Equivalence of Instruments...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Casey L Brown, Sandy J Lwi, Madeleine S Goodkind, Katherine P Rankin, Jennifer Merrilees, Bruce L Miller, Robert W Levenson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether deficits in empathic accuracy (i.e., ability to recognize emotion in others) in patients with neurodegenerative disease are associated with greater depression in their caregivers. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies. SETTING: Academic medical center and research university. PARTICIPANTS: Two independent samples (N = 172, N = 63) of patients with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and their caregivers; comparison group of healthy couples...
April 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Jennifer K South Palomares, Clare A M Sutherland, Andrew W Young
Given the frequency of relationships nowadays initiated online, where impressions from face photographs may influence relationship initiation, it is important to understand how facial first impressions might be used in such contexts. We therefore examined the applicability of a leading model of verbally expressed partner preferences to impressions derived from real face images and investigated how the factor structure of first impressions based on potential partner preference-related traits might relate to a more general model of facial first impressions...
December 17, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
Yoshiyuki Ueda, Kie Nagoya, Sakiko Yoshikawa, Michio Nomura
Forming specific facial expressions influences emotions and perception. Bearing this in mind, studies should be reconsidered in which observers expressing neutral emotions inferred personal traits from the facial expressions of others. In the present study, participants were asked to make happy, neutral, and disgusted facial expressions: for "happy," they held a wooden chopstick in their molars to form a smile; for "neutral," they clasped the chopstick between their lips, making no expression; for "disgusted," they put the chopstick between their upper lip and nose and knit their brows in a scowl...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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