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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#1
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898235/postexposure-prophylaxis-after-possible-anthrax-exposure-adherence-and-adverse-events
#2
Leisha D Nolen, Rita M Traxler, Grishma A Kharod, Pallavi A Kache, Stefan Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Katherine A Hendricks, Sean V Shadomy, William A Bower, Dana Meaney-Delman, Henry T Walke
Anthrax postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was recommended to 42 people after a laboratory incident that involved potential aerosolization of Bacillus anthracis spores in 2 laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2014. At least 31 (74%) individuals who initiated PEP did not complete either the recommended 60 days of antimicrobial therapy or the 3-dose vaccine regimen. Among the 29 that discontinued the antimicrobial component of PEP, most (38%) individuals discontinued PEP because of their low perceived risk of infection; 9 (31%) individuals discontinued prophylaxis due to PEP-related minor adverse events, and 10% cited both low risk and adverse events as their reason for discontinuation...
November 29, 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893966/vaccination-via-chloroplast-genetics-affordable-protein-drugs-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-inherited-or-infectious-human-diseases
#3
Henry Daniell, Hui-Ting Chan, Elise K Pasoreck
Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874231/stability-of-domain-4-of-the-anthrax-toxin-protective-antigen-and-the-effect-of-the-vwa-domain-of-cmg2-on-stability
#4
Sireesha Mamillapalli, Masaru Miyagi, James G Bann
The major immunogenic component of the current anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) is protective antigen (PA). We have shown recently that the thermodynamic stability of PA can be significantly improved by binding to the Von-Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2), and improvements in thermodynamic stability may improve storage and long-term stability of PA for use as a vaccine. In order to understand the origin of this increase in stability, we have isolated the receptor binding domain of PA, domain 4 (D4), and have studied the effect of the addition of CMG2 on thermodynamic stability...
November 22, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792416/licensure-strategy-for-pre-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-biothrax-vaccine-the-first-vaccine-licensed-using-the-fda-animal-rule
#5
Janice Longstreth, Mario H Skiadopoulos, Robert J Hopkins
The availability of a licensed anthrax vaccine that is safe, effective, and easy to administer for both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis is critical to successfully manage and prevent potential anthrax attacks. BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; AVA) is the only licensed anthrax vaccine in the US. Areas Covered: Recent licensed improvements to BioThrax vaccine for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have included an intramuscular (IM) five-dose schedule (in 2008) and a three-dose IM primary series at 0, 1 and 6 months (in 2012)...
October 28, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775159/a-dual-purpose-universal-influenza-vaccine-candidate-confers-protective-immunity-against-anthrax
#6
Maria T Arévalo, Junwei Li, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Yanping Chen, Ashley Navarro, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Mingtao Zeng
Preventative influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of 3 tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax edema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753574/anthrax-vaccine-and-the-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-the-u-s-military-a-case-control-study
#7
Barbara H Bardenheier, Jonathan Duffy, Susan K Duderstadt, Jay B Higgs, Michael P Keith, Patricia J Papadopoulos, William R Gilliland, Michael M McNeil
U.S. military personnel assigned to areas deemed to be at high risk for anthrax attack receive Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA). Few cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in persons who received AVA. Using a matched case-control study design, we assessed the relationship of RA and SLE with AVA vaccination using the Defense Medical Surveillance System. We identified potential cases using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes and confirmed cases with medical record review and rheumatologist adjudication...
October 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677796/a-bacillus-anthracis-genome-sequence-from-the-sverdlovsk-1979-autopsy-specimens
#8
Jason W Sahl, Talima Pearson, Richard Okinaka, James M Schupp, John D Gillece, Hannah Heaton, Dawn Birdsell, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Ramón Noseda, Antonio Fasanella, Alex Hoffmaster, David M Wagner, Paul Keim
: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that occurs naturally in wild and domestic animals but has been used by both state-sponsored programs and terrorists as a biological weapon. A Soviet industrial production facility in Sverdlovsk, USSR, proved deficient in 1979 when a plume of spores was accidentally released and resulted in one of the largest known human anthrax outbreaks. In order to understand this outbreak and others, we generated a Bacillus anthracis population genetic database based upon whole-genome analysis to identify all single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a reference genome...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673328/development-of-an-acid-resistant-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-attenuated-vector-for-improved-oral-vaccine-delivery
#9
Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647868/progress-toward-the-development-of-a-neat-protein-vaccine-for-anthrax-disease
#10
Miriam A Balderas, Chinh T Q Nguyen, Austen Terwilliger, Wendy A Keitel, Angelina Iniguez, Rodrigo Torres, Frederico Palacios, Celia W Goulding, Anthony W Maresso
Bacillus anthracis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of anthrax and a potential weapon of bioterrorism. The U.S.-licensed anthrax vaccine is made from an incompletely characterized culture supernatant of a nonencapsulated, toxigenic strain (anthrax vaccine absorbed [AVA]) whose primary protective component is thought to be protective antigen (PA). AVA is effective in protecting animals and elicits toxin-neutralizing antibodies in humans, but enthusiasm is dampened by its undefined composition, multishot regimen, recommended boosters, and potential for adverse reactions...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599605/plant-based-vaccines-against-respiratory-diseases-current-status-and-future-prospects
#11
Verónica A Márquez-Escobar, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Josué I Beltrán-López, Omar González-Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory infections have an enormous, worldwide epidemiologic impact on humans and animals. Among the prophylactic measures, vaccination has the potential to neutralize this impact. New technologies for vaccine production and delivery are of importance in this field since they offer the potential to develop new immunization approaches overriding the current limitations that comprise high cost, safety issues, and limited efficacy. AREAS COVERED: In the present review, the state of the art in developing plant-based vaccines against respiratory diseases is presented...
September 6, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594343/acetalated-dextran-microparticulate-vaccine-formulated-via-coaxial-electrospray-preserves-toxin-neutralization-and-enhances-murine-survival-following-inhalational-bacillus-anthracis-exposure
#12
Matthew D Gallovic, Kevin L Schully, Matthew G Bell, Margaret A Elberson, John R Palmer, Christian A Darko, Eric M Bachelder, Barbara E Wyslouzil, Andrea M Keane-Myers, Kristy M Ainslie
Subunit formulations are regarded as the safest type of vaccine, but they often contain a protein-based antigen that can result in significant challenges, such as preserving antigenicity during formulation and administration. Many studies have demonstrated that encapsulation of protein antigens in polymeric microparticles (MPs) via emulsion techniques results in total IgG antibody titers comparable to alum formulations, however, the antibodies themselves are non-neutralizing. To address this issue, a coaxial electrohydrodynamic spraying (electrospray) technique is used to formulate a microparticulate-based subunit anthrax vaccine under conditions that minimize recombinant protective antigen (rPA) exposure to harsh solvents and high shear stress...
September 5, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558619/cross-species-prediction-of-human-survival-probabilities-for-accelerated-anthrax-vaccine-absorbed-ava-regimens-and-the-potential-for-vaccine-and-antibiotic-dose-sparing
#13
G V Stark, G S Sivko, M VanRaden, J Schiffer, K L Taylor, J A Hewitt, C P Quinn, E O Nuzum
Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax) was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) indication in adults 18-65years of age. The schedule is three doses administered subcutaneous (SC) at 2-week intervals (0, 2, and 4weeks), in conjunction with a 60-day course of antimicrobials. The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) developed an animal model to support assessment of a shortened antimicrobial PEP duration following Bacillus anthracis exposure...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496774/multivalent-chromosomal-expression-of-the-clostridium-botulinum-serotype-a-neurotoxin-heavy-chain-antigen-and-the-bacillus-anthracis-protective-antigen-in-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#14
Sarah O'Flaherty, Todd R Klaenhammer
: Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent toxins that cause severe disease in humans. New and improved vaccines are needed for both of these pathogens. For mucosal vaccine delivery using lactic acid bacteria, chromosomal expression of antigens is preferred over plasmid-based expression systems, as chromosomal expression circumvents plasmid instability and the need for antibiotic pressure. In this study, we constructed three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM expressing from the chromosome (i) the nontoxic host receptor-binding domain of the heavy chain of Clostridium botulinum serotype A neurotoxin (BoNT/A-Hc), (ii) the anthrax protective antigen (PA), and (iii) both the BoNT/A-Hc and the PA...
October 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496738/comparative-analysis-of-the-immunologic-response-induced-by-the-sterne-34f2-live-spore-bacillus-anthracis-vaccine-in-a-ruminant-model
#15
Okechukwu C Ndumnego, Susanne M Köhler, Jannie Crafford, Henriette van Heerden, Wolfgang Beyer
The Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine (SLSV) developed in 1937 is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax. However, literature on the immunogenicity of this vaccine in a target ruminant host is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the humoral response to the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (rPA), a recombinant bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis (rBclA), formaldehyde inactivated spores (FIS) prepared from strain 34F2 and a vegetative antigen formulation prepared from a capsule and toxin deficient strain (CDC 1014) in Boer goats...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389971/agility-in-adversity-vaccines-on-demand
#16
Anne S De Groot, Leonard Moise, David Olive, Leo Einck, William Martin
Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364624/generation-of-a-novel-chimeric-palfn-antigen-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-its-immunological-characterization-in-mouse-model
#17
Nagendra Suryanarayana, Monika Verma, Kulanthaivel Thavachelvam, Nandita Saxena, Bharti Mankere, Urmil Tuteja, Vanlal Hmuaka
Bacillus anthracis chimeric molecule PALFn, comprising the immunodominant domains of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF), has been developed in the past and has been shown to confer enhanced protection against anthrax in mouse model when challenged with anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx). However, the immunological correlates for this chimeric antigen, both in terms of humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses, have not been described in detail. To address this gap, we have determined the immunological responses both at humoral as well as cellular levels for the protection conferred by the novel chimeric antigen PALFn constructed in our laboratory in comparison to PA antigen...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364097/temperature-mediated-recombinant-anthrax-protective-antigen-aggregate-development-implications-for-toxin-formation-and-immunogenicity
#18
Juan C Amador-Molina, Esther D Valerdi-Madrigal, Rocío I Domínguez-Castillo, Lev A Sirota, Juan L Arciniega
Anthrax vaccines containing recombinant PA (rPA) as the only antigen face a stability issue: rPA forms aggregates in solution after exposure to temperatures ⩾40°C, thus losing its ability to form lethal toxin (LeTx) with Lethal Factor. To study rPA aggregation's impact on immune response, we subjected rPA to several time and temperature combinations. rPA treated at 50°C for 30min formed high mass aggregates when analyzed by gel electrophoresis and failed to form LeTx as measured by a macrophage lysis assay (MLA)...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363681/involvement-of-the-pagr-gene-of-pxo2-in-anthrax-pathogenesis
#19
Xudong Liang, Enmin Zhang, Huijuan Zhang, Jianchun Wei, Wei Li, Jin Zhu, Bingxiang Wang, Shulin Dong
Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Specifically, the anthrax toxins and capsules encoded by the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids, respectively, are the major virulence factors. We previously reported that the pXO1 plasmid was retained in the attenuated strain of B. anthracis vaccine strains even after subculturing at high temperatures. In the present study, we reinvestigate the attenuation mechanism of Pasteur II. Sequencing of pXO1 and pXO2 from Pasteur II strain revealed mutations in these plasmids as compared to the reference sequences...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338346/dismantling-the-taboo-against-vaccines-in-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
Maurizio de Martino
Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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