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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310826/changes-in-v-atpase-subunits-of-human-urinary-exosomes-reflect-the-renal-response-to-acute-acid-alkali-loading-and-the-defects-in-distal-renal-tubular%C3%A2-acidosis
#1
Ganesh Pathare, Nasser A Dhayat, Nilufar Mohebbi, Carsten A Wagner, Ion A Bobulescu, Orson W Moe, Daniel G Fuster
In the kidney, final urinary acidification is achieved by V-ATPases expressed in type A intercalated cells. The B1 subunit of the V-ATPase is required for maximal urinary acidification, while the role of the homologous B2 subunit is less clear. Here we examined the effect of acute acid/alkali loading in humans on B1 and B2 subunit abundance in urinary exosomes in normal individuals and of acid loading in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Specificities of B1 and B2 subunit antibodies were verified by yeast heterologously expressing human B1 and B2 subunits, and murine wild-type and B1-deleted kidney lysates...
January 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306258/the-reno-protective-effects-of-atorvastatin-in-crush-syndrome-and-rhabdomyolysis-is-there-a-dilemma
#2
Demet Acar, Mustafa Gülpembe, Can Gökay Yıldız, Emine Nur Özdamar, Kerem Açıkgöz, Ahmet Çağlar, Başar Cander
Background/aim: We aim to determine the effects of low-dose atorvastatin treatment together with crush fluid resuscitation on renal functions and muscle enzyme levels in a rat model of crush syndrome. Materials and methods: The study involved female Wistar Albino rats weighing 250-300 g that were housed with free access to food and water. The crush model was obtained by compression. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (C) group, atorvastatin + crush fluid (ACF) group, crush fluid (CF) group, and hypertonic saline (%3) + mannitol + sodium bicarbonate (SM) group...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289517/-dietary-acid-load-a-novel-target-for-the-nephrologist
#3
Philippe Chauveau, Catherine Lasseur, Céline Nodimar, Mathilde Prezelin-Reydit, Stanislas Trolonge, Christian Combe, Michel Aparicio
The acid production of endogenous origin depends mainly on the metabolism of the food and varies with the nature of these. Of the order of 1mEq/kg/day for contemporary food in industrialized countries, it is reduced by more than one third among vegetarians and close to neutrality among vegans. The dietary acid load is eliminated by the normal kidneys, thus maintaining the acid-base equilibrium. In the setting of CKD, it will overflow the capacities of the nephrons, generating a retention of H+ ions, promoting subclinical acidosis...
December 27, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286387/establishment-of-an-extracellular-acidic-ph-culture-system
#4
Ayano Kondo, Tsuyoshi Osawa
Conditions of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia or nutrient starvation, play critical roles in cancer progression and malignancy. However, the role of acidic extracellular pH in tumor aggressiveness and its underlying mechanism has not been extensively studied compared to hypoxic or nutrient starvation conditions. In addition, a well-defined culture method to mimic the acidic extracellular tumor microenvironment has not been fully reported. Here we present a simple in vitro culture method to maintain acidic extracellular pH using reduced bicarbonate and increased lactate or HCl concentrations in the culture medium...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258472/pediatric-non-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-case-series-report
#5
Ke Bai, Yueqiang Fu, Chengjun Liu, Feng Xu, Min Zhu
BACKGROUND: This study is to explore the clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment outcomes in pediatric patients with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: Retrospective patient chart review was performed between March 2009 to March 2015. Cases were included if they met the selection criteria for non-diabetic ketoacidosis, which were: 1) Age ≤ 18 years; 2) urine ketone positive ++ or >8.0 mmol/L; 3) blood ketone >3.1 mmol/L; 4) acidosis (pH < 7...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250451/hypokalemic-paralysis-secondary-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#6
Pragathi Balakrishna, Augusto Villegas
Introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has led to significant improvements in the treatment of multiple malignancies. Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) are two essential ICIs that have been FDA approved since 2011. As the use of immunotherapy in melanoma and other malignancies increases, the potential of adverse events also increases. Overall, anti-PD-1 agents are well tolerated. In rare instances, colitis, endocrinopathies, skin, and renal toxicities have been observed...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249502/the-profound-impact-of-combined-severe-acidosis-and-malperfusion-on-operative-mortality-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-type-a-aortic-dissection
#7
Jennifer S Lawton, Marc R Moon, Jingxia Liu, Danielle J Koerner, Kevin Kulshrestha, Ralph J Damiano, Hersh Maniar, Akinobu Itoh, Keki R Balsara, Faraz M Masood, Spencer J Melby, Michael K Pasque
OBJECTIVES: Surgery for type A aortic dissection is associated with a high operative mortality, and a variety of predictive risk factors have been reported. We hypothesized that a combination of risk factors associated with organ malperfusion and severe acidosis that are not currently documented in databases would be associated with a level of extreme operative risk that would warrant the consideration of treatment paradigms other than immediate ascending aortic surgery. METHODS: Charts of patients undergoing repair of acute type A aortic dissection between January 1, 1996, and May 1, 2016, were queried for preoperative malperfusion, preoperative base deficit, pH, bicarbonate, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, severe aortic insufficiency, redo status, and preoperative intubation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221627/alkaline-diet-and-metabolic-acidosis-practical-approaches-to-the-nutritional-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Larissa Rodrigues Neto Angéloco, Gabriela Cristina Arces de Souza, Elen Almeida Romão, Paula Garcia Chiarello
The kidneys play an extremely important role in maintaining the body acid-base balance by excreting nonvolatile acids and regenerating and reabsorbing bicarbonate in the kidney tubules. As the individual loses their kidney function, renal excretion of nonvolatile acid produced by metabolism of the diet is impaired, resulting in low-grade metabolic acidosis. With this in mind, it is relevant to better understand the dietary aspects related to the acid-base balance in chronic kidney disease metabolic acidosis and try to provide possible strategies for the nutritional management of these cases...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#9
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189867/-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-report-of-one-case
#10
Felipe Quintana, María José Pezzani, Rodrigo Orozco, Jorge Dreyse, Leonardo Soto, Tomás Regueira
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a severe and infrequent adverse event. Early diagnosis is essential to start an early treatment, which often has favorable results. We report a 56 years old non-insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic female who developed a severe metabolic acidosis associated with metformin in relation to an acute renal failure secondary to infectious diarrhea. Early treatment with bicarbonate and continuous hemofiltration allowed a quick improvement of the patient. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis has an elevated mortality (50-80%) and has a specific and effective treatment...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167180/asymmetry-of-inverted-topology-repeats-in-the-ae1-anion-exchanger-suggests-an-elevator-like-mechanism
#11
Emel Ficici, José D Faraldo-Gómez, Michael L Jennings, Lucy R Forrest
The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined...
November 22, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150416/-bicarbonate-from-physiology-to-treatment-for-all-clinicians
#12
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3-) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
November 14, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134448/hyperammonemia-associated-with-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-or-urinary-tract-infection-a-systematic-review
#13
Caterina M Clericetti, Gregorio P Milani, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Giacomo D Simonetti, Olivier Giannini
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. RESULTS: We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130810/outcomes-after-angiography-with-sodium-bicarbonate-and-acetylcysteine
#14
Steven D Weisbord, Martin Gallagher, Hani Jneid, Santiago Garcia, Alan Cass, Soe-Soe Thwin, Todd A Conner, Glenn M Chertow, Deepak L Bhatt, Kendrick Shunk, Chirag R Parikh, Edward O McFalls, Mary Brophy, Ryan Ferguson, Hongsheng Wu, Maria Androsenko, John Myles, James Kaufman, Paul M Palevsky
Background Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis...
November 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127768/diabetic-ketoacidosis-hyperuricemia-and-encephalopathy-intractable-to-regular-dose-insulin
#15
Jillian Gregory, Sonali Basu
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children less than 1 year of age is a rare occurrence. Typical presentation includes a prodrome of weight loss and polyuria with subsequent presentation to medical care when acidosis becomes symptomatic. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an unusual case of a previously healthy infant with a 3 days' history of constipation, presenting acutely with abdominal pain, lethargy, and dehydration. On initial evaluation, our patient had profound encephalopathy, with marked tachypnea and work of breathing...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118829/evaluating-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-regional-citrate-compared-to-systemic-heparin-as-anticoagulation-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients-a-service-evaluation-following-a-change-in-practice
#16
Roberta Borg, Debra Ugboma, Dawn-Marie Walker, Richard Partridge
Following the implementation of citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy, we evaluate its first year of use and compare it to the previously used heparin, to assess whether our patients benefit from the recently reported advantages of citrate. We retrospectively analysed 2 years of data to compare the safety and efficacy of citrate versus heparin. The results have shown that 43 patients received continuous renal replacement therapy with heparin, 37 patients with citrate. We found no significant difference in metabolic control of pH, urea and creatinine after 72 h...
August 2017: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118772/one-year-conservative-care-using-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-is-associated-with-a-decrease-in-electronegative-ldl-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-pilot-study
#17
Felipe Rizzetto, Denise Mafra, Ana Beatriz Barra, Gisella Pires de Melo, Dulcinéia Saes Parra Abdalla, Maurilo Leite
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients develop metabolic acidosis when approaching stages 3 and 4, a period in which accelerated atherogenesis may ensue. Studies in vitro show that low pH may increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, suggesting a role for chronic metabolic acidosis in atherosclerosis. The present study attempted to evaluate the effects of conservative care using oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on the electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a minimally oxidized LDL, plasma levels in CKD patients...
October 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099943/genetic-labeling-of-car4-expressing-cells-reveals-subpopulations-of-type-iii-taste-cells
#18
Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Carbonic anhydrases form an enzyme family of 16 members, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. In lung, kidney, and brain, presence of carbonic anhydrases is associated with protons and bicarbonate transport in capillary endothelium of lung, reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal renal tubules, and extracellular buffering. In contrast, their role in taste is less clear. Recently, carbonic anhydrase IV expression was detected in sour-sensing presynaptic taste cells and was associated with the taste of carbonation, yet the precise role and cell population remained uncertain...
October 31, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094800/low-protein-diet-for-conservative-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-trials
#19
Connie M Rhee, Seyed-Foad Ahmadi, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Recent data pose the question whether conservative management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by means of a low-protein diet can be a safe and effective means to avoid or defer transition to dialysis therapy without causing protein-energy wasting or cachexia. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the controlled clinical trials with adequate participants in each trial, providing rigorous contemporary evidence of the impact of a low-protein diet in the management of uraemia and its complications in patients with CKD...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064128/the-association-between-change-in-serum-bicarbonate-and-change-in-thyroid-hormone-levels-in-patients-receiving-conventional-or-more-frequent-maintenance-hemodialysis
#20
Alessio Molfino, Gerald J Beck, Minwei Li, Joan C Lo, George A Kaysen
AIM: Correction of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease has been associated with improvement in thyroid function. We examined whether changes in bicarbonate were associated with changes in thyroid function in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving conventional or more frequent hemodialysis. METHODS: In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials, the relationship between changes in serum bicarbonate, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) was examined among 147 and 48 patients with endogenous thyroid function who received conventional (3x/week) or more frequent (6x/week) hemodialysis (Daily Trial) or who received conventional or more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis (Nocturnal Trial)...
October 24, 2017: Nephrology
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