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facial expressions and personality

Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Daisung Jang, Sudeep Sharma, Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks
Emotional intelligence (EI) has captivated researchers and the public alike, but it has been challenging to establish its components as objective abilities. Self-report scales lack divergent validity from personality traits, and few ability tests have objectively correct answers. We adapt the Stroop task to introduce a new facet of EI called emotional attention regulation (EAR), which involves focusing emotion-related attention for the sake of information processing rather than for the sake of regulating one's own internal state...
October 20, 2016: Emotion
Shu Morioka, Michihiro Osumi, Mayu Shiotani, Satoshi Nobusako, Hiroshi Maeoka, Yohei Okada, Makoto Hiyamizu, Atsushi Matsuo
Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP)...
2016: PloS One
Carlos Crivelli, James A Russell, Sergio Jarillo, José-Miguel Fernández-Dols
We report 2 studies on how residents of Papua New Guinea interpret facial expressions produced spontaneously by other residents of Papua New Guinea. Members of a small-scale indigenous society, Trobrianders (Milne Bay Province; N = 32, 14 to 17 years) were shown 5 facial expressions spontaneously produced by members of another small-scale indigenous society, Fore (Eastern Highlands Province) that Ekman had photographed, labeled, and published in The Face ofMan (1980), each as an expression of a basic emotion: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust...
October 13, 2016: Emotion
Johnna R Swartz, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Ahmad R Hariri
Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality...
October 4, 2016: NeuroImage
Susana A Arias Tapia, Rafael Martínez-Tomás, Héctor F Gómez, Víctor Hernández Del Salto, Javier Sánchez Guerrero, J A Mocha-Bonilla, José Barbosa Corbacho, Azizudin Khan, Veronica Chicaiza Redin
The present study aims to identify early cognitive impairment through the efficient use of therapies that can improve the quality of daily life and prevent disease progress. We propose a methodology based on the hypothesis that the dissociation between oral semantic expression and the physical expressions, facial gestures, or emotions transmitted in a person's tone of voice is a possible indicator of cognitive impairment. Experiments were carried out with phrases, analyzing the semantics of the message, and the tone of the voice of patients through unstructured interviews in healthy people and patients at an early Alzheimer's stage...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Katharina Dobs, Isabelle Bülthoff, Johannes Schultz
Facial movements convey information about many social cues, including identity. However, how much information about a person's identity is conveyed by different kinds of facial movements is unknown. We addressed this question using a recent motion capture and animation system, with which we animated one avatar head with facial movements of three types: (1) emotional, (2) emotional in social interaction and (3) conversational, all recorded from several actors. In a delayed match-to-sample task, observers were best at matching actor identity across conversational movements, worse with emotional movements in social interactions, and at chance level with emotional facial expressions...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Natalia Chechko, Thilo Kellermann, Marc Augustin, Michael Zvyagintsev, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both associated with abnormalities in the regulation of emotion, with BPD being highly comorbid with MDD. Disorder-specific dysfunctions in BPD, however, have hardly been addressed, hence the lack of knowledge pertaining to the specificity of emotion processing deficits and their commonality with MDD. 24 healthy comparison subjects, 21 patients with MDD, and 13 patients with comorbid BPD and MDD (BPD + MDD group) were studied using functional MRI...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mikko Salminen, Pentti Henttonen, Niklas Ravaja
Psychophysiological activity was recorded during development discussions of 44 manager-subordinate pairs to examine the effects of the Big Five personality traits Extraversion and Conscientiousness, and personality similarity during dyadic social interaction. Facial electromyography and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry were collected continuously during the 30-min discussions. Different actor and partner effects and Actor×Partner interactions were observed. Matching levels of Extraversion led to higher periocular muscle activity, indicating positive valence emotional expressions...
September 24, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Samuel Marcos-Pablos, Emilio González-Pablos, Carlos Martín-Lorenzo, Luis A Flores, Jaime Gómez-García-Bermejo, Eduardo Zalama
Persons who suffer from schizophrenia have difficulties in recognizing emotions in others' facial expressions, which affects their capabilities for social interaction and hinders their social integration. Photographic images have traditionally been used to explore emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia patients, but they lack of the dynamism that is inherent to facial expressiveness. In order to overcome those inconveniences, over the last years different authors have proposed the use of virtual avatars...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Henry C H Fong, Jeff C H Ho, Angela H Y Cheung, K P Lai, William K F Tse
Benozophenone (BP) type UV filters are extensively used in the personal care products to provide protection against the harmful effects of UV radiation. BPs are one of the primary components in the UV filter family, in which benophenone-2 (BP2) is widely used as a UV filter reagent in the sunscreen. Humans used these personal care products directly on skin and the chemicals will be washed away to the water system. BP2 has been identified as one of the endocrine disruptor chemicals, which can inference the synthesis, metabolism, and action of endogenous hormones...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Daniella K Cash, Sean M Lane
When an eyewitness makes an identification from a lineup, he or she is asked to provide a confidence statement to help jurors assess credibility. However, these are verbal statements and people must rely on metacognitive processes to correctly interpret them. Recently, Dodson and Dobolyi (2015) argued that a person's interpretation of a witness's verbal confidence is influenced by the diagnosticity of the features used to justify his or her identification. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 found that, relative to a confidence-only control, participants reduced their ratings of confidence when statements were justified using a facial feature that was shared by lineup members, but not when the feature was unique to the member chosen from the lineup...
September 5, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Isabell M Meier, Peter A Bos, Katie Hamilton, Dan J Stein, Jack van Honk, Susan Malcolm-Smith
Positive social cues, like happy facial expressions, activate the brain's reward system and indicate interest in social affiliation. Facial mimicry of emotions, which is the predominantly automatic and unconscious imitation of another person's facial expression, has been shown to promote social affiliation. It has been demonstrated repeatedly that the opioid system is vital to social affiliation in rodents, but there is less evidence in humans. We investigated whether a 50mg administration of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist with highest affinity for the mu-opioid system, modulates emotional mimicry...
August 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Eugenio Martinelli, Arianna Mencattini, Elena Daprati, Corrado Di Natale
Humans can communicate their emotions by modulating facial expressions or the tone of their voice. Albeit numerous applications exist that enable machines to read facial emotions and recognize the content of verbal messages, methods for speech emotion recognition are still in their infancy. Yet, fast and reliable applications for emotion recognition are the obvious advancement of present 'intelligent personal assistants', and may have countless applications in diagnostics, rehabilitation and research. Taking inspiration from the dynamics of human group decision-making, we devised a novel speech emotion recognition system that applies, for the first time, a semi-supervised prediction model based on consensus...
2016: PloS One
Isabella Mutschler, Tonio Ball, Ursula Kirmse, Birgit Wieckhorst, Michael Pluess, Markus Klarhöfer, Andrea H Meyer, Frank H Wilhelm, Erich Seifritz
Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings...
2016: PloS One
Birgit Rauchbauer, Jasminka Majdandžić, Stefan Stieger, Claus Lamm
Mimicry has been ascribed affiliative functions. In three experiments, we used a newly developed social-affective mimicry task (SAMT) to investigate mimicry´s modulation by emotional facial expressions (happy, angry) and ethnic group-membership (White in-group, Black out-group). Experiment 1 established the main consistent effect across experiments, which was enhanced mimicry to angry out-group faces compared to angry in-group faces. Hence the SAMT was useful for experimentally investigating the modulation of mimicry...
2016: PloS One
Luis-Eduardo Imbernón Cuadrado, Ángeles Manjarrés Riesco, Félix De La Paz López
Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Nicholas O Rule
People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance...
August 15, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Justin M Carré, Shawn N Geniole, Triana L Ortiz, Brian M Bird, Amber Videto, Pierre L Bonin
BACKGROUND: Although traditional wisdom suggests that baseline levels of testosterone (T) promote aggressive behavior, decades of research have produced findings that have been largely weak and inconsistent. However, more recent experimental work suggests that exogenous administration of T rapidly potentiates amygdala and hypothalamus responses to angry facial expressions. Notably, these brain regions are rich in androgen receptors and play a key role in modulating aggressive behavior in animal models...
June 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Gunther Meinlschmidt, Jong-Hwan Lee, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Minkyung Oh, Eun Kyung Jung, Hyun-Chul Kim, Janine Alfano, Seung-Schik Yoo, Marion Tegethoff
BACKGROUND: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. METHOD: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects-after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition-underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jiabei Zeng, Wen-Sheng Chu, Fernando De la Torre, Jeffrey F Cohn, Zhang Xiong
Facial action unit (AU) detection from video has been a long-standing problem in automated facial expression analysis. While progress has been made, accurate detection of facial AUs remains challenging due to ubiquitous sources of errors, such as inter-personal variability, pose, and low-intensity AUs. In this paper, we refer to samples causing such errors as hard samples, and the remaining as easy samples. To address learning with the hard samples, we propose the Confidence Preserving Machine (CPM), a novel two-stage learning framework that combines multiple classifiers following an "easy-to-hard" strategy...
July 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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