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Anthrax vaccine symptoms

Bobby Brooke Herrera, Donald J Hamel, Philip Oshun, Rolake Akinsola, Alani S Akanmu, Charlotte A Chang, Philomena Eromon, Onikepe Folarin, Kayode T Adeyemi, Christian T Happi, Yichen Lu, Folasade Ogunsola, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) caused more than 11,000 deaths during the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa without approved vaccines or immunotherapeutics. Despite its high lethality in some individuals, EBOV infection can produce little to no symptoms in others. A better understanding of the immune responses in individuals who experienced minimally symptomatic and asymptomatic infection could aid the development of more effective vaccines and antivirals against EBOV and related filoviruses...
May 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
J L Hu, L L Cui, C J Bao, Z M Tan, S Rutherford, L Ying, M L Zhang, F C Zhu
Anthrax is still a severe public health problem and threat to human health. A cutaneous anthrax outbreak occurred in Jiangsu Province, a non-endemic anthrax region of eastern China, from July to August 2012. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation were initiated to trace the source of infection and identify the risk factors of the outbreak. On 25 July 2012, 17 persons were exposed to a sick cow, which had been imported from northeast China a few days previously. Of the 17 exposed, eight developed symptoms between 1 and 8 days and were diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax cases...
September 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Akouda Akessiwe Patassi, Bayaki Saka, Dadja Essoya Landoh, Kodjo Agbenoko, Tsidi Tamekloe, Dominique Salmon-Ceron
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and define an outbreak of human anthrax in two villages in the northern savannah region of Togo. PATIENTS AND METHOD: In December 2009, localised groups of deaths occurred among villagers and their livestock, confirmed to be due to anthrax at the district hospital of Dapaong in Northern Togo. The National Disease Control department undertook an investigation to describe the epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological characteristics of this outbreak...
July 2016: Tropical Doctor
Wei-Feng Wang, Xiao-Xu Guo, Yun-Sheng Yang
Gastrointestinal problems are common during wars, and they have exerted significant adverse effects on the health of service members involved in warfare. The spectrum of digestive diseases has varied during wars of different eras. At the end of the 20th century, new frontiers of military medical research emerged due to the occurrence of high-tech wars such as the Gulf War and the Kosovo War, in which ground combat was no longer the primary method of field operations. The risk to the military personnel who face trauma has been greatly reduced, but disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) such as neuropsychological disorders and digestive diseases seemed to be increased...
2015: Military Medical Research
Neha Dhasmana, Lalit K Singh, Asani Bhaduri, Richa Misra, Yogendra Singh
The etiologic agent of disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, causes recurrent outbreaks among the livestock and intermittent infections in humans across the world. Controlling animal infections by vaccination can minimize the incidence of disease in humans. Prevention of anthrax in occupationally exposed personnel is achieved through vaccination with either live spores or precipitates of culture supernatants from attenuated strains of B. anthracis. However, anthrax vaccination of the large human population is impractical as well as inappropriate...
2014: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
John Palmer, Matt Bell, Christian Darko, Roy Barnewall, Andrea Keane-Myers
In the past decade, several Bacillus cereus strains have been isolated from otherwise healthy individuals who succumbed to bacterial pneumonia presenting symptoms resembling inhalational anthrax. One strain was indistinguishable from B. cereus G9241, previously cultured from an individual who survived a similar pneumonia-like illness and which was shown to possess a complete set of plasmid-borne anthrax toxin-encoding homologs. The finding that B. cereus G9241 pathogenesis in mice is dependent on pagA1-derived protective antigen (PA) synthesis suggests that an anthrax toxin-based vaccine may be effective against this toxin-encoding B...
November 2014: Pathogens and Disease
Robyn A Stoddard, Conrad P Quinn, Jarad M Schiffer, Anne E Boyer, Jason Goldstein, Dennis A Bagarozzi, Stephen D Soroka, Leslie A Dauphin, Alex R Hoffmaster
Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment...
June 2014: Journal of Immunological Methods
Dimitrios Karussis, Panayiota Petrou
A wide variety of inflammatory diseases temporally associated with the administration of various vaccines, has been reported in the literature. A PubMed search from 1979 to 2013 revealed seventy one (71) documented cases. The most commonly reported vaccinations that were associated with CNS demyelinating diseases included influenza (21 cases), human papilloma virus (HPV) (9 cases), hepatitis A or B (8 cases), rabies (5 cases), measles (5 cases), rubella (5 cases), yellow fever (3 cases), anthrax (2 cases),meningococcus (2 cases) and tetanus (2 cases)...
March 2014: Autoimmunity Reviews
Mahdi Balali-Mood, Mohammad Moshiri, Leila Etemad
INTRODUCTION: Bioterrorism is a terrorist action involving the intentional release or dissemination of a biological warfare agent (BWA), which includes some bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi or biological toxins. BWA is a naturally occurring or human-modified form that may kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war or terrorism. BWA is a weapon of choice for mass destruction and terrorism, because of the incubation period, less effective amount than chemical warfare agents, easily distribution, odorless, colorless, difficult to detect, no need of specialized equipment for production and naturally distribution which can easily be obtained...
July 2013: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Hiroki Sato, Yutaka Sakurai
OBJECTIVES: Establishing containment measures against the potential spread of the smallpox virus has become a major issue in the public health field since the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between the level of activity of public health agencies and the voluntary cooperation of residents with ring-vaccination measures against a smallpox epidemic. METHODS: A discrete-time, stochastic, individual-based model was used to simulate the spread of a smallpox epidemic that has become a more pressing topic due to 9/11 and to assess the effectiveness of and required resources for ring-vaccination measures in a closed community...
October 2012: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
D Murphy, T M Marteau, S Wessely
AIM: To determine longer term health outcome in a cohort of UK service personnel who received the anthrax vaccination. METHOD: We conducted a three year follow up of UK service personnel all of whom were in the Armed Forces at the start of the Iraq War. 3206 had been offered the anthrax vaccination as part of preparations for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. A further 1190 individuals who did not deploy to Iraq in 2003 were subsequently offered the vaccination as part of later deployments, and in whom we therefore had prospective pre-exposure data...
February 1, 2012: Vaccine
Karen E Brenneman, Mehmet Doganay, Arya Akmal, Stanley Goldman, Darrell R Galloway, Alfred J Mateczun, Alan S Cross, Leslie W Baillie
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces a tripartite toxin composed of two enzymatically active subunits, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), which, when associated with a cell-binding component, protective antigen (PA), form lethal toxin and edema toxin, respectively. In this preliminary study, we characterized the toxin-specific antibody responses observed in 17 individuals infected with cutaneous anthrax. The majority of the toxin-specific antibody responses observed following infection were directed against LF, with immunoglobulin G (IgG) detected as early as 4 days after the onset of symptoms in contrast to the later and lower EF- and PA-specific IgG responses...
July 2011: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Thomas M Beachkofsky, Scott C Carrizales, Jeffrey J Bidinger, David E Hrncir, Darren E Whittemore, Chad M Hivnor
BACKGROUND: Generalized vaccinia and benign exanthems are 2 adverse events that have been associated with the smallpox vaccination. Accurate incidence and prevalence rates of each are not readily available, but these events are thought to be uncommon. To our knowledge, this is the first case series to provide clinical as well as pathologic descriptions of multiple papulovesicular eruptions occurring after receiving the second-generation smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000 (Acambis, Canton, Massachusetts), among a vaccinia-naïve military population...
June 2010: Archives of Dermatology
D Murphy, A Strong
BACKGROUND: There was a significant risk of malaria in the area to which military personnel were deployed during the Iraq War. In this paper we investigated attitudes towards anti malarial tablets, health and the reporting of military hazards during deployment. METHODS: A cross sectional study of military personnel deployed to Iraq between 2003 and 2006 was performed. A mixed methods model of analysis, with quantitative analysis of reported concerns regarding anti-malarial tablets, health and environmental exposures was undertaken with a qualitative analysis of responses to a free text question inviting comments on concerns regarding the prophylaxis...
March 2010: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Christopher J Phillips, Gary R Matyas, Christian J Hansen, Carl R Alving, Tyler C Smith, Margaret A K Ryan
Since the end of the 1991 Gulf War, there have been reports of unexplained, multisymptom illnesses afflicting veterans who consistently report more symptoms than do nondeployed veterans. One of the many possible exposures suspected of causing chronic multisymptom illnesses Gulf War veterans is squalene, thought to be present in anthrax vaccine. We examined the relationship between squalene antibodies and chronic symptoms reported by Navy construction workers (Seabees), n=579. 30.2% were deployers, 7.4% were defined as ill, and 43...
June 12, 2009: Vaccine
Mafany Ndiva Mongoh, Neil W Dyer, Charles L Stoltenow, Margaret L Khaitsa
OBJECTIVE: We identified the risk factors associated with the anthrax outbreak Of 2005 in animals in North Dakota. METHODS: Medical records of the 2005 anthrax outbreak were obtained from the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at North Dakota State University. Additional data were obtained from the North Dakota state veterinarian's office, and supplemental questionnaires were administered to producers. The data obtained included ecological and environmental factors, animal health factors, and management factors...
May 2008: Public Health Reports
Jessica L Richard, Deanna E Grimes
A bioterrorism attack would be particularly challenging for medical professionals caring for patients with cancer who often have weakened immune systems. Knowledge of the class A agents and the potential variable presentations in immunocompromised patients is key to early recognition of an outbreak and prompt reporting. The purpose of this article is to present the class A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), botulinum toxin (botulism), variola virus (smallpox), Yersinia pestis (pneumonic plague), and Francisella tularensis (tularemia)...
April 2008: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Denise L Doolan, Daniel A Freilich, Gary T Brice, Timothy H Burgess, Mara P Berzins, Robert L Bull, Norma L Graber, Jason L Dabbs, Lori L Shatney, David L Blazes, Lolita M Bebris, Maria F Malone, John F Eisold, Alfred J Mateczun, Gregory J Martin
BACKGROUND: Bioterrorism-related anthrax exposures occurred at the US Capitol in 2001. Exposed individuals received antibiotics and anthrax vaccine adsorbed immunization. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of 124 subjects--stratified on the basis of spore exposure, nasopharyngeal culture results, and immunization status from inside and outside an epidemiologically defined exposure zone--was performed to describe clinical outcome and immune responses after Bacillus anthracis exposure...
January 15, 2007: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rebecca J Hornby, Peter C Pearce, Andrew P Bowditch, Leah Scott, Gareth D Griffiths
Following active service during the 1990/1991 Gulf Conflict, a number of UK and US veterans presented with a diverse range of symptoms, collectively known as Gulf Veterans Illnesses (GVI). The administration of vaccines and/or the pretreatment against possible nerve agent poisoning, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), given to Armed Forces personnel during the Gulf Conflict has been implicated as a possible factor in the aetiology of these illnesses. The possibility that adverse health effects may result from the administration of these vaccines (anthrax, pertussis, plague, yellow fever, polio, typhoid, tetanus, hepatitis B, meningococcal meningitis and cholera) and/or PB, have been investigated over an eighteen month period, in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset...
December 5, 2006: International Immunopharmacology
Gareth D Griffiths, Rebecca J Hornby, Christopher P Jagger, Alan P Brown, Adam Stoten, Peter C Pearce, Leah Scott, David I Pritchard
This methodological study was carried out in preparation for a major long term study, also reported in this volume, which was designed to investigate whether the combination of vaccines and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) could have been responsible for adverse signs and symptoms reported by a number of veterans of the 1990/1991 Gulf conflict. In this context, the marmoset has been used to model aspects of the human immune system. The purposes of this methodological study were to select appropriate immunochemical reagents to measure humoral responses induced in marmosets in response to selected health and hygiene and biological warfare vaccines and to initially assess the effects of PB on the responses recorded...
December 5, 2006: International Immunopharmacology
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