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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527111/human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-linear-ordered-collagen-scaffold-improves-functional-recovery-after-completely-transected-spinal-cord-injury-in-canine
#1
Sufang Han, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Huan Zhao, Bin Wang, Zhixue Qiu, Zhi Li, Xin Mei, Bai Xu, Caixia Fan, Bing Chen, Jin Han, Yanzheng Gu, Huilin Yang, Qin Shi, Jianwu Dai
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major challenge in the clinic. In this study, we sought to examine the synergistic effects of linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) and human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) when transplanted into completely transected beagle dogs. After 36 weeks observation, we found that LOCS+hPMSCs implants promoted better hindlimb locomotor recovery than was observed in the non-treatment (control) group and LOCS group. Histological analysis showed that the regenerated tissue after treatment was well integrated with the host tissue, and dramatically reduced the volume of cystic and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expression...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526335/the-spider-toxin-ph%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-recombinant-possesses-strong-analgesic-activity
#2
Flavia Karine Rigo, Gabriela Trevisan, Samira Dal-Toé De Prá, Marta Nascimento Cordeiro, Marcia Helena Borges, Juliana Figueiredo Silva, Flavia Viana Santa Cecilia, Alessandra Hubner de Souza, Gabriela de Oliveira Adamante, Alessandra Marcon Milioli, Célio José de Castro Junior, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Gomez
The native Phα1β - a Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) blocker - and its Recombinant Version - were both tested in rodent pain models with an intraplantar injections of capsaicin or formalin, a chronic constriction injury, and melanoma cancer related pain. The formalin nociceptive behaviour in the neurogenic phase was not affected by the toxin pre-treatments, while in the inflammatory phase, Phα1β and the Recombinant form caused a significant reduction. The nociception that was triggered by capsaicin, an agonist of the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor, was totally blocked by 100 pmol/site, i...
May 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526132/old-and-novel-functions-of-caspase-2
#3
M A Miles, T Kitevska-Ilioski, C J Hawkins
Although caspase-2 is a highly conserved protease that has received a lot of research attention, consensus about its roles and the molecular mechanisms that underpin them has been elusive. Recent improvements to our understanding of the activities of caspase-2 have been facilitated by the development and refinement of techniques allowing identification of cellular processes instigated by this caspase. Following DNA damage, caspase-2 can be activated in a molecular complex called the "PIDDosome"; however, other stimuli provoke caspase-2-dependent activities that do not appear to involve this complex...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524719/polyester-based-microdisc-systems-for-sustained-release-of-neuroprotective-phosphine-borane-complexes
#4
David A Janus, Christopher J Lieven, Megan E Crowe, Leonard A Levin
Phosphine-borane complexes are recently developed redox-active drugs that are neuroprotective in models of optic nerve injury and radioprotective in endothelial cells. However, a single dose of these compounds is short-lived, necessitating development of sustained-release formulations of these novel molecules. We screened a library of biodegradable co- and non-block polyester polymer systems for release of incorporated phosphine-borane complexes to evaluate them as drug delivery systems for use in chronic disease...
May 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524129/-penetrating-orbitocranial-injury-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-case-report-of-injury-by-a-watercolor-brush-in-a-3-year-old-child
#5
D A Rzaev, V E Danilin, G V Letyagin, T K Istomina, N V Chishchina
We present a rare case of orbitocranial penetrating injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child. Injuries of this localization can affect important orbital structures (eyeball, blood vessels, nerves, muscles) and cause severe intracranial damages. In some cases, diagnosis of these injuries in children may be difficult due to the lack of marked clinical manifestations. The presented clinical case illustrates the approaches for choosing methods for diagnosis of injury in childhood and subsequent treatment options...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523577/ffa3-activation-stimulates-duodenal-bicarbonate-secretion-and-prevents-nsaid-induced-enteropathy-via-the-glp-2-pathway-in-rats
#6
Hyder Said, Yasutada Akiba, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Koji Maruta, Ayaka Kuri, Ken-Ichi Iwamoto, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: Therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with enteropathy in humans and experimental animals, a cause of considerable morbidity. Unlike foregut NSAID-associated mucosal lesions, most treatments for this condition are of little efficacy. We propose that the endogenously released intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents the development of NSAID-induced enteropathy. Since the short-chain fatty acid receptor FFA3 is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells and on enteric nerves in the gastrointestinal tract, we further hypothesized that activation of FFA3 on L cells protects the mucosa from injury via GLP-2 release with enhanced duodenal HCO3(-) secretion...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523516/pre-operative-screening-and-manual-drilling-strategies-to-reduce-the-risk-of-thermal-injury-during-minimally-invasive-cochlear-implantation-surgery
#7
Neal P Dillon, Loris Fichera, Kyle Kesler, M Geraldine Zuniga, Jason E Mitchell, Robert J Webster, Robert F Labadie
This article presents the development and experimental validation of a methodology to reduce the risk of thermal injury to the facial nerve during minimally invasive cochlear implantation surgery. The first step in this methodology is a pre-operative screening process, in which medical imaging is used to identify those patients that present a significant risk of developing high temperatures at the facial nerve during the drilling phase of the procedure. Such a risk is calculated based on the density of the bone along the drilling path and the thermal conductance between the drilling path and the nerve, and provides a criterion to exclude high-risk patients from receiving the minimally invasive procedure...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523345/endovenous-laser-ablation-therapy-in-children-applications-and-outcomes
#8
Premal A Patel, Alex M Barnacle, Sam Stuart, Joao G Amaral, Philip R John
BACKGROUND: Endovenous laser ablation is well recognized as the first-line treatment for superficial venous reflux with varicose veins in adults. It is not widely reported and is not an established practice in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a variety of pediatric venous conditions in which endovenous laser ablation can be utilized and to demonstrate its feasibility and safety in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of endovenous laser ablation procedures performed between January 2007 and July 2014 at two large pediatric institutions...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523132/uniportal-transcervical-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-vats-approach-for-pulmonary-lobectomy-combined-with-transcervical-extended-mediastinal-lymphadenectomy-temla
#9
Marcin Zieliński, Mariusz Rybak, Katarzyna Solarczyk-Bombik, Michal Wilkojc, Wojciech Czajkowski, Sylweriusz Kosinski, Edward Fryzlewicz, Tomasz Nabialek, Juliusz Pankowski
BACKGROUND: To present the technique of uniportal transcervical video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach for pulmonary lobectomy combined with transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA). METHODS: Transcervical extended approach utilizes a typical a 5-8 centimeters collar incision in the neck. The critical technical point enabling a wide access to the chest is an elevation of the sternal manubrium with a special retractor (modified Rochard frame, Asculap-Chifa Company)...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523127/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-hifu-ablation-of-benign-thyroid-nodules-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Brian Hung-Hin Lang, Arnold L H Wu
BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of imaging studies being done nowadays, the number of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules is expected to rise. Although many of these nodules are small and benign in nature, some do grow and may cause pressure and/or thyrotoxic symptoms. Surgical resection has traditionally been recommended for symptomatic nodules but is associated with risk of hypothyroidism, bleeding, infection, and nerve damage. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one of the non-surgical thermal ablation techniques that may serve as an alternative in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523090/penetrating-craniomaxillofacial-injury-caused-by-a-pneumatic-nail-gun
#11
Kevin Jae Choi, Marisa Ann Ryan, Tracy Cheng, David Powers
Craniomaxillofacial injuries can be complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The primary survey is always the first step in trauma management prior to proceeding with further evaluation and treatment. A 26-year-old man presented with a penetrating nail gun injury through the oral and nasal cavities. He did not present in extremis but required elective endotracheal intubation for intraoperative assessment and treatment. Airway management was enhanced by the use of lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve blocks via the Vazirani-Akinosi technique to maintain spontaneous respiration while the tongue was distracted from the palate...
June 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#12
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522763/aortic-arch-compliance-and-idiopathic-unilateral-vocal-fold-paralysis
#13
Reza Behkam, Kara E Roberts, Andrew J Bierhals, M Eileen Jacobs, Julia D Edgar, Randal C Paniello, Gayle Woodson, Jonathan P Vande Geest, Julie M Barkmeier-Kraemer
Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) occurs related to recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) impairment associated with impaired swallowing, voice production, and breathing functions. The majority of UVP cases occur subsequent to surgical intervention with approximately 12-42% having no known cause for the disease (i.e., idiopathic). Approximately 2/3 of those with UVP exhibit left-sided injury with the average onset at 50 years of age or older in those diagnosed as idiopathic. Given the association between the RLN and the subclavian and aortic arch vessels, we hypothesized that changes in vascular tissues would result in increased aortic compliance in idiopathic left-sided UVP patients compared to those without UVP...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#14
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521852/upper-limb-nerve-transfers-a-review
#15
A Forli, M Bouyer, M Aribert, C Curvale, M Delord, D Corcella, F Moutet
While upper limb nerve transfers were first described and performed several years ago, they have seen expanded use in the past 20 years. Initially indicated for surgical repair of brachial plexus injuries with nerve root avulsion, the indications have been extended to post-ganglionic lesions because of the excellent results of certain intraplexus nerve transfers. The traditional nerve repair techniques - primary suture and nerve grafting - form the basis of nerve surgery. Although nerve transfer does not replace them, they are a useful supplement as they provide a targeted approach to reinnervation and recovery of key functions of the upper limb...
June 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521032/a-neglected-cause-of-iatrogenic-brachial-plexus-injuries-in-psychiatric-patients
#16
José Fernando Guedes-Corrêa, Maristella Reis da Costa Pereira, Francisco José Lourenço Torrão-Junior, José Vicente Martins, Daniel Alves Neiva Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric patients are often kept immobilized during hospitalization to avoid self-inflicted injuries and danger to third parties. Inadequate positioning can lead to brachial plexus injuries (BPI). OBJECTIVE: To present a series of 5 psychiatric patients with BPI after being left sedated and restrained for prolonged periods of time during hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 5 psychiatric patients with iatrogenic BPI referred by other institutions to our service...
May 18, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#17
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515545/traumatic-brain-injury-and-neuropsychiatric-complications
#18
REVIEW
Saeed Ahmed, Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Sara Dar, Mudasar Hassan, Shahana Ayub
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating injury results in damage to the brain. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in young people with a higher prevalence in men. TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality between the ages 1 and 45. TBI can be caused either by the direct result of trauma or due to a complication of the primary injury. The most common etiological factors for TBI are falls, road traffic accidents, violent physical assaults, and injuries associated with athletic activities...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514742/effect-and-mechanism-of-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signal-pathway-on-chronic-neuropathic-pain-and-spinal-microglia-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-constriction-injury
#19
Jian-Rong Guo, Huan Wang, Xiao-Ju Jin, Dong-Lin Jia, Xun Zhou, Qiang Tao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway on chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) and spinal microglia in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). METHODS: Male SD rats were assigned into control, sham, CCI, wortmannin, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and wortmannin-positive control groups. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were recorded. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect PI3K, Akt and mTOR expressions and their phosphorylation...
May 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514510/injury-to-the-infrapatellar-branch-of-the-saphenous-nerve-during-tendon-graft-harvesting-for-knee-ligament-reconstruction-an-ultrasound-simulation-study
#20
Przemysław A Pękala, Ewa Miza, Brandon Michael Henry, Patrick Popieluszko, Marios Loukas, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
INTRODUCTION: The clinical anatomy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN) is of particular importance during operations in the area of the knee, especially when material for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is harvested. The nerve can easily be injured during the harvesting procedure, leading to postoperative complications that reduce quality of life. Three different skin incisions are commonly used during hamstring tendon harvesting: horizontal, vertical, and oblique...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
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