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Anthrax vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774566/correlation-between-anthrax-lethal-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-levels-and-survival-in-guinea-pigs-and-nonhuman-primates-vaccinated-with-the-av7909-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#1
Vladimir Savransky, Jeffry D Shearer, Melicia R Gainey, Daniel C Sanford, Gloria S Sivko, Gregory V Stark, Na Li, Boris Ionin, Michael J Lacy, Mario H Skiadopoulos
The anthrax vaccine candidate AV7909 is being developed as a next generation vaccine for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication against anthrax. AV7909 consists of the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax®) bulk drug substance adjuvanted with the immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) compound, CPG 7909. The addition of CPG 7909 to AVA enhances both the magnitude and the kinetics of antibody responses in animals and human subjects, making AV7909 a suitable next-generation vaccine for use in a PEP setting...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762675/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#2
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701192/protection-of-farm-goats-by-combinations-of-recombinant-peptides-and-formalin-inactivated-spores-from-a-lethal-bacillus-anthracis-challenge-under-field-conditions
#3
Susanne M Koehler, Fatih Buyuk, Ozgur Celebi, Hayati Demiraslan, Mehmet Doganay, Mitat Sahin, Jens Moehring, Okechukwu C Ndumnego, Salih Otlu, Henriette van Heerden, Wolfgang Beyer
BACKGROUND: Bacillus (B.) anthracis, the causal agent of anthrax, is effectively controlled by the Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) in animals. However, live spore vaccines are not suitable for simultaneous vaccination and antibiotic treatment of animals being at risk of infection in an outbreak situation. Non-living vaccines could close this gap. RESULTS: In this study a combination of recombinant protective antigen and recombinant Bacillus collagen-like antigen (rBclA) with or without formalin inactivated spores (FIS), targeted at raising an immune response against both the toxins and the spore of B...
July 12, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#4
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673484/safety-of-inadvertent-anthrax-vaccination-during-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-birth-defects-in-the-u-s-military-population-2003-2010
#5
Ava Marie S Conlin, Carter J Sevick, Gia R Gumbs, Zeina G Khodr, Anna T Bukowinski
BACKGROUND: Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) vaccination is compulsory for United States military servicemembers with operational indicators. As the number of female military servicemembers has increased, so has the chance of inadvertent AVA vaccination during pregnancy. Building upon past analyses assessing AVA vaccination during pregnancy and birth defects risk, this study sought to determine if inadvertent AVA vaccination during pregnancy is significantly associated with risk of birth defects after adjusting for other potential risk factors...
June 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662082/combination-of-poly-i-c-and-pam3csk4-enhances-activation-of-b-cells-in-vitro-and-boosts-antibody-responses-to-protein-vaccines-in-vivo
#6
Genevieve M Weir, Mohan Karkada, David Hoskin, Marianne M Stanford, Lisa MacDonald, Marc Mansour, Robert S Liwski
Vaccines that can rapidly induce strong and robust antibody-mediated immunity could improve protection from certain infectious diseases for which current vaccine formulations are inefficient. For indications such as anthrax and influenza, antibody production in vivo is a correlate of efficacy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are frequently studied for their role as vaccine adjuvants, largely because of their ability to enhance initiation of immune responses to antigens by activating dendritic cells. However, TLRs are also expressed on B cells and may contribute to effective B cell activation and promote differentiation into antigen-specific antibody producing plasma cells in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504191/lethal-factor-antibodies-contribute-to-lethal-toxin-neutralization-in-recipients-of-anthrax-vaccine-precipitated
#7
Eric K Dumas, Lori Garman, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Shyamal Choudhari, William D Picking, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective...
June 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498841/awareness-and-attitudes-towards-anthrax-and-meat-consumption-practices-among-affected-communities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-approach
#8
Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Oliver Mweemba, Consolata Kabonesa, Mwinyi Omary Mwinyi, Luke Nyakarahuka, John Bwalya Muma
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, human anthrax cases often occur following cases of animal anthrax. Human behaviour has been implicated in this transmission. The objective of the study was to explore human behavioural patterns that may contribute to outbreaks of anthrax among affected communities. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in four districts of Zambia from November 2015 to February 2016. A cross sectional survey involving 1,127 respondents, six focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews with professional staff were conducted...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398711/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#9
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
April 11, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388223/public-understanding-of-medical-countermeasures
#10
Brooke Fisher Liu, Sandra C Quinn, Michael Egnoto, Vicki Freimuth, Natalie Boonchaisri
Medical countermeasures, including new drugs and vaccines, are necessary to protect the public's health from novel diseases and terrorist threats. Experience with the 2001 anthrax attack and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic suggest that there is limited willingness to accept such drugs and that minority groups may respond differently from others. We conducted 148 intercept interviews in the metropolitan Washington, DC, area, examining 2 hypothetical scenarios: a new respiratory virus and public exposure to high levels of radiation...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374254/bacteriophage-t4-as-a-nanoparticle-platform-to-display-and-deliver-pathogen-antigens-construction-of-an-effective-anthrax-vaccine
#11
Pan Tao, Qin Li, Sathish B Shivachandra, Venigalla B Rao
Protein-based subunit vaccines represent a safer alternative to the whole pathogen in vaccine development. However, limitations of physiological instability and low immunogenicity of such vaccines demand an efficient delivery system to stimulate robust immune responses. The bacteriophage T4 capsid-based antigen delivery system can robustly elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses without any adjuvant. Therefore, it offers a strong promise as a novel antigen delivery system. Currently Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a serious biothreat agent and no FDA-approved anthrax vaccine is available for mass vaccination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348035/what-is-the-predictive-value-of-animal-models-for-vaccine-efficacy-in-humans-the-importance-of-bridging-studies-and-species-independent-correlates-of-protection
#12
Hana Golding, Surender Khurana, Marina Zaitseva
Animal models have played a pivotal role in all stages of vaccine development. Their predictive value for vaccine effectiveness depends on the pathogen, the robustness of the animal challenge model, and the correlates of protection (if known). This article will cover key questions regarding bridging animal studies to efficacy trials in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in which animal protection after vaccination with heterologous prototype virus-like particles (VLPs) predicted successful efficacy trials in humans, and a recent approval of anthrax vaccine in accordance with the "Animal Rule...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343781/sublingual-targeting-of-sting-with-3-3-cgamp-promotes-systemic-and-mucosal-immunity-against-anthrax-toxins
#13
Tara L Martin, Junbae Jee, Eunsoo Kim, Haley E Steiner, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Prosper N Boyaka
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen affecting humans and livestock worldwide. The current human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), is an injected vaccine with a cumbersome administration schedule and fails to promote mucosal immunity. Bacterial enterotoxins, which stimulate production of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP are effective experimental mucosal vaccine adjuvants, but their inherent toxicity has precluded their use in humans. We investigated whether cyclic dinucleotides that target Stimulator of Interferon Gamma Genes (STING) in mammalian cells could represent an alternative to bacterial enterotoxins as adjuvant for sublingual immunization and promotion of mucosal immunity and secretory IgA responses in addition to systemic immunity...
April 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342664/a-novel-live-attenuated-anthrax-spore-vaccine-based-on-an-acapsular-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain-with-mutations-in-the-htra-lef-and-cya-genes
#14
Theodor Chitlaru, Ma'ayan Israeli, Shahar Rotem, Uri Elia, Erez Bar-Haim, Sharon Ehrlich, Ofer Cohen, Avigdor Shafferman
We recently reported the development of a novel, next-generation, live attenuated anthrax spore vaccine based on disruption of the htrA (High Temperature Requirement A) gene in the Bacillus anthracis Sterne veterinary vaccine strain. This vaccine exhibited a highly significant decrease in virulence in murine, guinea pig and rabbit animal models yet preserved the protective value of the parental Sterne strain. Here, we report the evaluation of additional mutations in the lef and cya genes, encoding for the toxin components lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to further attenuate the SterneΔhtrA strain and improve its compatibility for human use...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215694/comparisons-of-the-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-induced-by-live-a16r-attenuated-spore-and-ava-like-anthrax-vaccine-in-mice
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jin Lv, Ying-Ying Zhang, Xun Lu, Hao Zhang, Lin Wei, Jun Gao, Bin Hu, Wen-Wei Hu, Dun-Zhong Hu, Na Jia, Xin Feng
The live attenuated anthrax vaccine and anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) are two main types of anthrax vaccines currently used in human. However, the immunoprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we compared humoral and cellular immunity induced by live A16R spore vaccine and A16R strain derived AVA-like vaccine in mice peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow. Both A16R spores and AVA-like vaccines induced a sustained IgG antibody response with IgG1/IgG2b subtype dominance. However, A16R spores vaccine induced higher titer of IgG2a compared with AVA-like vaccine, indicating a stronger Th1 response to A16R spores...
March 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146366/cdc-s-evolving-approach-to-emergency-response
#16
Stephen C Redd, Thomas R Frieden
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) transformed its approach to preparing for and responding to public health emergencies following the anthrax attacks of 2001. The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, an organizational home for emergency response at CDC, was established, and 4 programs were created or greatly expanded after the anthrax attacks: (1) an emergency management program, including an Emergency Operations Center; (2) increased support of state and local health department efforts to prepare for emergencies; (3) a greatly enlarged Strategic National Stockpile of medicines, vaccines, and medical equipment; and (4) a regulatory program to assure that work done on the most dangerous pathogens and toxins is done as safely and securely as possible...
January 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#17
REVIEW
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117174/stability-and-pre-formulation-development-of-a-plant-produced-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#18
R Mark Jones, Michael Burke, Devon Dubose, Jessica A Chichester, Slobodanka Manceva, April Horsey, Stephen J Streatfield, Jeff Breit, Vidadi Yusibov
Second generation anthrax vaccines focus on the use of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) to elicit a strong, toxin neutralizing antibody responses in immunized subjects. The main difference between the rPA vaccines compared to the current licensed vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA), is the rPA vaccines are highly purified preparations of only rPA. These second generation rPA vaccines strive to elicit strong immune responses with substantially fewer doses than AVA while provoking less side effects. Many of the rPA candidates have shown to be effective in pre-clinical studies, but most of the second generation molecules have stability issues which reduce their efficacy over time...
January 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115677/modeling-the-ecological-niche-of-bacillus-anthracis-to-map-anthrax-risk-in-kyrgyzstan
#19
Jason K Blackburn, Saitbek Matakarimov, Sabira Kozhokeeva, Zhyldyz Tagaeva, Lindsay K Bell, Ian T Kracalik, Asankadyr Zhunushov
AbstractAnthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance...
March 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073730/2014-anthrax-epidemic-in-koubia-prefecture-guinea-conakry
#20
M S Sow, M B Boushab, H Balde, A Camara, F B Sako, F A Traoré, M O S Diallo, M D Diallo, M Keita, A O Sylla, T M Tounkara, M Cissé
Anthrax disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the 2014 epidemic in Koubia prefecture. This retrospective study examined all of the anthrax cases reported in Fafaya, Koubia Prefecture. In March and April 2014, there were 39 cases of human anthrax reported, for an incidence of 1.135%. The mean age was 20.9 (± 18.3) with a sex ratio of 2.54 (28/11) in favor of men. Seventy-six percent (23/39) were single...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
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