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Wallace Jones, William Silkworth, Nathaniel Dusto, Victoria S Pelak, Jean Berliner, Isabelle Buard, Benzi Kluger
Here we present a patient with persistent central visual oscillopsia, review the literature on this condition, and report results from an experimental intervention using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. A 57-year-old man reported persistent visual oscillopsia after a traumatic brain injury suffered 20 years earlier. Symptoms were presumed to be of cortical origin given his normal eye movements, eye stability, and peripheral vestibular function. Furthermore, he reported oscillopsia with visual imagery during eye closure...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Lorena Santamaria, Christopher James
Phase synchronisation between different neural groups is considered an important source of information to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain cognition. This Letter investigated phase-synchronisation patterns from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from ten healthy participants performing motor imagery (MI) tasks using schematic emotional faces as stimuli. These phase-synchronised states, named synchrostates, are specific for each cognitive task performed by the user. The maximum and minimum number of occurrence states were selected for each subject and task to extract the connectivity network measures based on graph theory to feed a set of classification algorithms...
June 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Gustavo Machado, Carla Weiblen, Luis E Escobar
Pythium insidiosum is a widespread pathogen that causes pythiosis, a disease with severe health consequences in horses and humans worldwide. Latin America hosts one of the largest, but scattered, horse herds, making it critical to identify areas at high risk of pythiosis transmission to help guide surveillance in areas with disease transmission risk. We utilized ecological niche modelling and epidemiological data to reconstruct the ecological conditions for pathogen circulation to identify areas with potential risk of pythiosis in Brazil and Uruguay...
June 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Anette Lemström
AimsHelsinki University Hospital for Children and Adolescents treats 0-to 16-year old pediatric and surgical patients. The patients arrive to the emergency unit by ambulance, referral or by decision of the triage nurse. The most common reason for visit is pain. VAS pain scale should be used, but pain is not evaluated properly. The aim of this study was to review literature on evaluation and treatment of pain in pediatric emergency unit. MethodsA search from Cinahl and Finnish Medic-database covering last 10 years was performed using: pain, child, trauma, documentation, evaluation, emergency and assessment as keywords...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Pamela Heaton, Wai Fung Tsang, Kelly Jakubowski, Daniel Mullensiefen, Rory Allen
Deficits in auditory short-term memory have been widely reported in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and recent evidence suggests that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and co-morbid language impairment (ALI) experience similar difficulties. Music, like language relies on auditory memory and the aim of the study was to extend work investigating the impact of auditory short-term memory impairments to musical perception in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Groups of children with SLI and ALI were matched on chronological age (CA), receptive vocabulary, non-verbal intelligence and digit span, and compared with CA matched typically developing (TD) controls, on tests of pitch and temporal acuity within a voluntary musical imagery paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mesfin Awoke Bekalu, K Viswanath
Considerable research from high-income countries has characterized the amount, nature and effects of movie smoking depiction. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where tobacco use and tobacco-related diseases are growing, little research has investigated smoking imagery in movies. This study examined the extent and nature of smoking portrayal in locally produced Ethiopian movies, and estimated the number of tobacco impressions movies delivered. Sample movies were taken from YouTube. Keyword searches were conducted using 'Ethiopian movies' and 'Ethiopian drama' on 18 September 2016...
April 17, 2018: Health Promotion International
Verity J B Flower, Ralph A Kahn
Space-based, operational instruments are in unique positions to monitor volcanic activity globally, especially in remote locations or where suborbital observing conditions are hazardous. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provides hyper-stereo imagery, from which the altitude and microphysical properties of suspended atmospheric aerosols can be derived. These capabilities are applied to plumes emitted at Karymsky volcano from 2000 to 2017. Observed plumes from Karymsky were emitted predominantly to an altitude of 2-4 km, with occasional events exceeding 6 km...
2018: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Greig Inglis, Marc C Obonsawin, Simon C Hunter
Extraversion is comprised of two main components of affiliation and agency. Affiliative and agentic extraversion have been found to predict positive activation in response to appetitive stimuli, and affiliative extraversion also predicts warmth-affection in response to affiliative stimuli. The aim of this study was to test whether cognitive appraisals could account for these personality-emotion relationships. In an online experiment, 192 participants completed affiliative and appetitive imagery tasks, and reported their affect before and after each task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Juliann B Purcell, Samantha R Winter, Caitlin M Breslin, Nicole C White, Michael R Lowe, H Branch Coslett
OBJECTIVES: A rich body of literature has established the role of body image distortion and dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. However, many of the currently used techniques require explicit comparison of the person's body to an external stimulus. As the body schema is a largely unconscious construct, explicit comparison tasks may reflect a proxy, rather than the body schema itself. METHODS: Here we use an implicit mental motor imagery (MMI) task to interrogate the body schema in healthy control participants (N=40) and participants at a residential eating disorder treatment center (N=42)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Roy La Touche, Mónica Grande-Alonso, Ferran Cuenca-Martínez, Luis Gónzalez-Ferrero, Luis Suso-Martí, Alba Paris-Alemany
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculoskeletal problem among adults. It has been observed that patients with chronic pain have maladaptive neuroplastic changes and difficulty in imagination processes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) to generate kinesthetic and visual motor images and the time they spent on this mental task compared with asymptomatic participants. DESIGN: Prospective, A cross-sectional study...
June 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
L Chasmer, T Baker, S K Carey, J Straker, S Strilesky, R Petrone
Time series remote sensing vegetation indices derived from SPOT 5 data are compared with vegetation structure and eddy covariance flux data at 15 dry to wet reclamation and reference sites within the Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. This comprehensive analysis examines the linkages between indicators of ecosystem function and change trajectories observed both at the plot level and within pixels. Using SPOT imagery, we find that higher spatial resolution datasets (e.g. 10 m) improves the relationship between vegetation indices and structural measurements compared with interpolated (lower resolution) pixels...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stefan Muckenhuber, Stein Sandven
1541 Sentinel-1 SAR images, acquired over Fram Strait between 2014 and 2016, were considered for sea ice drift retrieval using an open-source feature tracking algorithm. Based on this SAR image data set, 2026 and 3120 image pairs in HH and HV polarisation were used to calculate monthly mean sea ice velocities at 79 N.
June 2018: Data in Brief
Vishwanathan Mohan, Ajaz Bhat, Pietro Morasso
Emerging trends in neurosciences are providing converging evidence that cortical networks in predominantly motor areas are activated in several contexts related to 'action' that do not cause any overt movement. Indeed for any complex body, human or embodied robot inhabiting unstructured environments, the dual processes of shaping motor output during action execution and providing the self with information related to feasibility, consequence and understanding of potential actions (of oneself/others) must seamlessly alternate during goal-oriented behaviors, social interactions...
April 27, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Tarekegn Girma, Tebarek Lika, Molla Maru
Urban expansion is one of the major problems in Ethiopia resulting in displacement of the rural people inhabiting areas bordering the cities/towns. It is also resulting in land use land cover (LULC) changes affecting the livelihoods of the people and the ecosystems (Messay et al., 2017; Ganamo, 2013) [[1], [2]]. The data presented in this article, therefore shows the spatiotemporal LULC changes of peri-urban expansion areas of Shashemene City. The data were generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+ ) images (with path/row numbers 168/055) from EarthExplorer...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Sandra L Berry, Brendan Mackey
Here we sought a biologically meaningful, climate variable that captures water-energy availability and is suitable for high resolution (250 m × 250 m) modelling of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the sunlit canopy (F V ) derived from a 10-year (July 2000 - June 2010) time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery for Australia. The long-term mean annual evaporation deficit, and mean annual water availability indices all yielded strong linear relationships with mean F V ([Formula: see text], %)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhaoxin Dai, Jean-Michel Guldmann, Yunfeng Hu
Understanding the relationship between urban land structure and land surface temperatures (LST) is important for mitigating the urban heat island (UHI). This paper explores this relationship within central Beijing, an area located within the 2nd Ring Road. The urban variables include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI), the area of building footprints, the area of main roads, the area of water bodies and a gravity index for parks that account for both park size and distance...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Girija Kaimal, Melissa S Walker, Joanna Herres, Louis M French, Thomas J DeGraba
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed tocompare recurring themes in the artistic expression of military service members (SMs) with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury and psychological health (PH) conditions with measurable psychiatric diagnoses. Affective symptoms and struggles related to verbally expressing information can limit communication in individuals with symptoms of PTSD and deployment-related health conditions. Visual self-expression through art therapy is an alternative way for SMs with PTSD and other PH conditions to communicate their lived experiences...
June 11, 2018: BMJ Open
Victoria Pile, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND: Enhancing positive future imagery offers promise for treatment innovation in adult depression but has been neglected in adolescence. While negative life events are linked with depression-onset in adolescence, mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We investigate whether difficulties in generating vivid positive future imagery characterise depression, compared to anxiety, and examine potential moderation of the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms in adolescence...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Z S Venter, M D Cramer, H-J Hawkins
While global deforestation induced by human land use has been quantified, the drivers and extent of simultaneous woody plant encroachment (WPE) into open areas are only regionally known. WPE has important consequences for ecosystem functioning, global carbon balances and human economies. Here we report, using high-resolution satellite imagery, that woody vegetation cover over sub-Saharan Africa increased by 8% over the past three decades and that a diversity of drivers, other than CO2 , were able to explain 78% of the spatial variation in this trend...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Yue Shi, Wenjiang Huang, Huichun Ye, Chao Ruan, Naichen Xing, Yun Geng, Yingying Dong, Dailiang Peng
In recent decades, rice disease co-epidemics have caused tremendous damage to crop production in both China and Southeast Asia. A variety of remote sensing based approaches have been developed and applied to map diseases distribution using coarse- to moderate-resolution imagery. However, the detection and discrimination of various disease species infecting rice were seldom assessed using high spatial resolution data. The aims of this study were (1) to develop a set of normalized two-stage vegetation indices (VIs) for characterizing the progressive development of different diseases with rice; (2) to explore the performance of combined normalized two-stage VIs in partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA); and (3) to map and evaluate the damage caused by rice diseases at fine spatial scales, for the first time using bi-temporal, high spatial resolution imagery from PlanetScope datasets at a 3 m spatial resolution...
June 11, 2018: Sensors
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