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Anthrax vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036392/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#1
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Carrie L...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028799/modeling-the-environmental-suitability-of-anthrax-in-ghana-and-estimating-populations-at-risk-implications-for-vaccination-and-control
#2
Ian T Kracalik, Ernest Kenu, Evans Nsoh Ayamdooh, Emmanuel Allegye-Cudjoe, Paul Nokuma Polkuu, Joseph Asamoah Frimpong, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, William A Bower, Rita Traxler, Jason K Blackburn
Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988866/changing-livestock-vaccination-policy-alters-the-epidemiology-of-human-anthrax-georgia-2000-2013
#3
Ian Kracalik, Lile Malania, Mariam Broladze, Archil Navdarashvili, Paata Imnadze, Sadie J Ryan, Jason K Blackburn
Anthrax is a widely spread zoonotic disease found on nearly every continent. To control the disease in humans and animals, annual livestock vaccination is recommended. However, in 2007, the country of Georgia ended its policy of compulsory annual livestock anthrax vaccination. Our objective was to assess how the epidemiology of human anthrax has evolved from 2000-2013 in Georgia, in the wake of this cessation. We used passive surveillance data on epidemiological surveys of human anthrax case patients. Risk factors and rates of self-reported sources of infection were compared, before and after the change in livestock vaccination policy...
October 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979006/anthrax-where-margins-are-merging-between-emerging-threats-and-bioterrorism
#4
Dibyendu Banerjee, Baishali Chakraborty, Banya Chakraborty
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has classified all the emerging infectious diseases agents under three categories. Among Category A priority pathogens comes Bacillus anthracis -the causative agent of Anthrax. It is a gram positive spore bearing bacteria, and the disease is typically associated with grazing animals, and affects the people as a zoonosis. The disease can be classically transmitted by three routes namely: cutaneous, gastrointestinal and pulmonary, with a fourth route recently identified as "injection anthrax", seen in intravenous drug abusers...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882176/use-of-the-mice-passive-protection-test-to-evaluate-the-humoral-response-in-goats-vaccinated-with-sterne-34f2-live-spore-vaccine
#5
P H Phaswana, O C Ndumnego, S M Koehler, W Beyer, J E Crafford, H van Heerden
The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. Boer goats vaccinated twice (week 0 and week 12) with the Sterne live spore vaccine and naive goats were used to monitor the anti-PA and toxin neutralizing antibodies at week 4 and week 17 (after the second vaccine dose) post vaccination...
September 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877928/anthrax-vaccine-precipitated-induces-edema-toxin-neutralizing-edema-factor-specific-antibodies-in-human-recipients
#6
Eric K Dumas, Timothy Gross, Jason Larabee, Lance Pate, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Limone C Collins, Christina E Spooner, Hua Chen, Jimmy Ballard, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
Edema toxin (ET), composed of edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA), is a virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis that alters host immune cell function and contributes to anthrax disease. Anthrax vaccine precipitated (AVP) contains low but detectable levels of EF and can elicit EF-specific antibodies in human recipients of AVP. Active and passive vaccination of mice with EF can contribute to protection from challenge with Bacillus anthracis spores or ET. This study compared humoral responses to ET in recipients of AVP (n = 33) versus anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA; n = 66), matched for number of vaccinations and time postvaccination, and further determined whether EF antibodies elicited by AVP contribute to ET neutralization...
November 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829806/genome-engineering-in-bacillus-anthracis-using-tyrosine-site-specific-recombinases
#7
Andrei P Pomerantsev, Rita M McCall, Margaret Chahoud, Nathan K Hepler, Rasem Fattah, Stephen H Leppla
Tyrosine site-specific recombinases (T-SSR) are polynucleotidyltransferases that catalyze cutting and joining reactions between short specific DNA sequences. We developed three systems for performing genetic modifications in Bacillus anthracis that use T-SSR and their cognate target sequences, namely Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 Cre-loxP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flp-FRT, and a newly discovered IntXO-PSL system from B. anthracis plasmid pXO1. All three tyrosine recombinase systems were used for creation of a B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774566/correlation-between-anthrax-lethal-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-levels-and-survival-in-guinea-pigs-and-nonhuman-primates-vaccinated-with-the-av7909-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#8
Vladimir Savransky, Jeffry D Shearer, Melicia R Gainey, Daniel C Sanford, Gloria S Sivko, Gregory V Stark, Na Li, Boris Ionin, Michael J Lacy, Mario H Skiadopoulos
The anthrax vaccine candidate AV7909 is being developed as a next generation vaccine for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication against anthrax. AV7909 consists of the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax®) bulk drug substance adjuvanted with the immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) compound, CPG 7909. The addition of CPG 7909 to AVA enhances both the magnitude and the kinetics of antibody responses in animals and human subjects, making AV7909 a suitable next-generation vaccine for use in a PEP setting...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762675/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#9
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701192/protection-of-farm-goats-by-combinations-of-recombinant-peptides-and-formalin-inactivated-spores-from-a-lethal-bacillus-anthracis-challenge-under-field-conditions
#10
Susanne M Koehler, Fatih Buyuk, Ozgur Celebi, Hayati Demiraslan, Mehmet Doganay, Mitat Sahin, Jens Moehring, Okechukwu C Ndumnego, Salih Otlu, Henriette van Heerden, Wolfgang Beyer
BACKGROUND: Bacillus (B.) anthracis, the causal agent of anthrax, is effectively controlled by the Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) in animals. However, live spore vaccines are not suitable for simultaneous vaccination and antibiotic treatment of animals being at risk of infection in an outbreak situation. Non-living vaccines could close this gap. RESULTS: In this study a combination of recombinant protective antigen and recombinant Bacillus collagen-like antigen (rBclA) with or without formalin inactivated spores (FIS), targeted at raising an immune response against both the toxins and the spore of B...
July 12, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#11
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673484/safety-of-inadvertent-anthrax-vaccination-during-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-birth-defects-in-the-u-s-military-population-2003-2010
#12
Ava Marie S Conlin, Carter J Sevick, Gia R Gumbs, Zeina G Khodr, Anna T Bukowinski
BACKGROUND: Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) vaccination is compulsory for United States military servicemembers with operational indicators. As the number of female military servicemembers has increased, so has the chance of inadvertent AVA vaccination during pregnancy. Building upon past analyses assessing AVA vaccination during pregnancy and birth defects risk, this study sought to determine if inadvertent AVA vaccination during pregnancy is significantly associated with risk of birth defects after adjusting for other potential risk factors...
June 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662082/combination-of-poly-i-c-and-pam3csk4-enhances-activation-of-b-cells-in-vitro-and-boosts-antibody-responses-to-protein-vaccines-in-vivo
#13
Genevieve M Weir, Mohan Karkada, David Hoskin, Marianne M Stanford, Lisa MacDonald, Marc Mansour, Robert S Liwski
Vaccines that can rapidly induce strong and robust antibody-mediated immunity could improve protection from certain infectious diseases for which current vaccine formulations are inefficient. For indications such as anthrax and influenza, antibody production in vivo is a correlate of efficacy. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are frequently studied for their role as vaccine adjuvants, largely because of their ability to enhance initiation of immune responses to antigens by activating dendritic cells. However, TLRs are also expressed on B cells and may contribute to effective B cell activation and promote differentiation into antigen-specific antibody producing plasma cells in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504191/lethal-factor-antibodies-contribute-to-lethal-toxin-neutralization-in-recipients-of-anthrax-vaccine-precipitated
#14
Eric K Dumas, Lori Garman, Hannah Cuthbertson, Sue Charlton, Bassam Hallis, Renata J M Engler, Shyamal Choudhari, William D Picking, Judith A James, A Darise Farris
A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective...
June 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498841/awareness-and-attitudes-towards-anthrax-and-meat-consumption-practices-among-affected-communities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-approach
#15
Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Oliver Mweemba, Consolata Kabonesa, Mwinyi Omary Mwinyi, Luke Nyakarahuka, John Bwalya Muma
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, human anthrax cases often occur following cases of animal anthrax. Human behaviour has been implicated in this transmission. The objective of the study was to explore human behavioural patterns that may contribute to outbreaks of anthrax among affected communities. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in four districts of Zambia from November 2015 to February 2016. A cross sectional survey involving 1,127 respondents, six focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews with professional staff were conducted...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398711/major-birth-defects-after-vaccination-reported-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-1990-to-2014
#16
Pedro L Moro, Janet Cragan, Paige Lewis, Lakshmi Sukumaran
BACKGROUND: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014...
April 11, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388223/public-understanding-of-medical-countermeasures
#17
Brooke Fisher Liu, Sandra C Quinn, Michael Egnoto, Vicki Freimuth, Natalie Boonchaisri
Medical countermeasures, including new drugs and vaccines, are necessary to protect the public's health from novel diseases and terrorist threats. Experience with the 2001 anthrax attack and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic suggest that there is limited willingness to accept such drugs and that minority groups may respond differently from others. We conducted 148 intercept interviews in the metropolitan Washington, DC, area, examining 2 hypothetical scenarios: a new respiratory virus and public exposure to high levels of radiation...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374254/bacteriophage-t4-as-a-nanoparticle-platform-to-display-and-deliver-pathogen-antigens-construction-of-an-effective-anthrax-vaccine
#18
Pan Tao, Qin Li, Sathish B Shivachandra, Venigalla B Rao
Protein-based subunit vaccines represent a safer alternative to the whole pathogen in vaccine development. However, limitations of physiological instability and low immunogenicity of such vaccines demand an efficient delivery system to stimulate robust immune responses. The bacteriophage T4 capsid-based antigen delivery system can robustly elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses without any adjuvant. Therefore, it offers a strong promise as a novel antigen delivery system. Currently Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a serious biothreat agent and no FDA-approved anthrax vaccine is available for mass vaccination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348035/what-is-the-predictive-value-of-animal-models-for-vaccine-efficacy-in-humans-the-importance-of-bridging-studies-and-species-independent-correlates-of-protection
#19
Hana Golding, Surender Khurana, Marina Zaitseva
Animal models have played a pivotal role in all stages of vaccine development. Their predictive value for vaccine effectiveness depends on the pathogen, the robustness of the animal challenge model, and the correlates of protection (if known). This article will cover key questions regarding bridging animal studies to efficacy trials in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in which animal protection after vaccination with heterologous prototype virus-like particles (VLPs) predicted successful efficacy trials in humans, and a recent approval of anthrax vaccine in accordance with the "Animal Rule...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343781/sublingual-targeting-of-sting-with-3-3-cgamp-promotes-systemic-and-mucosal-immunity-against-anthrax-toxins
#20
Tara L Martin, Junbae Jee, Eunsoo Kim, Haley E Steiner, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Prosper N Boyaka
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen affecting humans and livestock worldwide. The current human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), is an injected vaccine with a cumbersome administration schedule and fails to promote mucosal immunity. Bacterial enterotoxins, which stimulate production of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP are effective experimental mucosal vaccine adjuvants, but their inherent toxicity has precluded their use in humans. We investigated whether cyclic dinucleotides that target Stimulator of Interferon Gamma Genes (STING) in mammalian cells could represent an alternative to bacterial enterotoxins as adjuvant for sublingual immunization and promotion of mucosal immunity and secretory IgA responses in addition to systemic immunity...
April 25, 2017: Vaccine
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