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Przemyslaw Guzik, Caroline Piekos, Olivia Pierog, Naiman Fenech, Tomasz Krauze, Jaroslaw Piskorski, Andrzej Wykretowicz
We compared classic ECG-derived versus a mobile approach to heart rate variability (HRV) measurement. METHODS & RESULTS: 29 young adult healthy volunteers underwent a simultaneous recording of heart rate using an ECG and a chest heart rate monitor at supine rest, during mental stress and active standing. Mean RR interval, Standard Deviation of Normal-to-Normal (SDNN) of RR intervals, and Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (RMSSD) between RR intervals were computed in 168 pairs of 5-minute epochs by in-house software on a PC (only sinus beats) and by mobile application "ELITEHRV" on a smartphone (no beat type identification)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Nelly Olova, Felix Krueger, Simon Andrews, David Oxley, Rebecca V Berrens, Miguel R Branco, Wolf Reik
BACKGROUND: Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is becoming an increasingly accessible technique, used widely for both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Library preparation methods benefit from a variety of available kits, polymerases and bisulfite conversion protocols. Although some steps in the procedure, such as PCR amplification, are known to introduce biases, a systematic evaluation of biases in WGBS strategies is missing. RESULTS: We perform a comparative analysis of several commonly used pre- and post-bisulfite WGBS library preparation protocols for their performance and quality of sequencing outputs...
March 15, 2018: Genome Biology
Irene Fondón, Auxiliadora Sarmiento, Ana Isabel García, María Silvestre, Catarina Eloy, António Polónia, Paulo Aguiar
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Its early diagnosis is extremely important to prevent avoidable deaths. However, malignancy assessment of tissue biopsies is complex and dependent on observer subjectivity. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological images exhibit a highly variable appearance, even within the same malignancy level. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automated malignancy assessment of breast tissue samples based on the processing of histological images...
March 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jeevan K Pant, Sridhar Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To present a new compressive sensing (CS)-based method for the acquisition of ECG signals and for robust estimation of heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters from compressively sensed measurements with high compression ratio. APPROACH: CS is used in the biosensor to compress the ECG signal. Estimation of the locations of QRS segments is carried out by applying two algorithms on the compressed measurements. The first algorithm reconstructs the ECG signal by enforcing a block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal, so the transient QRS segments are significantly emphasized on the first-order difference of the signal...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Christopher W Peterson, Wladimir A Benalcazar, Taylor L Hughes, Gaurav Bahl
The theory of electric polarization in crystals defines the dipole moment of an insulator in terms of a Berry phase (geometric phase) associated with its electronic ground state. This concept not only solves the long-standing puzzle of how to calculate dipole moments in crystals, but also explains topological band structures in insulators and superconductors, including the quantum anomalous Hall insulator and the quantum spin Hall insulator, as well as quantized adiabatic pumping processes. A recent theoretical study has extended the Berry phase framework to also account for higher electric multipole moments, revealing the existence of higher-order topological phases that have not previously been observed...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Lin Xie, Jay Onysko, Howard Morrison
INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of childhood cancer incidence trends can inform etiologic research, policy and programs. This study presents the first population-based report on demographic and geographic variations in incidence trends of detailed pediatric diagnostic groups in Canada. METHODS: The Canadian Cancer Registry data were used to calculate annual age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) from 1992 to 2010 among children less than 15 years of age by sex, age and region for the 12 main diagnostic groups and selected subgroups of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC), 3rd edition...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Rubens Spin-Neto, Louise H Matzen, Lars W Schropp, Thomas S Sørensen, Ann Wenzel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of head motion artefacts and an automated artefact-correction system on CBCT image quality and interpretability for simulated diagnostic tasks. METHODS: A partially dentate human skull was mounted on a robot simulating four types of head movement (antero-posterior translation, nodding, lateral rotation, and tremor), at three distances (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mm) based on two movement patterns (skull returning/not returning to the initial position)...
March 14, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Jana Jeffery, Maria Carradus, Karolina Songin, Michael Pettit, Karl Pettit, Christopher Wright
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was validated for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the FDA list of 93 harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS). Target analytes were extracted from total particulate matter using accelerated solvent extraction with a toluene/ethanol solvent mixture. Matrix artefacts were removed by two-step solid-phase extraction process. Three different GC-MS systems [GC-MS (single quadrupole), GC-MS/MS (triple quadrupole) and GC-HRMS (high resolution, magnetic sector)] using the same separation conditions were compared for the analysis of MCS of 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes generated under ISO and intense smoking regimes...
March 13, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Samuel Ellis, Daniel W Franks, Stuart Nattrass, Michael A Cant, Destiny L Bradley, Deborah Giles, Kenneth C Balcomb, Darren P Croft
A species has a post-reproductive stage if, like humans, a female entering the adult population can expect to live a substantial proportion of their life after their last reproductive event. However, it is conceptually and statistically challenging to distinguish these true post-reproductive stages from the usual processes of senescence, which can result in females occasionally surviving past their last reproductive event. Hence, despite considerable interest, the taxonomic prevalence of post-reproductive stages remains unclear and debated...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Luc Doyon, Zhanyang Li, Hao Li, Francesco d'Errico
Most Chinese lithic industries dated between 300,000 and 40,000 are characterized by the absence of Levallois debitage, the persistence of core-and-flake knapping, the rarity of prepared cores, their reduction with direct hard hammer percussion, and the rarity of retouched flakes. Here we report the discovery of seven bone soft hammers at the early hominin Lingjing site (Xuchang County, Henan) dated to 125,000-105,000. These artefacts represent the first instance of the use of bone as raw material to modify stone tools found at an East Asian early Late Pleistocene site...
2018: PloS One
Ewa Juresic, Gary P Liney, Robba Rai, Joseph Descalar, Mark Lee, Karen Wong, Daniel Moses, Jacqueline Veera, Lois Holloway
INTRODUCTION: A magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for radiotherapy treatment simulation was commissioned in our department in June 2013. Practical set up and MR image quality trade-offs using a variety of patient positions and immobilisation devices routinely used in the treatment planning of rectal cancer patients were considered. The study also aimed to investigate the MR compatibility of the device materials with a focus on temperature changes during routine clinical examinations. METHODS: Ten volunteers were scanned: (1) Prone on a Civco Contoura Bellyboard (BBB), (2) Prone on a Civco MR Series Bellyboard (WBB), (3) Prone with no bellyboard and (4) Supine...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
C H Lucas Patty, David A Luo, Frans Snik, Freek Ariese, Wybren Jan Buma, Inge Loes Ten Kate, Rob J M van Spanning, William B Sparks, Thomas A Germer, Győző Garab, Michael W Kudenov
Spectropolarimetry of intact plant leaves allows to probe the molecular architecture of vegetation photosynthesis in a non-invasive and non-destructive way and, as such, can offer a wealth of physiological information. In addition to the molecular signals due to the photosynthetic machinery, the cell structure and its arrangement within a leaf can create and modify polarization signals. Using Mueller matrix polarimetry with rotating retarder modulation, we have visualized spatial variations in polarization in transmission around the chlorophyll a absorbance band from 650 nm to 710 nm...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hein Heuvelman, James Nazroo, Dheeraj Rai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. METHODS: Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248)...
March 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Richard Manber, Kris Thielemans, Brian F Hutton, Simon Wan, Francesco Fraioli, Anna Barnes, Sebastien Ourselin, Simon Arridge, David Atkinson
In Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET imaging with Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging in PET/MR scanners provides spatially aligned complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. We validate our PET respiratory motion correction methodology based on a joint PET-MR motion model, on a patient cohort, showing it can improve lesion detectability and quantitation, and reduce image artefacts...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi, Maria Del C Valdés-Hernández, Maria Leonora Fatimah Agan, Carol Di Perri, Taku Komura
We propose an adaptation of a convolutional neural network (CNN) scheme proposed for segmenting brain lesions with considerable mass-effect, to segment white matter hyperintensities (WMH) characteristic of brains with none or mild vascular pathology in routine clinical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). This is a rather difficult segmentation problem because of the small area (i.e., volume) of the WMH and their similarity to non-pathological brain tissue. We investigate the effectiveness of the 2D CNN scheme by comparing its performance against those obtained from another deep learning approach: Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM), two conventional machine learning approaches: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), and a public toolbox: Lesion Segmentation Tool (LST), all reported to be useful for segmenting WMH in MRI...
February 17, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Ina Reiche, Claire Heckel, Katharina Müller, Olaf Jöris, Tim Matthies, Nicholas Conard, Harald Floss, Randall White
Among the earliest Homo sapiens societies in Eurasia, the Aurignacian phase of the Early Upper Palaeolithic, approximately 40,000-30,000 uncal. BP, mammoth ivory assumed great social and economic significance, and was used to create hundreds of personal ornaments as well as the earliest known works of three-dimensional figurative art in the world. This paper reports on the results of micro-PIXE/PIGE analyses of mammoth-ivory artefacts and debris from five major sites of Aurignacian ivory use. Patterns of variable F-content indicate regionally-distinct strategies of ivory procurement that correspond to apparent differences in human-mammoth interactions...
March 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
B Cowie, L Baker, B Shoghi, M Worner, D Scott
Electrocardiogram (ECG) false alarms are common in electrically-hostile peri-operative environments. Newer integrated monitoring, with sophisticated hardware and software, has the potential to minimise artefacts. However, monitoring issues continue to occur, with the potential for critical incidents and unnecessary and harmful interventions. We describe the root cause analysis of a series of apparent ECG flatline asystolic events that appeared in the operating room shortly after the introduction of new intra-operative monitoring systems...
March 9, 2018: Anaesthesia
Zaria C Ali, Jane Gray, Konstantinos Balaskas
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to describe features of choroidal naevi as seen on swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and also on en face images derived from structural data from OCTA. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was carried out. Patients attending a specialised choroidal naevomelanocytic with known naevi were imaged with swept source OCTA. RESULTS: Seventy-one eyes of 70 patients were imaged...
March 9, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Takuma Nozawa, Kenji Yasuoka, Kazuaki Z Takahashi
Truncation is still chosen for many long-range intermolecular interaction calculations to efficiently compute free-boundary systems, macromolecular systems and net-charge molecular systems, for example. Advanced truncation methods have been developed for long-range intermolecular interactions. Every truncation method can be implemented as one of two basic cut-off schemes, namely either an atom-based or a group-based cut-off scheme. The former computes interactions of "atoms" inside the cut-off radius, whereas the latter computes interactions of "molecules" inside the cut-off radius...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Reza Maalek, Derek D Lichti, Janaka Y Ruwanpura
Automated segmentation of planar and linear features of point clouds acquired from construction sites is essential for the automatic extraction of building construction elements such as columns, beams and slabs. However, many planar and linear segmentation methods use scene-dependent similarity thresholds that may not provide generalizable solutions for all environments. In addition, outliers exist in construction site point clouds due to data artefacts caused by moving objects, occlusions and dust. To address these concerns, a novel method for robust classification and segmentation of planar and linear features is proposed...
March 8, 2018: Sensors
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