keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Anthrax vaccine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504191/lethal-factor-antibodies-contribute-to-lethal-toxin-neutralization-in-recipients-of-anthrax-vaccine-precipitated
#1
Eric K Dumas, Lori Garman, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Shyamal Choudhari, William D Picking, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498841/awareness-and-attitudes-towards-anthrax-and-meat-consumption-practices-among-affected-communities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-approach
#2
Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Oliver Mweemba, Consolata Kabonesa, Mwinyi Omary Mwinyi, Luke Nyakarahuka, John Bwalya Muma
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, human anthrax cases often occur following cases of animal anthrax. Human behaviour has been implicated in this transmission. The objective of the study was to explore human behavioural patterns that may contribute to outbreaks of anthrax among affected communities. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in four districts of Zambia from November 2015 to February 2016. A cross sectional survey involving 1,127 respondents, six focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews with professional staff were conducted...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398711/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#3
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
April 11, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388223/public-understanding-of-medical-countermeasures
#4
Brooke Fisher Liu, Sandra C Quinn, Michael Egnoto, Vicki Freimuth, Natalie Boonchaisri
Medical countermeasures, including new drugs and vaccines, are necessary to protect the public's health from novel diseases and terrorist threats. Experience with the 2001 anthrax attack and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic suggest that there is limited willingness to accept such drugs and that minority groups may respond differently from others. We conducted 148 intercept interviews in the metropolitan Washington, DC, area, examining 2 hypothetical scenarios: a new respiratory virus and public exposure to high levels of radiation...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374254/bacteriophage-t4-as-a-nanoparticle-platform-to-display-and-deliver-pathogen-antigens-construction-of-an-effective-anthrax-vaccine
#5
Pan Tao, Qin Li, Sathish B Shivachandra, Venigalla B Rao
Protein-based subunit vaccines represent a safer alternative to the whole pathogen in vaccine development. However, limitations of physiological instability and low immunogenicity of such vaccines demand an efficient delivery system to stimulate robust immune responses. The bacteriophage T4 capsid-based antigen delivery system can robustly elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses without any adjuvant. Therefore, it offers a strong promise as a novel antigen delivery system. Currently Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a serious biothreat agent and no FDA-approved anthrax vaccine is available for mass vaccination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348035/what-is-the-predictive-value-of-animal-models-for-vaccine-efficacy-in-humans-the-importance-of-bridging-studies-and-species-independent-correlates-of-protection
#6
Hana Golding, Surender Khurana, Marina Zaitseva
Animal models have played a pivotal role in all stages of vaccine development. Their predictive value for vaccine effectiveness depends on the pathogen, the robustness of the animal challenge model, and the correlates of protection (if known). This article will cover key questions regarding bridging animal studies to efficacy trials in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in which animal protection after vaccination with heterologous prototype virus-like particles (VLPs) predicted successful efficacy trials in humans, and a recent approval of anthrax vaccine in accordance with the "Animal Rule...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343781/sublingual-targeting-of-sting-with-3-3-cgamp-promotes-systemic-and-mucosal-immunity-against-anthrax-toxins
#7
Tara L Martin, Junbae Jee, Eunsoo Kim, Haley E Steiner, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Prosper N Boyaka
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen affecting humans and livestock worldwide. The current human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), is an injected vaccine with a cumbersome administration schedule and fails to promote mucosal immunity. Bacterial enterotoxins, which stimulate production of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP are effective experimental mucosal vaccine adjuvants, but their inherent toxicity has precluded their use in humans. We investigated whether cyclic dinucleotides that target Stimulator of Interferon Gamma Genes (STING) in mammalian cells could represent an alternative to bacterial enterotoxins as adjuvant for sublingual immunization and promotion of mucosal immunity and secretory IgA responses in addition to systemic immunity...
April 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342664/a-novel-live-attenuated-anthrax-spore-vaccine-based-on-an-acapsular-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain-with-mutations-in-the-htra-lef-and-cya-genes
#8
Theodor Chitlaru, Ma'ayan Israeli, Shahar Rotem, Uri Elia, Erez Bar-Haim, Sharon Ehrlich, Ofer Cohen, Avigdor Shafferman
We recently reported the development of a novel, next-generation, live attenuated anthrax spore vaccine based on disruption of the htrA (High Temperature Requirement A) gene in the Bacillus anthracis Sterne veterinary vaccine strain. This vaccine exhibited a highly significant decrease in virulence in murine, guinea pig and rabbit animal models yet preserved the protective value of the parental Sterne strain. Here, we report the evaluation of additional mutations in the lef and cya genes, encoding for the toxin components lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to further attenuate the SterneΔhtrA strain and improve its compatibility for human use...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215694/comparisons-of-the-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-induced-by-live-a16r-attenuated-spore-and-ava-like-anthrax-vaccine-in-mice
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jin Lv, Ying-Ying Zhang, Xun Lu, Hao Zhang, Lin Wei, Jun Gao, Bin Hu, Wen-Wei Hu, Dun-Zhong Hu, Na Jia, Xin Feng
The live attenuated anthrax vaccine and anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) are two main types of anthrax vaccines currently used in human. However, the immunoprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we compared humoral and cellular immunity induced by live A16R spore vaccine and A16R strain derived AVA-like vaccine in mice peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. Both A16R spores and AVA-like vaccines induced a sustained IgG antibody response with IgG1/IgG2b subtype dominance. However, A16R spores vaccine induced higher titer of IgG2a compared with AVA-like vaccine, indicating a stronger Th1 response to A16R spores...
March 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146366/cdc-s-evolving-approach-to-emergency-response
#10
Stephen C Redd, Thomas R Frieden
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) transformed its approach to preparing for and responding to public health emergencies following the anthrax attacks of 2001. The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, an organizational home for emergency response at CDC, was established, and 4 programs were created or greatly expanded after the anthrax attacks: (1) an emergency management program, including an Emergency Operations Center; (2) increased support of state and local health department efforts to prepare for emergencies; (3) a greatly enlarged Strategic National Stockpile of medicines, vaccines, and medical equipment; and (4) a regulatory program to assure that work done on the most dangerous pathogens and toxins is done as safely and securely as possible...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#11
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117174/stability-and-pre-formulation-development-of-a-plant-produced-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#12
R Mark Jones, Michael Burke, Devon Dubose, Jessica A Chichester, Slobodanka Manceva, April Horsey, Stephen J Streatfield, Jeff Breit, Vidadi Yusibov
Second generation anthrax vaccines focus on the use of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) to elicit a strong, toxin neutralizing antibody responses in immunized subjects. The main difference between the rPA vaccines compared to the current licensed vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA), is the rPA vaccines are highly purified preparations of only rPA. These second generation rPA vaccines strive to elicit strong immune responses with substantially fewer doses than AVA while provoking less side effects. Many of the rPA candidates have shown to be effective in pre-clinical studies, but most of the second generation molecules have stability issues which reduce their efficacy over time...
January 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115677/modeling-the-ecological-niche-of-bacillus-anthracis-to-map-anthrax-risk-in-kyrgyzstan
#13
Jason K Blackburn, Saitbek Matakarimov, Sabira Kozhokeeva, Zhyldyz Tagaeva, Lindsay K Bell, Ian T Kracalik, Asankadyr Zhunushov
AbstractAnthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance...
March 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073730/2014-anthrax-epidemic-in-koubia-prefecture-guinea-conakry
#14
M S Sow, M B Boushab, H Balde, A Camara, F B Sako, F A Traoré, M O S Diallo, M D Diallo, M Keita, A O Sylla, T M Tounkara, M Cissé
Anthrax disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the 2014 epidemic in Koubia prefecture. This retrospective study examined all of the anthrax cases reported in Fafaya, Koubia Prefecture. In March and April 2014, there were 39 cases of human anthrax reported, for an incidence of 1.135%. The mean age was 20.9 (± 18.3) with a sex ratio of 2.54 (28/11) in favor of men. Seventy-six percent (23/39) were single...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007853/genome-sequence-of-the-soviet-russian-bacillus-anthracis-vaccine-strain-55-vniivvim
#15
Jason Farlow, Adam Kotorashvili
Bacillus anthracis strain 55-VNIIVViM is a live-attenuated nonencapsulated Soviet/Russian veterinary anthrax vaccine strain. We report here the genome of 55-VNIIVViM and confirm its phylogenetic placement in the global population structure of B. anthracis.
December 22, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960239/histopathology-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Isaac H Solomon, Danny A Milner
The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#17
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898235/postexposure-prophylaxis-after-possible-anthrax-exposure-adherence-and-adverse-events
#18
Leisha D Nolen, Rita M Traxler, Grishma A Kharod, Pallavi A Kache, Stefan Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Katherine A Hendricks, Sean V Shadomy, William A Bower, Dana Meaney-Delman, Henry T Walke
Anthrax postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was recommended to 42 people after a laboratory incident that involved potential aerosolization of Bacillus anthracis spores in 2 laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2014. At least 31 (74%) individuals who initiated PEP did not complete either the recommended 60 days of antimicrobial therapy or the 3-dose vaccine regimen. Among the 29 that discontinued the antimicrobial component of PEP, most (38%) individuals discontinued PEP because of their low perceived risk of infection; 9 (31%) individuals discontinued prophylaxis due to PEP-related minor adverse events, and 10% cited both low risk and adverse events as their reason for discontinuation...
November 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893966/vaccination-via-chloroplast-genetics-affordable-protein-drugs-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-inherited-or-infectious-human-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Henry Daniell, Hui-Ting Chan, Elise K Pasoreck
Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874231/stability-of-domain-4-of-the-anthrax-toxin-protective-antigen-and-the-effect-of-the-vwa-domain-of-cmg2-on-stability
#20
Sireesha Mamillapalli, Masaru Miyagi, James G Bann
The major immunogenic component of the current anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) is protective antigen (PA). We have shown recently that the thermodynamic stability of PA can be significantly improved by binding to the Von-Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2), and improvements in thermodynamic stability may improve storage and long-term stability of PA for use as a vaccine. In order to understand the origin of this increase in stability, we have isolated the receptor binding domain of PA, domain 4 (D4), and have studied the effect of the addition of CMG2 on thermodynamic stability...
February 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
keyword
keyword
89962
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"