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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913283/tuning-functions-for-automatic-detection-of-brief-changes-of-facial-expression-in-the-human-brain
#1
Arnaud Leleu, Milena Dzhelyova, Bruno Rossion, Renaud Brochard, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Jean-Yves Baudouin
Efficient decoding of even brief and slight intensity facial expression changes is important for social interactions. However, robust evidence for the human brain ability to automatically detect brief and subtle changes of facial expression remains limited. Here we built on a recently developed paradigm in human electrophysiology with full-blown expressions (Dzhelyova et al., 2017), to isolate and quantify a neural marker for the detection of brief and subtle changes of facial expression. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 18 participants during stimulation of a neutral face changing randomly in size at a rapid rate of 6 Hz...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913070/the-cancer-may-come-back-experiencing-and-managing-worries-of-relapse-in-a-north-norwegian-village-after-treatment
#2
Magdalena Skowronski, Mette Bech Risør, Rikke Sand Andersen, Nina Foss
Little is known about how people living in the aftermath of cancer treatment experience and manage worries about possible signs of cancer relapse, not as an individual enterprise but as socially embedded management. One-year ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in a coastal village of under 3000 inhabitants in northern Norway. Ten villagers who had undergone cancer treatment from six months to five years earlier were the main informants. During fieldwork, the first author conducted qualitative, semi-structured monthly interviews with them, and participated in their everyday activities and relationships, including families, friends and co-villagers...
June 18, 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910709/a-complex-relationship-between-suicide-dementia-and-amyloid-a-narrative-review
#3
Ismael Conejero, Sophie Navucet, Jacques Keller, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Suicide rates are high among older adults and many conditions have been related to suicide in this population: chronic illnesses, physical disabilities, cancer, social isolation, mental disorders and neurocognitive disorders. Objectives: Among neurocognitive disorders, analysis of the relationships between dementia and suicidal behaviors led to conflicting results and some questions are still without answer. Particularly, it is not known whether (i) Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (SA) or the frequency of death by suicide; (ii) the presence of suicidal ideation or SA in people older than 65 years of age is an early dementia sign; and (iii) amyloid load in frontal areas facilitates SA by modifying the decision-making pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907345/situational-fears-association-with-negative-affect-related-smoking-cognition-among-treatment-seeking-smokers
#4
Jafar Bakhshaie, Andrew H Rogers, Brooke Y Kauffman, Melissa Fasteau, Julia D Buckner, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
Despite the consistent clinically-significant relation between smoking and anxiety and its disorders, there is limited understanding of how specific fears relate to smoking processes. To isolate therapeutic targets for smoking-anxiety treatment development, there is a need to identify the underlying situational fears most related to smoking processes. Thus, the present study examined the association between interoceptive, agoraphobic, and social fears in terms of clinically significant negative affect-related smoking cognitions including negative affect reduction expectancies, coping motives, and perceived internal barriers to cessation...
June 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906771/academic-stress-and-active-learning-of-nursing-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Nicola Magnavita, Carlo Chiorri
BACKGROUND: The active role of nursing students is particularly important in the delivery of health care, since playing an active role at the bedside and the use of active and collaborative engagement of students in the nursing activities has been associated with improved student learning. This is consistent with Karasek's learning hypothesis, but it has never been tested on nursing students. This study aimed at investigating whether nursing students in high control conditions reported lower levels of work impairment than students in the conditions with low control, compared them with a group of healthcare workers (HCWs), and tested the moderating role of social support at work...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905861/evaluation-of-a-mobile-approach-to-gender-based-violence-service-delivery-among-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon
#6
Pamela Lilleston, Liliane Winograd, Spogmay Ahmed, Dounia Salamé, Dayana Al Alam, Kirsten Stoebenau, Ilaria Michelis, Sunita Palekar Joergensen
As the landscape of humanitarian response shifts from camp-based to urban- and informal-tented settlement-based responses, service providers and policymakers must consider creative modes for delivering health services. Psychosocial support and case management can be life-saving services for refugee women and girls who are at increased risk for physical, sexual and psychological gender-based violence (GBV). However, these services are often unavailable in non-camp refugee settings. We evaluated an innovative mobile service delivery model for GBV response and mitigation implemented by the International Rescue Committee (IRC) in Lebanon...
June 13, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905543/importance-of-isolated-gestational-hypothyroxinemia-in-the-development-of-obstetric-and-somatic-pathologies
#7
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, T Gagua, D Gagua
The isolated hypothyroxinemia of pregnancy (IHP) has gained specific attention in the specialized literature during the recent years as the possible factor impeding the intellectual development of fetus and increasing the risk of complications related with pregnancy, delivery and perinatal period. Aim of the study was to define the importance of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the development of obstetric and somatic pathologies in outpatient population of pregnant females. The study of prospective design was performed at the base of "David Gagua Clinic" Ltd...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903788/hospitals-and-patients-working-in-unity-how-r-u-telephone-peer-support-to-improve-older-patients-quality-of-life-after-emergency-department-discharge-in-melbourne-australia-a-multicentre-prospective-feasibility-study
#8
Judy A Lowthian, Alyse Lennox, Andrea Curtis, Gillian Wilson, Cate Rosewarne, De Villiers Smit, Debra O'Brien, Colette Joy Browning, Lee Boyd, Cathie Smith, Peter Cameron, Jeremy Dale
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of the HOW R U? programme, a novel volunteer-peer postdischarge support programme for older patients after discharge from the emergency department (ED). DESIGN: A multicentre prospective mixed-methods feasibility study. SETTING: Two tertiary hospital EDs in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 39 discharged ED patients aged 70 years or over, with symptoms of social isolation, loneliness and/or depression...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903652/preventing-social-isolation-in-older-people
#9
REVIEW
Natalie Cotterell, Tine Buffel, Christopher Phillipson
The extent of social isolation amongst older people has emerged as a major concern for health and social policy. Although the social and health outcomes of social isolation are well documented, evidence regarding the prevention of isolation in later life remains scarce. This article addresses this by presenting the findings from a literature review focusing on the identification, assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies relevant to social isolation in older age. The paper first addresses the issues of identification and assessment, using an ecological framework to identify the risk factors for social isolation at four levels: individual, relationship, community, and societal...
July 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903598/trial-protocol-cognitive-functional-therapy-compared-with-combined-manual-therapy-and-motor-control-exercise-for-people-with-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Fabiana Terra Cunha Belache, Cíntia Pereira de Souza, Jessica Fernandez, Julia Castro, Paula Dos Santos Ferreira, Elizana Rodrigues de Sousa Rosa, Nathalia Cristina Gimenez de Araújo, Felipe José Jandre Reis, Renato Santos de Almeida, Leandro Alberto Calazans Nogueira, Luís Cláudio Lemos Correia, Ney Meziat-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain is a public health problem, and there is strong evidence that it is associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive functional therapy is an intervention that deals with potentially modifiable multidimensional aspects of pain (eg, provocative cognitive, movement and lifestyle behaviours). There is evidence (from a single randomised, controlled trial) that cognitive functional therapy is better than combined manual therapy and motor control exercise...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902205/risk-perception-and-the-influence-on-uptake-and-use-of-biomedical-prevention-interventions-for-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
Emily A Warren, Pauline Paterson, William S Schulz, Shelley Lees, Robyn Eakle, Jonathan Stadler, Heidi J Larson
BACKGROUND: Risk perception has been found to be a crucial factor explaining inconsistent or non-use of HIV prevention interventions. Considerations of risk need to expand beyond risk of infection to also include the personal, social, emotional, and economic risks associated with prevention intervention use. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed literature from sub-Saharan Africa examines perceptions of risk associated with HIV infection and HIV prevention intervention use...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902057/perceiving-emotionally-incongruent-cues-from-faces-and-bodies-older-adults-get-the-whole-picture
#12
Yasmin Abo Foul, Renana Eitan, Hillel Aviezer
Older adults have poor recognition of isolated facial expressions, yet outside the lab, such faces are typically perceived with contextual expressive bodies. In fact, recent work suggests that real-life facial expressions may be ambiguous while contextual information such as body language may be more diagnostic for decoding emotions. We examined the recognition of emotion from incongruent face-body composites and found that compared to young adults, older adults gave the body far more weight when recognizing emotion...
June 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902052/-loneliness-predicts-self-reported-cold-symptoms-after-a-viral-challenge-correction-to-leroy-et-al-2017
#13
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Loneliness predicts self-reported cold symptoms after a viral challenge" by Angie S. LeRoy, Kyle W. Murdock, Lisa M. Jaremka, Asad Loya and Christopher P. Fagundes ( Health Psychology , 2017[May], Vol 36[5], 512-520). The erratum reports the following acknowledgments that were partially omitted from the author note: Data used in this article were collected by the Laboratory for the Study of Stress, Immunity, and Disease. The data were accessed via the Common Cold Project website...
July 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901240/a-sociological-approach-to-resilience-in-health-and-illness
#14
Christine Walker, Chris L Peterson
Work on resilience in health and illness has been approached from a number of perspectives. These are the biological and psychosocial with a focus on the individual's responses to cope and adapt to changing circumstances wrought by changing physical health states. This we argue has a place but is far too narrow emphasizing the neoliberal view that the sick or imperfect individual is ultimately responsible for their own health outcomes. In this perspective, the individual's failure to cope or adapt may be seen as a personal failure to interact with the health system on offer...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900207/data-on-the-effect-of-maternal-separation-coupled-with-social-isolation-in-a-forced-swim-test-and-gene-expression-of-glial-fibrillary-acid-protein-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#15
Yosuke Yamawaki, Misako Nishida, Kana Harada, Hiroyuki Akagi
Early life adversity, such as neglect, increases the risk for major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. It is well-known that astrocytes have key roles in brain function. In this paper, we show the effect of maternal separation (MS) coupled with social isolation on stress response and gene expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as a marker of astrocytes, in early life and adulthood. Stress response was evaluated by using a forced swim test. GFAP gene expression level was evaluated by using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899078/individual-variation-in-the-compromise-between-social-group-membership-and-exposure-to-preferred-temperatures
#16
B Cooper, B Adriaenssens, S S Killen
Group living is widespread among animal species, and comes with a number of costs and benefits associated with foraging, predator avoidance and reproduction. It is largely unknown, however, whether individuals sacrifice exposure to their own preferred or optimal environmental conditions so they can remain part of a social group. Here, we demonstrate that individual three-spine sticklebacks vary in the degree to which they forego exposure to their preferred ambient temperature so they can associate with a group of conspecifics...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898009/pain-perception-and-pain-coping-mechanisms-in-children-and-adolescents-with-juvenile-fibromyalgia-and-polyarticular-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#17
Melissa Mariti Fraga, Maria Teresa Terreri, Rafael Teixeira Azevedo, Maria Odete Esteves Hilário, Claudio Arnaldo Len
OBJECTIVE: To measure and compare musculoskeletal pain in patients with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to evaluate and compare pain perception and pain coping mechanisms in these patients. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 150 children and adolescents, and their respective parents, from 3 different groups: JFM, polyarticular JIA, and healthy controls. Pain intensity and pain coping mechanisms were measured using specific questionnaires...
June 11, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897922/entangled-in-uncertainty-the-experience-of-living-with-dementia-from-the-perspective-of-family-caregivers
#18
Els van Wijngaarden, Hugo van der Wedden, Zerline Henning, Rikke Komen, Anne-Mei The
INTRODUCTION: Too often dementia care is still fragmented and unresponsive to the needs of people living with dementia and their family caregivers. To develop effective health care services, in-depth insight into the experiences of family caregivers is a prerequisite. METHODS: This Dutch study is a qualitative interview study. The aim was twofold: 1) to develop an in-depth understanding of what it means to live with dementia and 2) to gain insight into what constitutes the art of living with dementia, both from the perspective of family caregivers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897586/stigma-and-negative-self-perceptions-of-young-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-bandung-indonesia-a-case-series
#19
Sahil Aggarwal, Luke Yu, Bima Hasjim, Debora H Lee, Esther Kim, Jonathan B Lee, Katrina Lee, Christina Tse, Alexander Anshus, Allen R Yu, Michael Louthan, Thomas Keown, Christopher Gabriel, Catherine Diamond
Background: Young people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWA) are at risk for HIV stigma. Methods: The HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLWA was administered to 36 young PLWA across six clinics in Bandung, Indonesia, to assess the fear of contagion (FC), verbal abuse (VA), social isolation (SI), workplace stigma (WS), health care neglect (HCN) and negative self-perception (NSP). Results: The median scores for FC, VA, SI, WS and HCN were all 0 while the median score for NSP was 4...
June 12, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896314/mental-stress-as-consequence-and-cause-of-vision-loss-the-dawn-of-psychosomatic-ophthalmology-for-preventive-and-personalized-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Bernhard A Sabel, Jiaqi Wang, Lizbeth Cárdenas-Morales, Muneeb Faiq, Christine Heim
The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
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