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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#1
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729822/low-intensity-focused-tdcs-over-the-motor-cortex-shows-inefficacy-to-improve-motor-imagery-performance
#2
Irma N Angulo-Sherman, Marisol Rodríguez-Ugarte, Eduardo Iáñez, Jose M Azorín
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation technique that can enhance motor activity by stimulating the motor path. Thus, tDCS has the potential of improving the performance of brain-computer interfaces during motor neurorehabilitation. tDCS effects depend on several aspects, including the current density, which usually varies between 0.02 and 0.08 mA/cm(2), and the location of the stimulation electrodes. Hence, testing tDCS montages at several current levels would allow the selection of current parameters for improving stimulation outcomes and the comparison of montages...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729505/cash-for-carbon-a-randomized-trial-of-payments-for-ecosystem-services-to-reduce-deforestation
#3
Seema Jayachandran, Joost de Laat, Eric F Lambin, Charlotte Y Stanton, Robin Audy, Nancy E Thomas
We evaluated a program of payments for ecosystem services in Uganda that offered forest-owning households annual payments of 70,000 Ugandan shillings per hectare if they conserved their forest. The program was implemented as a randomized controlled trial in 121 villages, 60 of which received the program for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in land area covered by trees, measured by classifying high-resolution satellite imagery. We found that tree cover declined by 4.2% during the study period in treatment villages, compared to 9...
July 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728802/-psychotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-phantom-limb-pain
#4
Katherine Cárdenas, Mariana Aranda
INTRODUCTION: The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727556/effective-screening-and-classification-of-cervical-precancer-biopsy-imagery
#5
Jaidip Jagtap, Nishigandha Patil, Abdul K Parchur, Chayanika Pantola, Asha Agarwal, Kiran Pandey, Asima Pradhan
Microscope images of biopsy samples of cervical precancers conventionally discriminated by histopathology, the current "gold standard" for cancer detection, showed that their correlation properties are segregated into different classes. The correlation domains clearly indicate increasing cellular clustering in different grades of precancer compared to their normal counterparts. This trend indicates the probability of pixel distribution of the corresponding tissue images. Because the cell density is not uniform in the higher grades, the skewness (asymmetry of a distribution), kurtosis (sharpness of a distribution), entropy (randomness), and standard deviation are affected...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726462/allan-urho-paivio-1925-2016
#6
Albert Katz
Presents an obituary for Allan Urho Paivio, who passed away on June 19, 2016. One of his many accomplishments was the development of a dual-coding theory. Dual-coding theory, while very influential, has, unfortunately, been discussed all too often as a theory of mental imagery, and not within its larger context wherein mental imagery and verbal processes are separable but interconnected representational systems, an academic battle in clarification that Paivio waged much of his life. He published prodigiously, even in the decades after retirement...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#7
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725375/scale-dependent-drivers-of-wild-bee-diversity-in-tropical-heterogeneous-agricultural-landscapes
#8
Parthiba Basu, Arpan Kumar Parui, Soumik Chatterjee, Aditi Dutta, Pushan Chakraborty, Stuart Roberts, Barbara Smith
Factors associated with agricultural intensification, for example, loss of seminatural vegetation and pesticide use has been shown to adversely affect the bee community. These factors may impact the bee community differently at different landscape scales. The scale dependency is expected to be more pronounced in heterogeneous landscapes. However, the scale-dependent response of the bee community to drivers of its decline is relatively understudied, especially in the tropics where the agricultural landscape is often heterogeneous...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725373/high-resolution-photo-mosaic-time-series-imagery-for-monitoring-human-use-of-an-artificial-reef
#9
Georgina Wood, Tim P Lynch, Carlie Devine, Krystle Keller, Will Figueira
Successful marine management relies on understanding patterns of human use. However, obtaining data can be difficult and expensive given the widespread and variable nature of activities conducted. Remote camera systems are increasingly used to overcome cost limitations of conventional labour-intensive methods. Still, most systems face trade-offs between the spatial extent and resolution over which data are obtained, limiting their application. We trialed a novel methodology, CSIRO Ruggedized Autonomous Gigapixel System (CRAGS), for time series of high-resolution photo-mosaic (HRPM) imagery to estimate fine-scale metrics of human activity at an artificial reef located 1...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724433/gridsample-an-r-package-to-generate-household-survey-primary-sampling-units-psus-from-gridded-population-data
#10
Dana R Thomson, Forrest R Stevens, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Andrew J Tatem, Marcia C Castro
BACKGROUND: Household survey data are collected by governments, international organizations, and companies to prioritize policies and allocate billions of dollars. Surveys are typically selected from recent census data; however, census data are often outdated or inaccurate. This paper describes how gridded population data might instead be used as a sample frame, and introduces the R GridSample algorithm for selecting primary sampling units (PSU) for complex household surveys with gridded population data...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724337/handedness-effects-of-imagined-fine-motor-movements
#11
Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720781/distinct-top-down-and-bottom-up-brain-connectivity-during-visual-perception-and-imagery
#12
N Dijkstra, P Zeidman, S Ondobaka, M A J van Gerven, K Friston
Research suggests that perception and imagination engage neuronal representations in the same visual areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that differentiate sensory perception from imagination remain unclear. Here, we examine the directed coupling (effective connectivity) between fronto-parietal and visual areas during perception and imagery. We found an increase in bottom-up coupling during perception relative to baseline and an increase in top-down coupling during both perception and imagery, with a much stronger increase during imagery...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718781/latent-variable-method-for-automatic-adaptation-to-background-states-in-motor-imagery-bci
#13
Nikolay Dagaev, Ksenia Volkova, Alexei Ossadtchi
<i>Objective</i>. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. <i>Approach</i>. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model's parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718202/patterns-of-mortality-in-a-montane-mixed-conifer-forest-in-san-diego-county-california
#14
Mary Pyott Freeman, Douglas A Stow, Li An
We examine spatial patterns of conifer tree mortality and their changes over time for the montane mixed-conifer forests of San Diego County. These forest areas have recently experienced extensive tree mortality due to multiple factors. A spatial contextual image processing approach was utilized with high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to map dead trees for the years 1997, 2000, 2002, and 2005 for three study areas: Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna mountains. Plot-based fieldwork was conducted to further assess mortality patterns...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716675/what-we-imagine-is-what-we-do-a-critical-overview-about-mental-imagery-as-a-strategy-to-study-human-defensive-responses
#15
REVIEW
Rosana Shuhama, D Caroline Blanchard, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715495/imagine-the-bright-side-of-life-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-two-types-of-interpretation-bias-modification-procedure-targeting-adolescent-anxiety-and-depression
#16
E L de Voogd, E de Hullu, S Burnett Heyes, S E Blackwell, R W Wiers, E Salemink
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent during adolescence and characterized by negative interpretation biases. Cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) may reduce such biases and improve emotional functioning. However, as findings have been mixed and the traditional scenario training is experienced as relatively boring, a picture-based type of training might be more engaging and effective. METHODS: The current study investigated short- and long-term effects (up to 6 months) and users' experience of two types of CBM-I procedure in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety or depression (N = 119, aged 12-18 year)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715332/current-source-density-estimation-enhances-the-performance-of-motor-imagery-related-brain-computer-interface
#17
Dheeraj Rathee, Haider Raza, Girijesh Prasad, Hubert Cecotti
The objective is to evaluate the impact of EEG referencing schemes and spherical surface Laplacian (SSL) methods on the classification performance of motor-imagery (MI) related brain-computer interface systems. Two EEG referencing schemes: common referencing, common average referencing (CAR) and three surface Laplacian methods: current source density (CSD), finite difference method, and SSL using realistic head model, were implemented separately for pre-processing of the EEG signals recorded at the scalp. A combination of filter bank common spatial filter for features extraction and support vector machine for classification was used for both pairwise binary classifications and four-class classification of MI tasks...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713259/transcallosal-inhibition-during-motor-imagery-analysis-of-a-neural-mass-model
#18
Anna L Mangia, Mauro Ursino, Maurizio Lannocca, Angelo Cappello
The EEG rhythmic activities of the somato-sensory cortex reveal event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS) in beta band (14-30 Hz) as subjects perform certain tasks or react to specific stimuli. Data reported for imagination of movement support the hypothesis that activation of one sensorimotor area (SMA) can be accompanied by deactivation of the other. In order to improve our understanding of beta ERD/ERS generation, two neural mass models (NMM) of a cortical column taken from Wendling et al...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713232/detection-of-movement-related-cortical-potentials-from-eeg-using-constrained-ica-for-brain-computer-interface-applications
#19
Fatemeh Karimi, Jonathan Kofman, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Dario Farina, Ning Jiang
The movement related cortical potential (MRCP), a slow cortical potential from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), has been used in real-time brain-computer-interface (BCI) systems designed for neurorehabilitation. Detecting MPCPs in real time with high accuracy and low latency is essential in these applications. In this study, we propose a new MRCP detection method based on constrained independent component analysis (cICA). The method was tested for MRCP detection during executed and imagined ankle dorsiflexion of 24 healthy participants, and compared with four commonly used spatial filters for MRCP detection in an offline experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711118/mental-imagery-training-increases-wanting-of-rewards-and-reward-sensitivity-and-reduces-depressive-symptoms
#20
Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa
High reward sensitivity and wanting of rewarding stimuli help to identify and motivate repetition of pleasant activities. This behavioral activation is thought to increase positive emotions. Therefore, both mechanisms are highly relevant for resilience against depressive symptoms. Yet, these mechanisms have not been targeted by psychotherapeutic interventions. In the present study, we tested a mental imagery training comprising eight 10-minute sessions every second day and delivered via the Internet to healthy volunteers (N = 30, 21 female, mean age of 23...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
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