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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930524/hypertension-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#1
Ivan Tasic, Dragan Lovic
Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929450/intrarenal-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-the-old-and-the-new
#2
REVIEW
Silas Culver, Caixia Li, Helmy M Siragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) is an independent paracrine hormonal system with an increasingly prominent role in hypertension and renal disease. Two enzyme components of this system are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and more recently discovered ACE2. The purpose of this review is to describe recent discoveries regarding the roles of intrarenal ACE and ACE2 and their interaction. RECENT FINDINGS: Renal tubular ACE contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925860/pharmacologic-and-perioperative-considerations-for-antihypertensive-medications
#3
Sher-Lu Pai, Ryan M Chadha, Joan M Irizarry Alvarado, Johnathan Ross Renew, Stephen Aniskevich
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, physicians routinely encounter patients preoperatively receiving one or more cardiovascular medications to manage hypertension. Thus, the physician's knowledge of perioperative antihypertensive medication management is crucial to ensure patient safety. OBJECTIVE: We discuss the decisions to continue or stop antihypertensive medications to reduce the risk of perioperative complications. METHOD: We conducted a review of the original research studies, review articles, and editorials present on PubMed within the past 60 years...
September 18, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919716/palatability-and-physical-properties-of-potassium-binding-resin-rdx7675-comparison-with-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate
#4
Vanessa Zann, John McDermott, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, especially those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, are at high risk of developing. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a current treatment, binds potassium within the gastrointestinal tract to reduce potassium absorption. However, poor palatability limits its long-term use. RDX7675, a novel potassium binder in development for the treatment of hyperkalemia, is a calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin designed to have enhanced palatability...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#5
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902380/-organ-interactions-heart-and-kidney
#6
Daniel Salleck, Stefan John
The interactions between heart and kidney are various and of clinical relevance. Worsening of one organ often influences the function of the other. With NYHA and KDIGO we have classification systems for heart and kidney failure and those should be used for cardiorenal systems as well. Furthermore there is a useful classification system for cardiorenal syndromes itself. Cardiorenal syndrome is a complex illness which should be treated by interdisciplinary medical teams. A key roll in pathophysiology is the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron-system (RAAS)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900121/dominance-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-over-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-is-a-risk-factor-for-decreased-insulin-secretion
#7
Makoto Daimon, Aya Kamba, Hiroshi Murakami, Satoru Mizushiri, Sho Osonoi, Kota Matsuki, Eri Sato, Jutaro Tanabe, Shinobu Takayasu, Yuki Matsuhashi, Miyuki Yanagimachi, Ken Terui, Kazunori Kageyama, Itoyo Tokuda, Shizuka Kurauchi, Shigeyuki Nakaji
How the association between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) affects glucose metabolism were not well examined in a general population. Participants of the population-based 2015 Iwaki study were enrolled (n: 1,016; age: 54.4 ± 15.1 years). Principal component (PC) analysis identified two PCs: PC1 represented levels of the HPA axis (serum cortisol) and the RAAS (plasma aldosterone) as a whole, and PC2 represented the HPA axis relative to the RAAS (HPA axis dominance)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887369/genetic-mechanisms-of-human-hypertension-and-their-implications-for-blood-pressure-physiology
#8
Eric Seidel, Ute I Scholl
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure, constitutes a major public health burden that affects more than 1 billion people worldwide and contributes to about 9 million deaths annually. Hereditary factors are thought to contribute to up to 50% of interindividual blood pressure variability. Blood pressure in the general population approximately shows a normal distribution and is thought to be a polygenic trait. In rare cases, early-onset hypertension or hypotension are inherited as Mendelian traits. The identification of the underlying Mendelian genes and variants has contributed to our understanding of the physiology of blood pressure regulation, emphasizing renal salt handling and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system as players in the determination of blood pressure...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883863/the-evolution-of-natriuretic-peptide-augmentation-in-management-of-heart-failure-and-the-role-of-sacubitril-valsartan
#9
Srikanth Yandrapalli, Wilbert S Aronow, Pratik Mondal, David R Chabbott
Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures in the US and worldwide. For three decades, the pillars of treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were medications that targeted the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Prior attempts to augment the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) for the management of HF failed either due to lack of significant clinical benefit or due to the unacceptable side effect profile...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877926/effectiveness-of-quality-improvement-strategies-for-the-management-of-ckd-a-meta-analysis
#10
Samuel A Silver, Chaim M Bell, Glenn M Chertow, Prakesh S Shah, Kaveh Shojania, Ron Wald, Ziv Harel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality improvement interventions have enhanced care for other chronic illnesses, but their effectiveness for patients with CKD is unknown. We sought to determine the effects of quality improvement strategies on clinical outcomes in adult patients with nondialysis-requiring CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials, searching Medline and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care database from January of 2003 to April of 2015...
September 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877882/mechanotransduction-signaling-in-podocytes-from-fluid-flow-shear-stress
#11
Tarak Srivastava, Hongying Dai, Daniel P Heruth, Uri S Alon, Robert E Garola, Jianping Zhou, R Scott Duncan, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Ellen T McCarthy, Ram Sharma, Mark L Johnson, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Recently we and others have found that hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely tensile stress and fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) can directly and distinctly alter podocyte structure and function. The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates FFSS to podocyte. Our previous work suggests that COX2-PGE2-EP2 axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocyte (Srivastava et al. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 307: F1323-F1333, 2014). To address mechanotransduction of the perceived mechanical stimulus through EP2 receptor, cultured podocytes were exposed to FFSS (2 dynes/cm2) for 2hrs...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875746/plasma-renin-activity-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-on-optimal-medical-therapy
#12
Petra Nijst, Frederik H Verbrugge, Pieter Martens, Philippe B Bertrand, Matthias Dupont, Gary S Francis, Wh Wilson Tang, Wilfried Mullens
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) is detrimental through promotion of ventricular remodeling and salt and water retention. AIMS: The aims of this article are to describe RAAS activity in distinct HFREF populations and to assess its prognostic impact. METHODS: Venous blood samples were prospectively obtained in 76 healthy volunteers, 72 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HFREF, and 78 ambulatory chronic HFREF patients without clinical signs of congestion...
July 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872358/nocturnal-diastolic-blood-pressure-decline-is-associated-with-higher-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-level-and-standing-plasma-renin-activity-in-a-hypertensive-population
#13
Mingchen Zhang, Xinjuan Xu, Haiming Liu, Haixia Li, Junshi Zhang, Min Gao
Patients with nondipper hypertension are known to carry a high risk of cardiovascular complications. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with hypertension. Because vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), we hypothesized that this vitamin would interact with the RAAS to influence blood pressure (BP) in nondipper hypertensive patients. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,007 outpatients with hypertension (HTN). Dipper and nondipper patterns were detected, and the two groups were matched for clinical, laboratory, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, and ambulatory blood pressure recording...
September 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872133/peptide-and-protein-quantification-using-automated-immuno-maldi-imaldi
#14
Huiyan Li, Robert Popp, Bjorn Frohlich, Michael X Chen, Christoph H Borchers
Mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most commonly used technologies for quantifying proteins in complex samples, with excellent assay specificity as a result of the direct detection of the mass-to-charge ratio of each target molecule. However, MS-based proteomics, like most other analytical techniques, has a bias towards measuring high-abundance analytes, so it is challenging to achieve detection limits of low ng/mL or pg/mL in complex samples, and this is the concentration range for many disease-relevant proteins in biofluids such as human plasma...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870047/-expert-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-gitelman-syndrome
#15
(no author information available yet)
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive, salt-losing tubulopathy caused by inactivating mutations in the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). GS is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. GS is one of the most common inherited renal tubulopathy with a prevalence estimated at about one to ten per 40 000 people. The prevalence of GS is even higher in Asia than other countries. The majority of GS patients present mild and nonspecific symptoms during adolescence or adulthood...
September 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867244/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-versus-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#16
Se Yeon Choi, Byoung Geol Choi, Seung-Woon Rha, Jae Kyeong Byun, Min Suk Shim, Hu Li, Ahmed Mashaly, Cheol Ung Choi, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Dong Joo Oh, Myung Ho Jeong
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor of adverse cardiovascular events in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors is associated with improved clinical outcomes, however, there are limited data comparing the effectiveness of two different RAAS inhibitors in STEMI patients with DM undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS: A total of 3811 eligible STEMI patients with DM were enrolled in Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR)...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866674/association-of-serum-potassium-with-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-and-without-heart-failure-chronic-kidney-disease-and-or-diabetes
#17
Allan J Collins, Bertram Pitt, Nancy Reaven, Susan Funk, Karen McGaughey, Daniel Wilson, David A Bushinsky
BACKGROUND: The relationship between serum potassium, mortality, and conditions commonly associated with dyskalemias, such as heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) is largely unknown. METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical record data from a geographically diverse population (n = 911,698) receiving medical care, determined the distribution of serum potassium, and the relationship between an index potassium value and mortality over an 18-month period in those with and without HF, CKD, and/or DM...
September 2, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865782/signal-transduction-and-chronopharmacology-of-regulation-of-circadian-cardiovascular-rhythms-in-animal-models-of-human-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Björn Lemmer
Inbred strains of rats can be used as models of human hypertension to evaluate mechanisms of regulation of the circadian rhythms underlying hypertension. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythms in rodents are endogenous (circadian). Studies have been performed in rats on the turnover of norepinephrine, on processes of signal transduction in the beta-adrenoceptor-adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase system and in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and on circadian rhythms in blood pressure and heart rate using radiotelemetry...
October 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864840/renal-auricular-and-ocular-outcomes-of-alport-syndrome-and-their-current-management
#19
Yanqin Zhang, Jie Ding
Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerular basement membrane disease caused by mutations in the COL4A3/4/5 genes encoding the type IV collagen alpha 3-5 chains. Most cases of Alport syndrome are inherited as X-linked dominant, and some as autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant. The primary manifestations are hematuria, proteinuria, and progressive renal failure, whereas some patients present with sensorineural hearing loss and ocular abnormalities. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is proven to delay the onset of renal failure by reducing proteinuria...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856513/emerging-pharmacologic-and-structural-therapies-for-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#20
REVIEW
Daniel J Philipson, Eugene C DePasquale, Eric H Yang, Arnold S Baas
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common inherited heart disease. Although it was first described over 50 years ago, there has been little in the way of novel disease-specific therapeutic development for these patients. Current treatment practice largely aims at symptomatic control using old drugs made for other diseases and does little to modify the disease course. Septal reduction by surgical myectomy or percutaneous alcohol septal ablation are well-established treatments for pharmacologic-refractory left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients...
August 31, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
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