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facial expressions and personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#1
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406380/inferring-perspective-versus-getting-perspective-underestimating-the-value-of-being-in-another-person-s-shoes
#2
Haotian Zhou, Elizabeth A Majka, Nicholas Epley
People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397623/differences-in-neural-and-cognitive-response-to-emotional-faces-in-middle-aged-dizygotic-twins-at-familial-risk-of-depression
#3
K W Miskowiak, A M B Svendsen, C J Harmer, R Elliott, J Macoveanu, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression but findings in healthy high-risk groups are conflicting. METHODS: Healthy middle-aged dizygotic twins (N = 42) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): 22 twins had a co-twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351003/experimental-investigation-of-cognitive-and-affective-empathy-in-borderline-personality-disorder-effects-of-ambiguity-in-multimodal-social-information-processing
#4
Inga Niedtfeld
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability and interpersonal problems. In the context of social interaction, impairments in empathy are proposed to result in inadequate social behavior. In contrast to findings of reduced cognitive empathy, some authors suggested enhanced emotional empathy in BPD. It was investigated whether ambiguity leads to decreased cognitive or emotional empathy in BPD. Thirty-four patients with BPD and thirty-two healthy controls were presented with video clips, which were presented through prosody, facial expression, and speech content...
March 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267568/facing-two-faces-defense-activation-varies-as-a-function-of-personal-relevance
#5
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers
It can be unsettling to be watched by a group of people, and when they express anger or hostility, this can prime defensive behavior. In contrast, when others smile at us, this may be comforting. This study tested to which degree the impact of facial expressions (happy, neutral, and angry) varies with the personal relevance of a social situation. Modelling a triadic situation, two faces looked either directly at the participant, faced each other, or they were back to back. Results confirmed that this variation constitutes a gradient of personal relevance (directed frontally > towards > away), as reflected by corresponding defensive startle modulation and autonomic nervous system activity...
March 4, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263765/exogenous-testosterone-decreases-men-s-personal-distance-in-a-social-threat-context
#6
Lisa Wagels, Sina Radke, Katharina Sophia Goerlich, Ute Habel, Mikhail Votinov
BACKGROUND: Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. METHODS: 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group)...
March 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211817/post-stroke-acquired-amusia-a-comparison-between-right-and-left-brain-hemispheric-damages
#7
Zahra Jafari, Mahdiye Esmaili, Ahmad Delbari, Masoud Mehrpour, Majid H Mohajerani
BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. METHODS: Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191995/social-interaction-contexts-bias-the-perceived-expressions-of-interactants
#8
Katie L H Gray, Lee Barber, Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
The present study sought to determine whether contextual information available when viewing social interactions from third-person perspectives may influence observers' perception of the interactants' facial emotion. Observers judged whether the expression of a target face was happy or fearful, in the presence of a happy, aggressive, or neutral interactant. In 2 experiments, the same target expressions were judged to be happier when presented in the context of a happy interactant than when interacting with a neutral or aggressive partner...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191653/generalized-hostile-interpretation-bias-regarding-facial-expressions-characteristic-of-pathological-aggressive-behavior
#9
Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert-Jan Verkes
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED)...
February 12, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188326/incidental-retrieval-of-prior-emotion-mimicry
#10
Ralph Pawling, Alexander J Kirkham, Amy E Hayes, Steven P Tipper
When observing emotional expressions, similar sensorimotor states are activated in the observer, often resulting in physical mimicry. For example, when observing a smile, the zygomaticus muscles associated with smiling are activated in the observer, and when observing a frown, the corrugator brow muscles. We show that the consistency of an individual's facial emotion, whether they always frown or smile, can be encoded into memory. When the individuals are viewed at a later time expressing no emotion, muscle mimicry of the prior state can be detected, even when the emotion itself is task irrelevant...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163234/what-s-in-a-name-the-case-of-emotional-disclosure-of-pain-related-distress
#11
Annmarie Cano, Liesbet Goubert
Pain behavior plays a key role in many theoretical models of pain, with many of these models conceptualizing pain behaviors as potentially detrimental to patient functioning. We propose that a certain class of behaviors-talking to others about one's pain-related distress (ie, emotional disclosures of pain-related distress)-can be distinguished from other behaviors traditionally conceptualized as pain behaviors. Emotional disclosures of pain-related distress include verbally disclosing one's anger, sadness, or worry about the pain and its effects to another person...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151976/transient-emotional-events-and-individual-affective-traits-affect-emotion-recognition-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#12
Emilie Qiao-Tasserit, Maria Garcia Quesada, Lia Antico, Daphne Bavelier, Patrik Vuilleumier, Swann Pichon
Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety) and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114335/human-empathy-personality-and-experience-affect-the-emotion-ratings-of-dog-and-human-facial-expressions
#13
Miiamaaria V Kujala, Sanni Somppi, Markus Jokela, Outi Vainio, Lauri Parkkonen
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113267/selective-transfer-machine-for-personalized-facial-expression-analysis
#14
Wen-Sheng Chu, Fernando de la Torre, Jeffrey Cohn
Automatic facial action unit (AU) and expression detection from videos is a long-standing problem. The problem is challenging in part because classifiers must generalize to previously unknown subjects that differ markedly in behavior and facial morphology (e.g., heavy versus delicate brows, smooth versus deeply etched wrinkles) from those on which the classifiers are trained. While some progress has been achieved through improvements in choices of features and classifiers, the challenge occasioned by individual differences among people remains...
March 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#15
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062310/experiencing-pain-in-the-presence-of-others-a-structured-experimental-investigation-of-older-adults
#16
Natasha L Gallant, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos
The role of various forms of social support (including the mere presence of another person) in pain has been studied in children and younger adults, but parallel studies involving older persons have not been conducted. In this investigation, older adults (N = 100) took part in a series of experimental pain tasks in each of the following conditions: alone, in the presence of a stranger, and in the presence of a family member. Indices of pain (threshold, tolerance, intensity, unpleasantness, facial expressions) and facial expressions of emotion were analyzed...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034977/which-facial-descriptors-do-care-home-nurses-use-to-infer-whether-a-person-with-dementia-is-in-pain
#17
Stefan Lautenbacher, Elizabeth L Sampson, Sonja Pähl, Miriam Kunz
OBJECTIVES : Pain assessment in people with advanced dementia relies strongly on observable pain behaviors, such as facial expressions, body movement, and vocalizations. However, the process of inferring pain in others based on such observations is not well understood. We aimed to investigate which features of facial expressions caregivers rely on when inferring the presence and intensity of pain in people with dementia. METHODS : A questionnaire, including items on 13 facial descriptors, which were extracted from established observational scales for pain in dementia, was sent to 366 nursing homes in Germany...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032518/factors-contributing-to-individual-differences-in-facial-expression-categorisation
#18
Corinne Green, Kun Guo
Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025955/attention-allocation-to-facial-expressions-of-emotion-among-persons-with-williams-and-down-syndromes
#19
Karen J Goldman, Cory Shulman, Yair Bar-Haim, Rany Abend, Jacob A Burack
Individuals with Williams syndrome and those with Down syndrome are both characterized by heightened social interest, although the manifestation is not always similar. Using a dot-probe task, we examined one possible source of difference: allocation of attention to facial expressions of emotion. Thirteen individuals with Williams syndrome (mean age = 19.2 years, range = 10-28.6), 20 with Down syndrome (mean age = 18.8 years, range = 12.1-26.3), and 19 typically developing children participated. The groups were matched for mental age (mean = 5...
December 27, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007464/proneness-to-aggression-and-its-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-interconnections-between-personality-traits-cognitive-function-and-emotional-processing
#20
Menahem I Krakowski, Pal Czobor
OBJECTIVE: Research on aggression in schizophrenia has focused on narrowly defined deficits, while ignoring interconnections among these impairments which provide better explanatory power. Our goal was to investigate interrelations among impairments in important domains related to aggression: personality traits, including psychopathy and impulsivity, cognition and processing of emotions. METHOD: 34 healthy controls, 37 high aggression (HAG) and 31 low aggression (LAG) patients with schizophrenia participated...
December 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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