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Raphael Kaplan, Daniel Bush, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, Sofie S Meyer, Neil Burgess
Hippocampal-medial prefrontal interactions are thought to play a crucial role in mental simulation. Notably, the frontal midline/medial pFC (mPFC) theta rhythm in humans has been linked to introspective thought and working memory. In parallel, theta rhythms have been proposed to coordinate processing in the medial temporal cortex, retrosplenial cortex (RSc), and parietal cortex during the movement of viewpoint in imagery, extending their association with physical movement in rodent models. Here, we used noninvasive whole-head MEG to investigate theta oscillatory power and phase-locking during the 18-sec postencoding delay period of a spatial working memory task, in which participants imagined previously learned object sequences either on a blank background (object maintenance), from a first-person viewpoint in a scene (static imagery), or moving along a path past the objects (dynamic imagery)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Mayank Roy, Fernando Dip, David Nguyen, Conrad H Simpfendorfer, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Samuel Szomstein, Raul J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative incisionless fluorescent cholangiogram (IOIFC) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool to increase the visualization of Calot's triangle. This study evaluates the identification of extrahepatic biliary structures with IOIFC by medical students and surgery residents. METHODS: Two pictures were taken, one with xenon light and one with near-infrared (NIR) light, at the same stage during dissection of Calot's triangle in ten different cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)...
October 24, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Judith Bek, Jordan Webb, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor J Crawford, Matthew S Sullivan, Ellen Poliakoff
Background. Action observation and motor imagery activate neural structures involved in action execution, thereby facilitating movement and learning. Although some benefits of action observation and motor imagery have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), methods have been based on stroke rehabilitation and may be less suitable for PD. Moreover, previous studies have focused on either observation or imagery, yet combining these enhances effects in healthy participants. The present study explores the feasibility of a PD-specific home-based intervention combining observation, imagery, and imitation of meaningful everyday actions...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Christina Alliger-Horn, Peter Lutz Zimmermann, Mervyn Schmucker
BACKGROUND: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers' PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
K M H Ahanogbe, K Ibahioin, M Karkouri, M B Dianka, W Akpo, A El Azhari
INTRODUCTION: Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor including cells that present an osteoblastic differentiation. On the skull, it has often extra-axial development associated with bone reaction. We report an atypical and rare case of intracranial or cerebral osteosarcoma underline the radiological and pathological diagnostic difficulties. CASE REPORT: Our case concerns a primary osteosarcoma without bone involvement in a 10-year old boy who was admitted for intracranial hypertension with progressive worsening and brachial monoparesis...
October 19, 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Łukasz Jeleń, Adam Krzyżak, Thomas Fevens, Michał Jeleń
Grading of breast cancer malignancy is a key step in its diagnosis, which in turn helps to determine its prognosis and a course of treatment. In this paper, we consider the application of pattern recognition and image processing techniques to perform computer-assisted automatic breast cancer malignancy grading from cytological slides of fine needle aspiration biopsies. To determine a classification of the malignancy of the slide, a feature set is first determined from imagery of the slides. In this paper we investigated the nature of a wide set of features extracted from biopsy images to determine their discriminatory power and cross-correlation...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Donald J Viglione, Gregory J Meyer, Ana Cristina Resende, Claudia Pignolo
Learning to code the imagery, communication, and behavior associated with Rorschach responding is challenging. Although there is some survey research on graduate students' impressions of their Rorschach training, research has not identified which coding decisions students find to be the most problematic and time-consuming. We surveyed students to identify what they struggled with most when learning coding and to quantify how difficult it is to learn how to code. Participants (n = 191) from the United States, Brazil, Denmark, Israel, and Italy rated 57 aspects of coding using a 4-point scale that encompassed both the time required to code and the subjective difficulty of doing so...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Natalia Lifshitz, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Growth in human populations causes habitat degradation for other species, which is usually gauged by physical changes to landscapes. Corresponding habitat degradation to air and water is also common, but its effects on individuals can be difficult to detect until they result in the decline or disappearance of populations. More proactive measures of pollution usually combine abiotic samples of soil, water or air with invasive sampling of expendable species, but this approach sometimes creates ethical dilemmas and has limited application for threatened species...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Shuai Liu, Licheng Jiao, Shuyuan Yang
During the acquisition process hyperspectral images (HSI) are inevitably corrupted by various noises, which greatly influence their visual impression and subsequent applications. In this paper, a novel Bayesian approach integrating hierarchical sparse learning and spectral-spatial information is proposed for HSI denoising. Based on the structure correlations, spectral bands with similar and continuous features are segmented into the same band-subset. To exploit local similarity, each subset is then divided into overlapping cubic patches...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
E Kinney-Lang, B Auyeung, J Escudero
Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Axel Wuttke, Ricardo A Mata
The interpretation of chemical properties/phenomena can often be aided through the use of imagery. The mapping of molecular electrostatic potentials is a prime example, serving as a guideline in the design of novel compounds or understanding transition state stabilization effects. It is today a common tool for theoreticians and experimentalists alike. With the emergence of concepts such as dispersion energy donors, and the overall importance of dispersion in chemical systems, representations targeting such a class of interactions are warranted...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Masakazu Asahara, Masahiro Koizumi, Thomas E Macrini, Suzanne J Hand, Michael Archer
The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a "sixth sense" associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies...
October 2016: Science Advances
Charlotte Weßlau, Klara Lieberz, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Regina Steil
Negative mental images are common in a range of mental disorders. So far, only inconclusive evidence has been obtained for depression specificity. We assessed the disparities and similarities of a variety of imagery characteristics in 17 patients suffering from depressive disorders and 17 healthy matched controls who all reported negative mental images. The number of intrusive images, their frequency, and the associated distress were significantly greater for the depressed individuals. Compared with non-depressed controls, negative images during depression were more frequently triggered by internal factors and led to depression-related emotions...
September 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Patricia M Alexandre, Susan I Stewart, Nicholas S Keuler, Murray K Clayton, Miranda H Mockrin, Avi Bar-Massada, Alexandra D Syphard, Volker C Radeloff
Wildfire is globally an important ecological disturbance affecting biochemical cycles and vegetation composition, but also puts people and their homes at risk. Suppressing wildfires has detrimental ecological effects and can promote larger and more intense wildfires when fuels accumulate, which increases the threat to buildings in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Yet, when wildfires occur, typically only a small proportion of the buildings within the fire perimeter are lost, and the question is what determines which buildings burn...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Michael D Caggiano, Wade T Tinkham, Chad Hoffman, Antony S Cheng, Todd J Hawbaker
The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations...
October 2016: Heliyon
Antoine Adde, Emmanuel Roux, Morgan Mangeas, Nadine Dessay, Mathieu Nacher, Isabelle Dusfour, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (French Guiana). Longitudinal sampling sessions of An...
2016: PloS One
Alejandro Lopez Rincon, Shingo Shimoda
BACKGROUND: Acquiring information about the distribution of electrical sources in the brain from electroencephalography (EEG) data remains a significant challenge. An accurate solution would provide an understanding of the inner mechanisms of the electrical activity in the brain and information about damaged tissue. NEW METHOD: In this paper, we present a methodology for reconstructing brain electrical activity from EEG data by using the bidomain formulation. The bidomain model considers continuous active neural tissue coupled with a nonlinear cell model...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hyunwoo Oh, Dae Won Jun, Waqar K Saeed, Mindie H Nguyen
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be 25-30% of the population, and is the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes in Korea. NAFLD is a "hot potato" for pharmaceutical companies. Many clinical trials are underway to develop a first-in-class drug to treat NAFLD. However, there are several challenging issues regarding the diagnosis of NAFLD. Currently, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of NAFLD and steatohepatitis. Ideally, globally recognized standards for histological diagnosis and methods to optimize observer agreement on biopsy interpretation should be developed...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Joshua S Caplan, Daniel Giménez, Vandana Subroy, Richard J Heck, Stephen A Prior, G Brett Runion, H Allen Torbert
Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO2 ...
October 11, 2016: Global Change Biology
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