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Renin angiotensin aldosterone system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776996/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-12%C3%A2-saltwater-on-the-endocrine-physiology-of-juvenile-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#1
P C Faulkner, M L Burleson, L Simonitis, C Marshall, D Hala, L H Petersen
American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis , Linnaeus) habitats are prone to saltwater intrusion following major storms, hurricanes or droughts. Anthropogenic impacts affecting hydrology of freshwater systems may exacerbate saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. The endocrine system of alligators is susceptible to changes in the environment but it is currently not known how the crocodilian physiological system responds to environmental stressors such as salinity. Juvenile alligators were exposed to 12‰ saltwater for 5 weeks to determine effects of chronic exposure to saline environments...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767556/hydronephrosis-is-associated-with-elevated-plasmin-in-urine-in-pediatric-patients-and-rats-and-changes-in-ncc-and-%C3%AE-enac-abundance-in-rat-kidney
#2
Rikke Zachar, Ammar Al-Mashhadi, Henrik Dimke, Per Svenningsen, Boye L Jensen, Mattias Carlström
Obstruction of urine flow at the level of the pelvo-ureteric junction (UPJO) and subsequent development of hydronephrosis is one of the most common congenital renal malformations. UPJO is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension, which is set by the obstructed kidney, and with a stimulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in rodent models. This study aimed at investigating the hypothesis that i) in pediatric patients with UPJO the RAAS is activated prior to surgical relief of the obstruction; ii) in rats with UPJO the RAAS activation is reflected by increased abundance of renal aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transporters; and iii) the injured UPJO kidney allows aberrant filtration of plasminogen leading to proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel gamma subunit (γ-ENaC)...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766272/blood-pressure-is-normal-but-is-the-heart
#3
Serkan Fazlı Çelik, Cemşit Karakurt, Yılmaz Tabel, Taner Elmas, Saim Yoloğlu
BACKGROUND: There is no detailed strain analysis of cardiac functions in treated hypertensive pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardio-protective effects of different drug classes in treated pediatric hypertensive patients. METHODS: Sixty non-obese-treated hypertensive patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function and 45 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects underwent clinical evaluation, including 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, standard echocardiographic examination, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765464/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-inhibition-improves-right-ventricular-function-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Jacob Y Cao, Seung Yeon Lee, Kevin Phan, David S Celermajer, Sean Lal
The benefits of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are well established for left ventricular dysfunction, but remain unknown for right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to investigate the role of RAAS inhibition on RV function in those with or at risk of RV dysfunction. Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched and 12 studies were included for statistical synthesis, comprising 265 RAAS inhibition treatment patients and 265 placebo control patients...
2018: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761293/stable-but-progressive-nature-of-heart-failure-considerations-for-primary-care-physicians
#5
REVIEW
Inder Anand
Primary care physicians play a significant role in managing heart failure (HF), with the goals of reducing mortality, avoiding hospitalization, and improving patients' quality of life. Most HF-related hospitalizations and deaths occur in patients with New York Heart Association functional class II or III, many of whom are perceived to have stable disease, which often progresses without clinical symptoms due to underlying deleterious effects of neurohormonal imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. Management includes lifestyle changes and stepped pharmacological therapy directed at the four stages of HF, with aggressive uptitration of therapies, including beta-blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760343/acute-effect-of-ivabradine-on-heart-rate-and-myocardial-oxygen-consumption-in-dogs-with-asymptomatic-mitral-valve-degeneration
#6
Prapawadee Pirintr, Vudhiporn Limprasutr, Nakkawee Saengklub, Parnpradub Pavinadol, Napat Yapao, Natthakarn Limvanicharat, Hathaisiri Kuecharoen, Anusak Kijtawornrat
Degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is a common cardiac disease in geriatric dogs characterized by the degeneration of the mitral valve, leading to decreased cardiac output and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This disease results in an increased resting heart rate (HR) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ). A recent publication demonstrated that dogs with asymptomatic DMVD had a significantly higher HR and systemic blood pressure (BP) than age-matched control dogs...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758100/diagnostic-approach-to-low-renin-hypertension
#7
Silvia Monticone, Isabel Losano, Martina Tetti, Fabrizio Buffolo, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in maintaining water and electrolytes homeostasis and its deregulation contributes to the development of arterial hypertension. Since the historical description of the "classical" RAAS, a dramatic increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of both essential and secondary hypertension has occurred. Approximatively 25% of the patients affected by arterial hypertension display low renin levels, a definition that is largely arbitrary and depends on the investigated population and the specific characteristics of the assay...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753367/aldosterone-blockade-added-to-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-to-reduce-albuminuria-a-path-for-improved-renoprotection
#8
EDITORIAL
Peter Rossing, Frederik Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748075/protective-effect-of-calcitriol-on-podocytes-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#9
Weiwei Shi, Ling Guo, Guangyi Liu, Tao Peng, Hongyu Li, Tingting Xie, Dengren Li, Junhui Zhen, Yan Wang, Huimin Yang, Xiangdong Yang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major global public health issue. Uncontrolled hypertension leads to organ damage, especially renal damage. Calcitriol is used to treat osteoporosis, promote bone formation, and increase bone mass. Previous studies have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3, in addition to its classic role, also has multiple immune regulation and renoprotective functions and inhibits the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RASS). The aim of the current study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of calcitriol in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737882/a-peripheral-blood-transcriptome-biomarker-test-to-diagnose-functional-recovery-potential-in-advanced-heart-failure
#10
Mario C Deng
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that causes systemic hypoperfusion and failure to meet the body's metabolic demands. In an attempt to compensate, chronic upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone leads to further myocardial injury, HF progression and reduced O2 delivery. This triggers progressive organ dysfunction, immune system activation and profound metabolic derangements, creating a milieu similar to other chronic systemic diseases and presenting as advanced HF with severely limited prognosis...
May 8, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736674/modulation-of-vascular-reactivity-by-perivascular-adipose-tissue-pvat
#11
REVIEW
Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Anna Paini, Carolina De Ciuceis, Sarah Withers, Adam Greenstein, Anthony M Heagerty, Damiano Rizzoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the role of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in the modulation of vascular contractility and arterial pressure, focusing on the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress/inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: PVAT possesses a relevant endocrine-paracrine activity, which may be altered in several pathophysiological and clinical conditions. During the last two decades, it has been shown that PVAT may modulate vascular reactivity...
May 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734020/ultrastructural-and-mechanical-changes-in-tubular-epithelial-cells-by-angiotensin-ii-and-aldosterone-as-observed-with-atomic-force-microscopy
#12
Fu-Shi Quan, Kyung Hwan Jeong, Gi-Ja Lee
Tubular epithelial cells (TECs) play an important pathophysiological role in the promotion of renal fibrosis. Quantitative analysis of the mechanical changes in TECs may be helpful in evaluating novel pharmacological strategies. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a common nanotechnology tool used for imaging and measuring interaction forces in biological systems. In this study, we used AFM to study ultrastructural and mechanical changes in TECs mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We quantitatively analyzed changes in the mechanical properties of TECs using three extrinsic factors, namely, chemical fixation, angiotensin II (AT II), and aldosterone (AD)...
May 2, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733445/effects-of-treatment-with-an-angiotensin-2-receptor-blocker-and-or-vitamin-d3-on-parathyroid-hormone-and-aldosterone-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Lise Sofie Bislev, Lene Langagergaard Rødbro, Jesper Nørgaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen, Lars Rolighed, Tanja Sikjaer, Lars Rejnmark
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence support a positive, bidirectional and clinical relevant interaction between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS). A beneficial effect of the widely used RAAS inhibitors might include a PTH lowering effect, as high PTH levels may be harmful to cardiovascular health. We aimed to investigate whether PTH levels are lowered by short-term treatment with an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker (valsartan) independently of co-administration of vitamin D3...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731021/pathophysiological-links-between-diabetes-and-blood-pressure
#14
REVIEW
Renata Libianto, Duygu Batu, Richard J MacIsaac, Mark E Cooper, Elif I Ekinci
Hypertension is highly prevalent among people with diabetes, and the presence of diabetes among those with hypertension portends an increase in cardiovascular risk. In this review we aim to explore the pathophysiological links between diabetes and hypertension. Renal sodium handling differs in diabetes because there is an upregulation of sodium transporters in the kidneys. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be upregulated in diabetes, leading to hypertension through a direct effect mediated by angiotensin II, as well as indirectly through upregulation of sympathetic activity...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730248/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockade-in-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Oraluck Pattanaprateep, Atiporn Ingsathit, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Ammarin Thakkinstian
OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost effectiveness of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade in the progression of chronic kidney disease using Thai clinical data in 2014. METHODS: A Markov model for cost-effectiveness analysis was applied to estimate from a societal perspective the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of RAAS versus non-RAAS used in preventing the progression of end-stage renal disease and death stratified by diabetic and nondiabetic patients...
May 3, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727609/conflicting-evidence-on-health-effects-associated-with-salt-reduction-calls-for-a-redesign-of-the-salt-dietary-guidelines
#16
REVIEW
Niels Graudal, Gesche Jürgens
Ninety-five percent of the World's populations have a mean salt intake between 6-12 g, which is much lower than the tolerated daily level of up to 55 g/d. In spite of this, the recommended upper level by many health institutions is as low as 5.8 g/day. When reviewing the evidence for an upper level of 5.8g/day, it becomes apparent that neither the supporting studies selected by the health institutions, nor randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies disregarded by the health institutions, document that a salt intake below this 5...
May 1, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726985/expert-consensus-document-on-the-management-of-hyperkalaemia-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-treated-with-raas-inhibitors-coordinated-by-the-working-group-on-cardiovascular-pharmacotherapy-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology
#17
Giuseppe M C Rosano, Juan Tamargo, Keld P Kjeldsen, Mitja Lainscak, Stefan Agewall, Stefan D Anker, Claudio Ceconi, Andrew J S Coats, Heinz Drexel, Gerasimos Filippatos, Juan Carlos Kaski, Lars Lund, Alexander Niessner, Gianluigi Savarese, Thomas A Schmidt, Petar Seferovic, Sven Wassmann, Thomas Walther, Basil S Lewis
Renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors/antagonists/blockers (RAASi) are a cornerstone in treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases especially in those with heart failure (HF) due to their proven effect on surrogate and hard end-points. RAASi are also the basis in treatment of arterial hypertension and they are furthermore indicated to reduce events and target organ damage in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, where they have specific indication because of the evidence of benefit...
May 3, 2018: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726949/increased-urinary-extracellular-vesicle-sodium-transporters-in-cushing-s-syndrome-with-hypertension
#18
Mahdi Salih, Dominique M Bovée, Nils van der Lubbe, Alexander H J Danser, Robert Zietse, Richard A Feelders, Ewout J Hoorn
Context: Increased renal sodium reabsorption contributes to hypertension in Cushing's syndrome (CS). Renal sodium transporters can be analyzed non-invasively in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs). Objective: To analyze renal sodium transporters in uEVs of patients with CS and hypertension. Design: Observational study. Setting: University hospital. Participants: uEVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting in 10 CS patients and 7 age-matched healthy subjects...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725642/the-cost-of-hyperkalemia-in-the-united-states
#19
Keith A Betts, J Michael Woolley, Fan Mu, Cheryl Xiang, Wenxi Tang, Eric Q Wu
Introduction: There are limited data on the cost of hyperkalemia. Methods: This retrospective analysis of the Truven MarketScan claims database assessed the economic burden of hyperkalemia among selected adult patients with hyperkalemia and matched controls. Results: A total of 39,626 cases (patients with hyperkalemia) were matched to 39,626 controls (patients without hyperkalemia) based on age, dialysis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, heart failure, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitor use...
March 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717392/arterial-distensibility-physical-activity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Saladini, Paolo Palatini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors including central obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and arterial hypertension, is a well-known determinant of arterial wall remodeling and stiffening. The mechanisms whereby MetS promotes arterial stiffening include increased sympathetic activity with the associated fast heart rate, enhanced activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and reduction of nitric oxide availability...
May 1, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
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