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facial expressions and personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605709/facial-emotion-recognition-and-borderline-personality-pathology
#1
Kevin B Meehan, Chiara De Panfilis, Nicole M Cain, Camilla Antonucci, Antonio Soliani, John F Clarkin, Fabio Sambataro
The impact of borderline personality pathology on facial emotion recognition has been in dispute; with impaired, comparable, and enhanced accuracy found in high borderline personality groups. Discrepancies are likely driven by variations in facial emotion recognition tasks across studies (stimuli type/intensity) and heterogeneity in borderline personality pathology. This study evaluates facial emotion recognition for neutral and negative emotions (fear/sadness/disgust/anger) presented at varying intensities...
May 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601477/family-perspectives-of-traumatically-brain-injured-patient-pain-behaviors-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#2
Brandy L Vanderbyl, Céline Gélinas
Behavioral scales allow for the pain assessment of vulnerable critically ill patients who are unable to self-report. However, validity of the use of such scales is limited in traumatic brain injury patients with an altered level of consciousness as a result of the different way that these patients express pain. Family participation is considered as an important component of pain assessment for those unable to self-report, but research in this area is minimal so far. This study aimed to describe what behaviors family caregivers deemed relevant to pain for patients with a traumatic brain injury with an altered level of consciousness in the intensive care unit...
June 7, 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599147/integration-of-identity-and-emotion-information-in-faces-fmri-evidence
#3
Alla Yankouskaya, Moritz Stolte, Zargol Moradi, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn Humphreys
Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of both personal and emotional expression target information triggers changes in functional connectivity between frontal and extrastriate areas in the brain...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588520/emotional-expression-in-simple-line-drawings-of-a-robot-s-face-leads-to-higher-offers-in-the-ultimatum-game
#4
Kazunori Terada, Chikara Takeuchi
In the present study, we investigated whether expressing emotional states using a simple line drawing to represent a robot's face can serve to elicit altruistic behavior from humans. An experimental investigation was conducted in which human participants interacted with a humanoid robot whose facial expression was shown on an LCD monitor that was mounted as its head (Study 1). Participants were asked to play the ultimatum game, which is usually used to measure human altruistic behavior. All participants were assigned to be the proposer and were instructed to decide their offer within 1 min by controlling a slider bar...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545237/emotion-recognition-in-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-a-nonverbal-approach
#5
Régis Pochon, Claire Touchet, Laure Ibernon
Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534768/personalized-age-progression-with-bi-level-aging-dictionary-learning
#6
Xiangbo Shu, Jinhui Tang, Zechao Li, Hanjiang Lai, Liyan Zhang, Shuicheng Yan
Age progression is defined as aesthetically re-rendering the aging face at any future age for an individual face. In this work, we aim to automatically render aging faces in a personalized way. Basically, for each age group, we learn an aging dictionary to reveal its aging characteristics (e.g., wrinkles), where the dictionary bases corresponding to the same index yet from two neighboring aging dictionaries form a particular aging pattern cross these two age groups, and a linear combination of all these patterns expresses a particular personalized aging process...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522979/spontaneous-facial-actions-map-onto-emotional-experiences-in-a-non-social-context-toward-a-component-based-approach
#7
Shushi Namba, Russell S Kabir, Makoto Miyatani, Takashi Nakao
While numerous studies have examined the relationships between facial actions and emotions, they have yet to account for the ways that specific spontaneous facial expressions map onto emotional experiences induced without expressive intent. Moreover, previous studies emphasized that a fine-grained investigation of facial components could establish the coherence of facial actions with actual internal states. Therefore, this study aimed to accumulate evidence for the correspondence between spontaneous facial components and emotional experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499409/in-your-face-the-biased-judgement-of-fear-anger-expressions-in-violent-offenders
#8
Martin Wegrzyn, Sina Westphal, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Why is it that certain violent criminals repeatedly find themselves engaged in brawls? Many inmates report having felt provoked or threatened by their victims, which might be due to a tendency to ascribe malicious intentions when faced with ambiguous social signals, termed hostile attribution bias. METHODS: The present study presented morphed fear-anger faces to prison inmates with a history of violent crimes, a history of child sexual abuse, and to matched controls form the general population...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496421/the-positivity-bias-phenomenon-in-face-perception-given-different-information-on-ability
#9
Sasa Zhao, Yanhui Xiang, Jiushu Xie, Yanyan Ye, Tianfeng Li, Lei Mo
The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors) in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive) of neutral facial expressions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495274/females-are-sensitive-to-unpleasant-human-emotions-regardless-of-the-emotional-context-of-photographs
#10
Ryousuke Kato, Yuji Takeda
Previous studies have demonstrated that females exhibit higher sensitivity than males to the emotional state of a person in a photograph. The present study examined whether such females' sensitivity to human emotions could be observed even when the background emotional contexts were incongruent with facial expressions. The late positive potential (LPP) was measured while 19-female and 15-male participants viewed a photograph of a face with varied emotional expressions (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) superimposed on a background photograph with varied valences (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant)...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488040/the-role-of-serotonin-in-personality-inference-tryptophan-depletion-impairs-the-identification-of-neuroticism-in-the-face
#11
Robert Ward, Shubha Sreenivas, Judi Read, Kate E A Saunders, Robert D Rogers
Serotonergic mechanisms mediate the expression of personality traits (such as impulsivity, aggression and anxiety) that are linked to vulnerability to psychological illnesses, and modulate the identification of emotional expressions in the face as well as learning about broader classes of appetitive and aversive signals. Faces with neutral expressions signal a variety of socially relevant information, such that inferences about the big five personality traits, including Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness, can be accurately made on the basis of emotionally neutral facial photographs...
May 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455183/the-effects-of-competition-and-implicit-power-motive-on-men-s-testosterone-emotion-recognition-and-aggression
#12
John G Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression...
May 2, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#13
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406380/inferring-perspective-versus-getting-perspective-underestimating-the-value-of-being-in-another-person-s-shoes
#14
Haotian Zhou, Elizabeth A Majka, Nicholas Epley
People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397623/differences-in-neural-and-cognitive-response-to-emotional-faces-in-middle-aged-dizygotic-twins-at-familial-risk-of-depression
#15
K W Miskowiak, A M B Svendsen, C J Harmer, R Elliott, J Macoveanu, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression but findings in healthy high-risk groups are conflicting. METHODS: Healthy middle-aged dizygotic twins (N = 42) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): 22 twins had a co-twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351003/experimental-investigation-of-cognitive-and-affective-empathy-in-borderline-personality-disorder-effects-of-ambiguity-in-multimodal-social-information-processing
#16
Inga Niedtfeld
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability and interpersonal problems. In the context of social interaction, impairments in empathy are proposed to result in inadequate social behavior. In contrast to findings of reduced cognitive empathy, some authors suggested enhanced emotional empathy in BPD. It was investigated whether ambiguity leads to decreased cognitive or emotional empathy in BPD. Thirty-four patients with BPD and thirty-two healthy controls were presented with video clips, which were presented through prosody, facial expression, and speech content...
July 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267568/facing-two-faces-defense-activation-varies-as-a-function-of-personal-relevance
#17
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers
It can be unsettling to be watched by a group of people, and when they express anger or hostility, this can prime defensive behavior. In contrast, when others smile at us, this may be comforting. This study tested to which degree the impact of facial expressions (happy, neutral, and angry) varies with the personal relevance of a social situation. Modelling a triadic situation, two faces looked either directly at the participant, faced each other, or they were back to back. Results confirmed that this variation constitutes a gradient of personal relevance (directed frontally > towards > away), as reflected by corresponding defensive startle modulation and autonomic nervous system activity...
March 4, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263765/exogenous-testosterone-decreases-men-s-personal-distance-in-a-social-threat-context
#18
Lisa Wagels, Sina Radke, Katharina Sophia Goerlich, Ute Habel, Mikhail Votinov
BACKGROUND: Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. METHODS: 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group)...
April 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211817/post-stroke-acquired-amusia-a-comparison-between-right-and-left-brain-hemispheric-damages
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zahra Jafari, Mahdiye Esmaili, Ahmad Delbari, Masoud Mehrpour, Majid H Mohajerani
BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. METHODS: Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191995/social-interaction-contexts-bias-the-perceived-expressions-of-interactants
#20
Katie L H Gray, Lee Barber, Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
The present study sought to determine whether contextual information available when viewing social interactions from third-person perspectives may influence observers' perception of the interactants' facial emotion. Observers judged whether the expression of a target face was happy or fearful, in the presence of a happy, aggressive, or neutral interactant. In 2 experiments, the same target expressions were judged to be happier when presented in the context of a happy interactant than when interacting with a neutral or aggressive partner...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
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