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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220824/extensive-geographical-and-social-structure-in-the-paternal-lineages-of-saudi-arabia-revealed-by-analysis-of-27-y-strs
#1
Yahya M Khubrani, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74...
December 2, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212490/attitudes-towards-assisted-suicide-and-euthanasia-among-care-dependent-older-adults-50-in-austria-the-role-of-socio-demographics-religiosity-physical-illness-psychological-distress-and-social-isolation
#2
Erwin Stolz, Hannes Mayerl, Peter Gasser-Steiner, Wolfgang Freidl
BACKGROUND: Care-dependency constitutes an important issue with regard to the approval of end-of-life decisions, yet attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia are understudied among care-dependent older adults. We assessed attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia and tested empirical correlates, including socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress and social isolation. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey among older care allowance recipients (50+) in private households in Austria was conducted in 2016...
December 7, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210353/genetic-clustering-of-tuberculosis-in-an-indigenous-community-of-brazil
#3
Flávia Patussi Correia Sacchi, Mariana Bento Tatara, Camila Camioli de Lima, Liliane Ferreia da Silva, Eunice Atsuko Cunha, Vera Simonsen, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Sidra Ezidio Gonçalves Vasconcellos, Philip Noel Suffys, Jason R Andrews, Julio Croda
We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) from 2009 to 2015 in an indigenous community of Brazil, the largest in the country, to investigate risk factors associated with recent TB transmission. The clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were genotyped by IS6110-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and spoligotyping analysis. Among 67 isolates typed by RFLP, 69% fell into fifteen clusters, and 91% of TB cases with shared IS6110-RFLP pattern were diagnosed within 2 years of another case in the cluster...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208028/psychosocial-effects-of-infertility-among-couples-attending-st-michael-s-hospital-jachie-pramso-in-the-ashanti-region-of-ghana
#4
Reindolf Anokye, Enoch Acheampong, Wisdom Kwadwo Mprah, Janet Opia Ope, Tee Ndele Barivure
OBJECTIVE: Infertility is a life crisis with a wide range of socio-cultural, emotional, physical and financial problems. This study sought to determine the psychosocial effects of infertility among couples attending St. Michael's hospital, Jachie-Pramso. A descriptive study design was adopted using a quantitative approach. A simple random technique was used to select 100 respondents and a structured closed ended questionnaire was administered to couples who visited the St. Michaels Hospital at Jachie-Pramso...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206893/the-cerebellar-cognitive-affective-schmahmann-syndrome-scale
#5
Franziska Hoche, Xavier Guell, Mark G Vangel, Janet C Sherman, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome) is characterized by deficits in executive function, linguistic processing, spatial cognition, and affect regulation. Diagnosis currently relies on detailed neuropsychological testing. The aim of this study was to develop an office or bedside cognitive screen to help identify CCAS in cerebellar patients. Secondary objectives were to evaluate whether available brief tests of mental function detect cognitive impairment in cerebellar patients, whether cognitive performance is different in patients with isolated cerebellar lesions versus complex cerebrocerebellar pathology, and whether there are cognitive deficits that should raise red flags about extra-cerebellar pathology...
December 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206574/the-role-of-cultural-and-family-values-on-social-connectedness-and-loneliness-among-ethnic-minority-elders
#6
Laura Garcia Diaz, Marie Y Savundranayagam, Marita Kloseck, Deborah Fitzsimmons
OBJECTIVES: Ethnic minority elders have high levels of social isolation and loneliness. Assumptions about the family providing enough social support exist in the literature, contradicting ethnic minority elders' reported levels of isolation and loneliness. While structural barriers influence feelings of isolation and loneliness, limited information exists about the role of cultural factors such as acculturation and family values. Accordingly, this study investigated the roles of acculturation and family values on loneliness and social isolation among ethnic minority elders...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206131/influence-of-maternal-care-on-behavioural-development-of-domestic-dogs-canis-familiaris-living-in-a-home-environment
#7
Giovanna Guardini, Jon Bowen, Chiara Mariti, Jaume Fatjó, Claudio Sighieri, Angelo Gazzano
Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of the brain, behaviour, social skills and emotional systems of the young of many mammalian species including dogs. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of maternal care on the behavioural responses of family dog puppies towards environmental and social stimuli. In order to do this, maternal care (licking puppy's ano-genital area, licking the puppy, nursing and mother-puppy contact) during the first three weeks after birth was assessed in 12 litters of domestic dog puppies reared in home environments (total = 72 puppies)...
December 5, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202754/institutional-context-and-vct-practitioner-narratives-possibilities-and-limitations-for-hiv-prevention-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#8
Claudia Mora, Simone Monteiro, Carlos Otávio Fiúza Moreira
BACKGROUND: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is an HIV prevention strategy that promotes the principles of confidentiality and informed consent. International research has highlighted VCT counselors' isolation from service planning and the contradictions they negotiate between local values and global testing recommendations. In Brazil, studies have identified many limitations, including counselors' difficulties to implement a vulnerability approach to HIV prevention as recommended in the country's national guidelines...
December 4, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202654/sensation-and-psychiatry-linking-age-related-hearing-loss-to-late-life-depression-and-cognitive-decline
#9
Bret R Rutherford, Katharine Brewster, Justin S Golub, Ana H Kim, Steven P Roose
Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200428/low-empathy-like-behaviour-in-male-mice-associates-with-impaired-sociability-emotional-memory-physiological-stress-reactivity-and-variations-in-neurobiological-regulations
#10
Giovanni Laviola, Francesca Zoratto, Danilo Ingiosi, Valentina Carito, Damien Huzard, Marco Fiore, Simone Macrì
Deficits in empathy have been proposed to constitute a hallmark of several psychiatric disturbances like conduct disorder, antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders. Limited sensitivity to punishment, shallow or deficient affect and reduced physiological reactivity to environmental stressors have been often reported to co-occur with limited empathy and contribute to the onset of antisocial phenotypes. Empathy in its simplest form (i.e. emotional contagion) is addressed in preclinical models through the evaluation of the social transmission of emotional states: mice exposed to a painful stimulus display a higher response if in the presence of a familiar individual experiencing a higher degree of discomfort, than in isolation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199121/interventions-targeting-loneliness-and-social-isolation-among-the-older-people-an-update-systematic-review
#11
Andrea Poscia, Jovana Stojanovic, Daniele Ignazio La Milia, Mariusz Duplaga, Marcin Grysztar, Umberto Moscato, Onder Graziano, Agnese Collamati, Walter Ricciardi, Nicola Magnavita
This systematic review aims to summarize and update the current knowledge on the effectiveness of the existing interventions for alleviating loneliness and social isolation among older persons. A search of PubMed, ISI Web of science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases was performed. The terminology combined all possible alternatives of the following keywords: social isolation, loneliness, old people, intervention and effectiveness. Eligible studies were published between January 2011 and February 2016 in English or Italian language and regarded the implementation of loneliness/social isolation interventions among the older generations...
November 30, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198197/the-incidence-of-very-late-onset-psychotic-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-1960-2016
#12
Jean Stafford, Robert Howard, James B Kirkbride
A substantial subset of people with psychotic disorders are first diagnosed in old age, yet little is known about the epidemiology of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. We investigated the incidence of affective and non-affective psychotic disorders in those aged 65 and above, and examined variation related to potential risk factors via systematic literature review. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and bibliographies and directly contacted authors to obtain citations published between 1960 and 2016 containing (derivable) incidence data...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196354/multiple-sclerosis-a-treatable-disease%C3%A2
#13
Anisha Doshi, Jeremy Chataway
This article reviews our current understanding and modern treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a disabling condition resulting in devastating social and economic impacts. As MS can affect any part of the central nervous system, the presentation is often diverse; however, there are key features that can be useful in the clinic. We comment on the diagnostic criteria and review the main subtypes of MS, including clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing remitting MS, secondary progressive MS and primary progressive MS...
December 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195682/development-of-a-heat-vulnerability-index-for-new-york-state
#14
S G Nayak, S Shrestha, P L Kinney, Z Ross, S C Sheridan, C I Pantea, W H Hsu, N Muscatiello, S A Hwang
OBJECTIVES: The frequency and intensity of extreme heat events are increasing in New York State (NYS) and have been linked with increased heat-related morbidity and mortality. But these effects are not uniform across the state and can vary across large regions due to regional sociodemographic and environmental factors which impact an individual's response or adaptive capacity to heat and in turn contribute to vulnerability among certain populations. We developed a heat vulnerability index (HVI) to identify heat-vulnerable populations and regions in NYS...
November 28, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195455/ontogeny-of-individual-and-litter-identity-signaling-in-grunts-of-piglets
#15
Michaela Syrová, Richard Policht, Pavel Linhart, Marek Špinka
Many studies have shown that animal vocalizations can signal individual identity and group/family membership. However, much less is known about the ontogeny of identity information-when and how this individual/group distinctiveness in vocalizations arises and how it changes during the animal's life. Recent findings suggest that even species that were thought to have limited vocal plasticity could adjust their calls to sound more similar to each other within a group. It has already been shown that sows can acoustically distinguish their own offspring from alien piglets and that litters differ in their calls...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193498/the-impact-of-shift-work-on-intensive-care-nurses-lives-outside-work-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Hanne Irene Jensen, Jette West Larsen, Tina Damgaard Thomsen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine how shift work affects intensive care nurses' lives outside work. BACKGROUND: Shift work is unavoidable for many nurses. When attempting to minimise negative effects of shift work it is important to identify areas which affect nurses working shifts. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: A questionnaire survey among Danish intensive care nurses concerning experiences with shift work and family life, spare time activities, sleep and health...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193338/the-association-amongst-visual-hearing-and-dual-sensory-loss-with-depression-and-anxiety-over-6%C3%A2-years-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#17
S Cosh, T von Hanno, C Helmer, G Bertelsen, C Delcourt, H Schirmer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal association of dual and single (vision and hearing) sensory loss on symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults. METHODS: Two thousand eight hundred ninety adults aged 60 years or over who participated in the longitudinal population-based Tromsø Study, Norway, were included. The impact of objective vision loss, self-report hearing loss, or dual sensory loss on symptoms of depression and anxiety, as assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10, was examined at baseline and 6-year follow-up using linear mixed models...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192622/subdural-empyema-clinical-presentations-and-management-options-for-an-uncommon-neurosurgical-emergency-in-a-developing-country
#18
M C Chikani, W Mezue, E Okorie, C Mbachu, C Ndubisi, U N Chikani
BACKGROUND: Controversy regarding the best management strategy for subdural empyema (SDE) attests to the persisting poor outcomes for this uncommon life threatening intracranial suppurative process. Late presentation confounds the problem in developed countries. While craniotomy is commonly recommended, it is not always possible in late presentation with advanced morbidity. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of clinical presentation and explore the outcomes following management of SDE using burr hole, aspiration, and drainage (BAAD) in resource poor settings...
October 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192418/novel-biomarkers-of-overactive-bladder-syndrome
#19
Andrzej Franciszek Wróbel, Tomasz Kluz, Grzegorz Surkont, Edyta Wlaźlak, Paweł Skorupski, Aleksandra Filipczak, Tomasz Rechberger
The social aspect of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and the lack of objective diagnostic methods for this syndrome have spurred research into its potential biomarkers which can constitute useful diagnostic tools, while also allowing the evaluation of the intensity of clinical symptoms and the efficacy of implemented pharmacotherapy in OAB patients. Due to the complex etiopathogenesis of this syndrome, the researchers are seeking biomarkers connected with inflammation or nerve growth. The aim of this review was to analyse the latest literature data regarding potential biomarkers in OAB...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191239/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-of-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus-in-the-high-arctic
#20
Sandra Lai, Adrien Quiles, Josie Lambourdière, Dominique Berteaux, Aude Lalis
OBJECTIVE: The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a circumpolar species inhabiting all accessible Arctic tundra habitats. The species forms a panmictic population over areas connected by sea ice, but recently, kin clustering and population differentiation were detected even in regions where sea ice was present. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of a population in the High Arctic using a robust panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites. RESULTS: We analyzed the genotypes of 210 individuals from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, using 15 microsatellite loci...
December 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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