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facial expressions and personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812270/oxytocin-and-facial-emotion-recognition
#1
Mark A Ellenbogen
The expression of emotion in faces serves numerous meaningful functions, such as conveying messages of danger or approach, facilitating communication, and promoting the formation of social bonds and relationships. The study of facial expressions of emotion has become integral to research in social psychology and social neuroscience, particularly with respect to the neuropeptide oxytocin. This chapter examines how oxytocin influences the processing of emotion in faces by reviewing intranasal administration studies of automatic processing, selective attention, and emotion recognition...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783634/nonnegative-decompositions-for-dynamic-visual-data-analysis
#2
Lazaros Zafeiriou, Yannis Panagakis, Maja Pantic, Stefanos Zafeiriou
The analysis of high-dimensional, possibly temporally misaligned, time-varying visual data is a fundamental task in disciplines such as image, vision, and behaviour computing. In this paper, we focus on dynamic facial behaviour analysis and in particular on the analysis of facial expressions. Distinct from the previous approaches, where sets of facial landmarks are used for face representation, raw pixel intensities are exploited for 1) unsupervised analysis of the temporal phases of facial expressions and facial action unitis (AUs) and 2) temporal alignment of a certain facial behaviour displayed by two different persons...
August 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726812/a-patient-with-germ-line-gain-of-function-pdgfrb-p-n666h-mutation-and-marked-clinical-response-to-imatinib
#3
Dinel Pond, Florence A Arts, Nancy J Mendelsohn, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Gunter Scharer, Yoav Messinger
PurposeHeterozygous germ-line activating mutations in PDGFRB cause Kosaki and Penttinen syndromes and myofibromatosis. We describe a 10-year-old child with a germ-line PDGFRB p.N666H mutation who responded to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib by inhibition of PDGFRB.MethodsThe impact of p.N666H on PDGFRB function and sensitivity to imatinib was studied in cell culture.ResultsCells expressing the p.N666H mutation showed constitutive PDGFRB tyrosine phosphorylation. PDGF-independent proliferation was abolished by imatinib at 1 μM concentration...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695655/sex-differences-in-the-decoding-of-pain-related-body-postures
#4
J Walsh, C Eccleston, E Keogh
BACKGROUND: Pain can be detected through nonverbal cues, including facial expressions, vocalisations, and body posture. While there are sex differences in how emotional expressions are recognized, these differences have not always been found for pain. One reason for this inconsistency may be methodological, as pain studies tend not to be designed to investigate individual differences in expression recognition. Also, few studies consider sex differences outside facial expression. METHODS: This study applied an image degradation method used to examine individual differences in emotion recognition, to investigate sex differences in the decoding of pain body postures...
July 10, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686853/wdr26-haploinsufficiency-causes-a-recognizable-syndrome-of-intellectual-disability-seizures-abnormal-gait-and-distinctive-facial-features
#5
Cara M Skraban, Constance F Wells, Preetha Markose, Megan T Cho, Addie I Nesbitt, P Y Billie Au, Amber Begtrup, John A Bernat, Lynne M Bird, Kajia Cao, Arjan P M de Brouwer, Elizabeth H Denenberg, Ganka Douglas, Kristin M Gibson, Katheryn Grand, Alice Goldenberg, A Micheil Innes, Jane Juusola, Marlies Kempers, Esther Kinning, David M Markie, Martina M Owens, Katelyn Payne, Richard Person, Rolph Pfundt, Amber Stocco, Claire L S Turner, Nienke E Verbeek, Laurence E Walsh, Taylor C Warner, Patricia G Wheeler, Dagmar Wieczorek, Alisha B Wilkens, Evelien Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Tjitske Kleefstra, Stephen P Robertson, Avni Santani, Koen L I van Gassen, Matthew A Deardorff
We report 15 individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in WDR26. Eleven of the individuals carry loss-of-function mutations, and four harbor missense substitutions. These 15 individuals comprise ten females and five males, and all have intellectual disability with delayed speech, a history of febrile and/or non-febrile seizures, and a wide-based, spastic, and/or stiff-legged gait. These subjects share a set of common facial features that include a prominent maxilla and upper lip that readily reveal the upper gingiva, widely spaced teeth, and a broad nasal tip...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668649/the-grammar-of-anger-mapping-the-computational-architecture-of-a-recalibrational-emotion
#6
Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
According to the recalibrational theory of anger, anger is a computationally complex cognitive system that evolved to bargain for better treatment. Anger coordinates facial expressions, vocal changes, verbal arguments, the withholding of benefits, the deployment of aggression, and a suite of other cognitive and physiological variables in the service of leveraging bargaining position into better outcomes. The prototypical trigger of anger is an indication that the offender places too little weight on the angry individual's welfare when making decisions, i...
June 29, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605709/facial-emotion-recognition-and-borderline-personality-pathology
#7
Kevin B Meehan, Chiara De Panfilis, Nicole M Cain, Camilla Antonucci, Antonio Soliani, John F Clarkin, Fabio Sambataro
The impact of borderline personality pathology on facial emotion recognition has been in dispute; with impaired, comparable, and enhanced accuracy found in high borderline personality groups. Discrepancies are likely driven by variations in facial emotion recognition tasks across studies (stimuli type/intensity) and heterogeneity in borderline personality pathology. This study evaluates facial emotion recognition for neutral and negative emotions (fear/sadness/disgust/anger) presented at varying intensities...
September 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601477/family-perspectives-of-traumatically-brain-injured-patient-pain-behaviors-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#8
Brandy L Vanderbyl, Céline Gélinas
Behavioral scales allow for the pain assessment of vulnerable critically ill patients who are unable to self-report. However, validity of the use of such scales is limited in traumatic brain injury patients with an altered level of consciousness as a result of the different way that these patients express pain. Family participation is considered as an important component of pain assessment for those unable to self-report, but research in this area is minimal so far. This study aimed to describe what behaviors family caregivers deemed relevant to pain for patients with a traumatic brain injury with an altered level of consciousness in the intensive care unit...
August 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599147/integration-of-identity-and-emotion-information-in-faces-fmri-evidence
#9
Alla Yankouskaya, Moritz Stolte, Zargol Moradi, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn Humphreys
Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of both personal and emotional expression target information triggers changes in functional connectivity between frontal and extrastriate areas in the brain...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588520/emotional-expression-in-simple-line-drawings-of-a-robot-s-face-leads-to-higher-offers-in-the-ultimatum-game
#10
Kazunori Terada, Chikara Takeuchi
In the present study, we investigated whether expressing emotional states using a simple line drawing to represent a robot's face can serve to elicit altruistic behavior from humans. An experimental investigation was conducted in which human participants interacted with a humanoid robot whose facial expression was shown on an LCD monitor that was mounted as its head (Study 1). Participants were asked to play the ultimatum game, which is usually used to measure human altruistic behavior. All participants were assigned to be the proposer and were instructed to decide their offer within 1 min by controlling a slider bar...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545237/emotion-recognition-in-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-a-nonverbal-approach
#11
Régis Pochon, Claire Touchet, Laure Ibernon
Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534768/personalized-age-progression-with-bi-level-aging-dictionary-learning
#12
Xiangbo Shu, Jinhui Tang, Zechao Li, Hanjiang Lai, Liyan Zhang, Shuicheng Yan
Age progression is defined as aesthetically re-rendering the aging face at any future age for an individual face. In this work, we aim to automatically render aging faces in a personalized way. Basically, for each age group, we learn an aging dictionary to reveal its aging characteristics (e.g., wrinkles), where the dictionary bases corresponding to the same index yet from two neighboring aging dictionaries form a particular aging pattern cross these two age groups, and a linear combination of all these patterns expresses a particular personalized aging process...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522979/spontaneous-facial-actions-map-onto-emotional-experiences-in-a-non-social-context-toward-a-component-based-approach
#13
Shushi Namba, Russell S Kabir, Makoto Miyatani, Takashi Nakao
While numerous studies have examined the relationships between facial actions and emotions, they have yet to account for the ways that specific spontaneous facial expressions map onto emotional experiences induced without expressive intent. Moreover, previous studies emphasized that a fine-grained investigation of facial components could establish the coherence of facial actions with actual internal states. Therefore, this study aimed to accumulate evidence for the correspondence between spontaneous facial components and emotional experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499409/in-your-face-the-biased-judgement-of-fear-anger-expressions-in-violent-offenders
#14
Martin Wegrzyn, Sina Westphal, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Why is it that certain violent criminals repeatedly find themselves engaged in brawls? Many inmates report having felt provoked or threatened by their victims, which might be due to a tendency to ascribe malicious intentions when faced with ambiguous social signals, termed hostile attribution bias. METHODS: The present study presented morphed fear-anger faces to prison inmates with a history of violent crimes, a history of child sexual abuse, and to matched controls form the general population...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496421/the-positivity-bias-phenomenon-in-face-perception-given-different-information-on-ability
#15
Sasa Zhao, Yanhui Xiang, Jiushu Xie, Yanyan Ye, Tianfeng Li, Lei Mo
The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors) in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive) of neutral facial expressions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495274/females-are-sensitive-to-unpleasant-human-emotions-regardless-of-the-emotional-context-of-photographs
#16
Ryousuke Kato, Yuji Takeda
Previous studies have demonstrated that females exhibit higher sensitivity than males to the emotional state of a person in a photograph. The present study examined whether such females' sensitivity to human emotions could be observed even when the background emotional contexts were incongruent with facial expressions. The late positive potential (LPP) was measured while 19-female and 15-male participants viewed a photograph of a face with varied emotional expressions (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) superimposed on a background photograph with varied valences (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant)...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488040/the-role-of-serotonin-in-personality-inference-tryptophan-depletion-impairs-the-identification-of-neuroticism-in-the-face
#17
Robert Ward, Shubha Sreenivas, Judi Read, Kate E A Saunders, Robert D Rogers
Serotonergic mechanisms mediate the expression of personality traits (such as impulsivity, aggression and anxiety) that are linked to vulnerability to psychological illnesses, and modulate the identification of emotional expressions in the face as well as learning about broader classes of appetitive and aversive signals. Faces with neutral expressions signal a variety of socially relevant information, such that inferences about the big five personality traits, including Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness, can be accurately made on the basis of emotionally neutral facial photographs...
July 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455183/the-effects-of-competition-and-implicit-power-motive-on-men-s-testosterone-emotion-recognition-and-aggression
#18
John G Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression...
May 2, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#19
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406380/inferring-perspective-versus-getting-perspective-underestimating-the-value-of-being-in-another-person-s-shoes
#20
Haotian Zhou, Elizabeth A Majka, Nicholas Epley
People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed...
April 2017: Psychological Science
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