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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#1
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062310/experiencing-pain-in-the-presence-of-others-a-structured-experimental-investigation-of-older-adults
#2
Natasha L Gallant, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos
: The role of various forms of social support (including the mere presence of another person) in pain has been studied in children and younger adults, but parallel studies involving older persons have not been conducted. In this investigation, older adults (N =100) took part in a series of experimental pain tasks in each of the following conditions: alone, in the presence of a stranger, and in the presence of a family member. Indices of pain (threshold, tolerance, intensity, unpleasantness, facial expressions) and facial expressions of emotion were analyzed...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034977/which-facial-descriptors-do-care-home-nurses-use-to-infer-whether-a-person-with-dementia-is-in-pain
#3
Stefan Lautenbacher, Elizabeth L Sampson, Sonja Pähl, Miriam Kunz
OBJECTIVES : Pain assessment in people with advanced dementia relies strongly on observable pain behaviors, such as facial expressions, body movement, and vocalizations. However, the process of inferring pain in others based on such observations is not well understood. We aimed to investigate which features of facial expressions caregivers rely on when inferring the presence and intensity of pain in people with dementia. METHODS : A questionnaire, including items on 13 facial descriptors, which were extracted from established observational scales for pain in dementia, was sent to 366 nursing homes in Germany...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032518/factors-contributing-to-individual-differences-in-facial-expression-categorisation
#4
Corinne Green, Kun Guo
Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025955/attention-allocation-to-facial-expressions-of-emotion-among-persons-with-williams-and-down-syndromes
#5
Karen J Goldman, Cory Shulman, Yair Bar-Haim, Rany Abend, Jacob A Burack
Individuals with Williams syndrome and those with Down syndrome are both characterized by heightened social interest, although the manifestation is not always similar. Using a dot-probe task, we examined one possible source of difference: allocation of attention to facial expressions of emotion. Thirteen individuals with Williams syndrome (mean age = 19.2 years, range = 10-28.6), 20 with Down syndrome (mean age = 18.8 years, range = 12.1-26.3), and 19 typically developing children participated. The groups were matched for mental age (mean = 5...
December 27, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007464/proneness-to-aggression-and-its-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-interconnections-between-personality-traits-cognitive-function-and-emotional-processing
#6
Menahem I Krakowski, Pal Czobor
OBJECTIVE: Research on aggression in schizophrenia has focused on narrowly defined deficits, while ignoring interconnections among these impairments which provide better explanatory power. Our goal was to investigate interrelations among impairments in important domains related to aggression: personality traits, including psychopathy and impulsivity, cognition and processing of emotions. METHOD: 34 healthy controls, 37 high aggression (HAG) and 31 low aggression (LAG) patients with schizophrenia participated...
December 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002985/on-the-malleability-of-the-meaning-of-contexts-the-influence-of-another-person-s-emotion-expressions-on-situation-perception
#7
Ursula Hess, Shlomo Hareli
Research on the relationship between context and facial expressions generally assumes a unidirectional effect of context on expressions. However, according to the model of the meaning of emotion expressions in context (MEEC) the effect should be bidirectional. The present research tested the effect of emotion expression on the interpretation of scenes. A total of 380 participants either (a) rated facial expressions with regard to the likely appraisal of the eliciting situation by the emoter, (b) appraised the scenes alone or (c) appraised scenes shown together with the expressions they supposedly elicited...
December 21, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977219/speaking-about-feelings-further-evidence-for-multidirectional-age-differences-in-anger-and-sadness
#8
Ute Kunzmann, Margund Rohr, Cornelia Wieck, Cathleen Kappes, Carsten Wrosch
This study investigated age differences in anger and sadness in a sample of 82 younger (Mage = 26, SDage = 4.05) and 80 older (Mage = 70, SDage = 3.95) adults. Participants were instructed to first relive a personal memory that was characterized by either anger or sadness and to subsequently think aloud about this memory. Across different emotional response systems (i.e., subjective feelings, verbal expressions, facial behaviors, physiological arousal), older adults reacted with less anger than did their younger counterparts, whereas age differences in sadness were less pronounced...
December 15, 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959925/emotion-unchained-facial-expression-modulates-gaze-cueing-under-cognitive-load
#9
Anna Pecchinenda, Manuel Petrucci
Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939640/mutations-in-the-chromatin-regulator-gene-brpf1-cause-syndromic-intellectual-disability-and-deficient-histone-acetylation
#10
Kezhi Yan, Justine Rousseau, Rebecca Okashah Littlejohn, Courtney Kiss, Anna Lehman, Jill A Rosenfeld, Constance T R Stumpel, Alexander P A Stegmann, Laurie Robak, Fernando Scaglia, Thi Tuyet Mai Nguyen, He Fu, Norbert F Ajeawung, Maria Vittoria Camurri, Lin Li, Alice Gardham, Bianca Panis, Mohammed Almannai, Maria J Guillen Sacoto, Berivan Baskin, Claudia Ruivenkamp, Fan Xia, Weimin Bi, Megan T Cho, Thomas P Potjer, Gijs W E Santen, Michael J Parker, Natalie Canham, Margaret McKinnon, Lorraine Potocki, Jennifer J MacKenzie, Elizabeth R Roeder, Philippe M Campeau, Xiang-Jiao Yang
Identification of over 500 epigenetic regulators in humans raises an interesting question regarding how chromatin dysregulation contributes to different diseases. Bromodomain and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multivalent chromatin regulator possessing three histone-binding domains, one non-specific DNA-binding module, and several motifs for interacting with and activating three lysine acetyltransferases. Genetic analyses of fish brpf1 and mouse Brpf1 have uncovered an important role in skeletal, hematopoietic, and brain development, but it remains unclear how BRPF1 is linked to human development and disease...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933022/emotional-empathy-and-facial-mimicry-for-static-and-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-fear-and-disgust
#11
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#12
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886521/seeing-the-world-through-others-minds-inferring-social-context-from-behaviour
#13
Yvonne Teoh, Emma Wallis, Ian D Stephen, Peter Mitchell
Past research tells us that individuals can infer information about a target's emotional state and intentions from their facial expressions (Frith & Frith, 2012), a process known as mentalising. This extends to inferring the events that caused the facial reaction (e.g. Pillai, Sheppard, & Mitchell, 2012; Pillai et al., 2014), an ability known as retrodictive mindreading. Here, we enter new territory by investigating whether or not people (perceivers) can guess a target's social context by observing their response to stimuli...
February 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874846/communications-and-relationships-between-patient-and-nurse-in-intensive-care-unit-knowledge-knowledge-of-the-work-knowledge-of-the-emotional-state
#14
Chiara Foà, Lisa Cavalli, Alessia Maltoni, Nicoletta Tosello, Chiara Sangilles, Ilaria Maron, Marina Borghini, Giovanna Artioli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) the communication between nurse and patient, the core of the care, is often hindered by patient's cognitive alterations and critical situation, by devices employed for the mechanical ventilation, and by the clinical and care-giving setting. How to overcome these barriers? How is the relational and communicative approach between nurse and patient unable to express him or herself to be managed? The available literature reveals that studies on communication with difficult patients, such as those treated in ICU are currently scarce...
November 22, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864643/robust-representations-of-individual-faces-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-but-not-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#15
Jessica Taubert, Kimberly B Weldon, Lisa A Parr
Being able to recognize the faces of our friends and family members no matter where we see them represents a substantial challenge for the visual system because the retinal image of a face can be degraded by both changes in the person (age, expression, pose, hairstyle, etc.) and changes in the viewing conditions (direction and degree of illumination). Yet most of us are able to recognize familiar people effortlessly. A popular theory for how face recognition is achieved has argued that the brain stabilizes facial appearance by building average representations that enhance diagnostic features that reliably vary between people while diluting features that vary between instances of the same person...
November 19, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859920/emotion-and-personal-space-neural-correlates-of-approach-avoidance-tendencies-to-different-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-coldhearted-psychopathic-traits
#16
Joana B Vieira, Tamara P Tavares, Abigail A Marsh, Derek G V Mitchell
In social interactions, humans are expected to regulate interpersonal distance in response to the emotion displayed by others. Yet, the neural mechanisms implicated in approach-avoidance tendencies to distinct emotional expressions have not been fully described. Here, we investigated the neural systems implicated in regulating the distance to different emotions, and how they vary as a function of empathy. Twenty-three healthy participants assessed for psychopathic traits underwent fMRI scanning while they viewed approaching and withdrawing angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral faces...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#17
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836135/microplastics-in-personal-care-products-exploring-perceptions-of-environmentalists-beauticians-and-students
#18
A G Anderson, J Grose, S Pahl, R C Thompson, K J Wyles
Microplastics enter the environment as a result of larger plastic items breaking down ('secondary') and from particles originally manufactured at that size ('primary'). Personal care products are an important contributor of secondary microplastics (typically referred to as 'microbeads'), for example in toothpaste, facial scrubs and soaps. Consumers play an important role in influencing the demand for these products and therefore any associated environmental consequences. Hence we need to understand public perceptions in order to help reduce emissions of microplastics...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832746/exome-sequencing-identifies-pathogenic-variants-of-vps13b-in-a-patient-with-familial-16p11-2-duplication
#19
Jila Dastan, Chieko Chijiwa, Flamingo Tang, Sally Martell, Ying Qiao, Evica Rajcan-Separovic, M E Suzanne Lewis
BACKGROUND: The recurrent microduplication of 16p11.2 (dup16p11.2) is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) confounded by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. This inter- and intra-familial clinical variability highlights the importance of personalized genetic counselling in individuals at-risk. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to look for other genomic alterations that could explain the clinical variability in a family with a boy presenting with NDD who inherited the dup16p11...
November 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776504/a-quasi-randomized-feasibility-pilot-study-of-specific-treatments-to-improve-emotion-recognition-and-mental-state-reasoning-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#20
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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