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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453522/potential-biological-pathways-linking-type-d-personality-and-poor-health-a-cross-sectional-investigation
#1
Vera K Jandackova, Julian Koenig, Marc N Jarczok, Joachim E Fischer, Julian F Thayer
BACKGROUND: Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample. METHODS: Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448265/evidence-corner-exploring-social-isolation-of-leg-ulcer-patients
#2
Laura Bolton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446739/suspected-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-sample-of-westerns-sicily-residents-what-correlation-with-occupation
#3
Maria Gabriella Verso, Fabrizio Vitale, Germano Castelli, Federica Bruno, Antonella Migliazzo, Maria Rita Bongiorno, Fiorella Santi, Giuseppe Pistone, Emanuele Amodio, Diego Picciotto
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a widespread infectious disease, but there is not much information about its prevalence in high risk occupational categories. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Leishmania immunological positivity in human skin tissues collected from subjects living in Western Sicily, with suspected cutaneous Leishmania infection, in order to explore the risk possibly related to occupation. METHODS: 318 consecutive subjects (M/F ratio=1...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446383/development-and-validation-of-the-parenteral-nutrition-impact-questionnaire-pniq-a-patient-centric-outcome-measure-for-home-parenteral-nutrition
#4
Jeanette Wilburn, Stephen P McKenna, Alice Heaney, Matthew Rouse, Michael Taylor, Alison Culkin, Simon Gabe, Sorrel Burden, Simon Lal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Type 3 Intestinal Failure (IF) who need Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) face several clinical, psychological and social problems. The study was designed to produce and test the first patient-centric measure for HPN ('PNIQ: Parenteral Nutrition Impact Questionnaire'). The new measure focused on the extent to which patients were able to fulfil their human needs. METHODS: Questionnaire content was derived from the analysis of transcripts of interviews conducted with UK HPN patients...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445775/changes-in-social-isolation-and-loneliness-following-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-elsa-cohort
#5
Toby O Smith, Jack R Dainty, Alex Macgregor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and change in social isolation and loneliness in people before and after THA and TKA in England. DESIGN: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing dataset, a prospective study of community-dwelling older adults, was used to identify people who had undergone primary THA or TKA because of osteoarthritis. Social isolation was assessed using the ELSA Social Isolation Index. Loneliness was evaluated using the Revised University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale...
April 23, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444457/social-cognition-and-idiopathic-isolated-cervical-dystonia
#6
Kristína Czekóová, Petra Zemánková, Daniel J Shaw, Martin Bareš
For a long time, cervical dystonia (CD) has been characterised only by disturbances in motor functioning. Despite accumulating evidence for symptomatology in various non-motor domains, to date no study has investigated social cognition in CD. The aim of this study was to compare performance of CD patients and healthy controls in neurocognitive and socio-cognitive domain. Twenty-five non-depressed patients with CD and 26 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing. This involved assessment of cognitive status (general intellect, verbal memory, and executive function), and socio-cognitive functions using a Theory of mind task and self-report on empathy and emotion regulation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443687/experiencing-menopause-in-the-context-of-cancer-women-s-constructions-of-gendered-subjectivities
#7
Chloe Parton, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz
OBJECTIVE: Many women experience premature menopause following cancer treatment, accompanied by psychological distress, and poor health-related quality of life. In this qualitative study, we examined how women construct their gendered subjectivities - their sense of self as a woman - in the context of premature menopause after cancer. DESIGN: We analysed data from open-ended survey items and semi-structured interviews with women who had experienced cancer. Six hundred and ninety-five women completed the online survey and 61 took part in a semi-structured interview...
April 26, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443040/the-impact-of-early-visual-deprivation-on-spatial-hearing-a-comparison-between-totally-and-partially-visually-deprived-children
#8
Giulia Cappagli, Sara Finocchietti, Elena Cocchi, Monica Gori
The specific role of early visual deprivation on spatial hearing is still unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of comparing similar spatial skills at different ages and to the difficulty in recruiting young blind children from birth. In this study, the effects of early visual deprivation on the development of auditory spatial localization have been assessed in a group of seven 3-5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light) or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438907/-good-outcome-isn-t-good-enough-cognitive-impairment-depressive-symptoms-and-social-restrictions-in-physically-recovered-stroke-patients
#9
Arunima Kapoor, Krista L Lanctôt, Mark Bayley, Alex Kiss, Nathan Herrmann, Brian J Murray, Richard H Swartz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional outcome after stroke is often only evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale, which primarily assesses activities of daily living. Stroke patients may experience difficulties with social reintegration and mental functions, feel isolated, and experience poor quality of life, even after physical recovery is complete. Functional assessments based solely on activity limitations may not be able to capture the full range of problems experienced by stroke survivors...
April 24, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438790/psychiatric-associations-of-adult-onset-focal-dystonia-phenotypes
#10
Brian D Berman, Johanna Junker, Erika Shelton, Stefan H Sillau, H A Jinnah, Joel S Perlmutter, Alberto J Espay, Joseph Jankovic, Marie Vidailhet, Cecilia Bonnet, William Ondo, Irene A Malaty, Ramón Rodríguez, William M McDonald, Laura Marsh, Mateusz Zurowski, Tobias Bäumer, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety frequently accompany the motor manifestations of isolated adult-onset focal dystonias. Whether the body region affected when this type of dystonia first presents is associated with the severity of these neuropsychiatric symptoms is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether depression, anxiety and social anxiety vary by dystonia onset site and evaluate whether pain and dystonia severity account for any differences...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437057/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-behavioral-disorders-in-dementia
#11
Sherri Morgan
Psychosis is one of the most common conditions in later life, with dementia being a main contributing factor. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), now categorizes the various types of dementia as neurocognitive disorders. Alzheimer disease is a common cause of dementia and psychosis. Psychosis also is seen in patients with vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Psychosis can be primary, caused by a psychiatric disorder listed in the DSM-5, or secondary, due to a medical or neurologic condition...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435842/is-individual-smoking-behaviour-influenced-by-area-level-ethnic-density-a-cross-sectional-electronic-health-database-study-of-inner-south-east-london
#12
Rohini Mathur, Peter Schofield, Dianna Smith, Alexander Gilkes, Patrick White, Sally Hull
Tobacco smoking remains one of the greatest public health problems facing the UK today. It varies significantly by ethnic group. This study aimed to determine whether ethnic differences in smoking behaviour are related to neighbourhood-level, own-group ethnic density across south and east London. The association between ethnic density and individual smoking behaviour was assessed by multilevel logistic regression using the electronic health records of 688 397 general practitioner-registered patients. Restricted cubic splines were created to explore whether the effect of ethnic density on smoking behaviour was nonlinear...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435107/wasp-venomic-unravelling-the-toxins-arsenal-of-polybia-paulista-venom-and-its-potential-pharmaceutical-applications
#13
REVIEW
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma, Márcia Regina Brochetto-Braga
Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a neotropical social wasp from southeast Brazil. As most social Hymenoptera, venom from P. paulista comprises a complex mixture of bioactive toxins ranging from low molecular weight compounds to peptides and proteins. Several efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular composition of the P. paulista venom. Data derived from proteomic, peptidomic and allergomic analyses has enhanced our understanding of the whole envenoming process caused by the insect sting...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433462/-health-and-access-to-health-care-of-18-25%C3%A2-years-old-people-not-in-employment-education-or-training-neets-attending-the-french-missions-locales
#14
S Robert, S Lesieur, J Chastang, V Kergoat, J Dutertre, P Chauvin
BACKGROUND: In France, "missions locales" are public assistance units for young people aged 16-25 years not in employment, education or training (NEET). The health status of the more than 1.5 million young adults attending these units annually is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the health status and health care use of this population in comparison with the general population of the same age. METHODS: The Presaje survey was conducted in 2011 on a randomized sample of 1453 young adults aged 18-25 years who attended five "missions locales" in mainland France...
April 19, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430787/feedback-and-efficient-behavior
#15
Sandro Casal, Nives DellaValle, Luigi Mittone, Ivan Soraperra
Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430588/chronic-grouped-social-restriction-triggers-long-lasting-immune-system-adaptations
#16
Rui Tian, Gonglin Hou, Liuwei Song, Jianming Zhang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429997/attitudes-toward-cognitive-enhancer-use-among-new-zealand-tertiary-students
#17
Sanyogita Sanya Ram, Safeera Hussainy, Marcus Henning, Kay Stewart, Maree Jensen, Bruce Russell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive enhancement is the use of prescription stimulant medicines by healthy individuals for nonmedical use in academic settings. Commonly used cognitive enhancers (CEs) include methylphenidate, amphetamines, and modafinil. To understand the motivation to use CEs, it is important to look beyond prevalence and explore the extent to which attitudes, beliefs, and intentions predict the decision to use CEs. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate what factors explain the decision to use CEs among tertiary students in New Zealand, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429618/the-clinician-perspective-on-sex-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Rene Jamison, Somer L Bishop, Marisela Huerta, Alycia K Halladay
Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited, making it challenging to discern if, how, and at what point in development females with autism spectrum disorder actually exhibit a different behavioral presentation than males...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429385/risk-factors-proximate-to-suicide-and-suicide-risk-assessment-in-the-context-of-denied-suicide-ideation
#19
Alan L Berman
Health care providers have significant opportunities to identify individuals at near-term risk for suicide, but lack empirical data on near-term risk factors. This study aimed to identify dynamic, state-related risk factors observed by clinical practitioners within the last 30 days of life of 157 patients who died by suicide and to compare these near-term risk factors among patients who denied versus responded positively to having suicide ideation (SI) when last asked by a clinical practitioner prior to their death...
April 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427363/a-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-suicide-in-el-salvador
#20
Carlos Carcach
BACKGROUND: In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
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