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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323138/impact-of-a-daily-exercise-dose-on-knee-joint-cartilage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-healthy-animals
#1
REVIEW
A Bricca, C B Juhl, A J Grodzinsky, E M Roos
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a daily exercise dose on cartilage composition and thickness, by conducting a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving healthy animals. METHODS: A narrative synthesis of the effect of a daily exercise dose on knee cartilage aggrecan, collagen and thickness was performed. A subset of studies reporting sufficient data was combined in meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of covariates...
March 16, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318167/-changes-in-ultrastructure-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-expression-in-reconstructed-mandibular-condylar-cartilage-under-continuous-mandibular-advancement-in-adult-rats
#2
Yang Shuai, Li Xue, Gao Jie, Cai Yizhi, Li Ronghui, Wang Mingguo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the reconstructed mandibular condylar cartilage and the ultrastructural variations in mandibular condylar cartilage in adult rats as a result of mandibular advancement. METHODS: Thirty 9-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Rats in the experimental group were subjected to mandibular advancement. Rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 30. Sections were cut from condyles, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in condylar cartilage was examined through immunohistochemical analysis...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242422/toxicological-response-of-sprague-dawley-rats-from-inhalation-exposure-to-perfluorooctane-sulfonyl-fluoride-posf
#3
John L Butenhoff, Geary W Olsen, Sue Chang
Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF) was a volatile starting material in the production of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a stable surfactant that has been extensively studied due to its ubiquitous environmental distribution and slow clearance in humans. Because the inhalation toxicity of POSF on repeated exposure has not been previously reported, the current study evaluated the inhalation toxicity of POSF at 30, 100, and 300ppm (v/v) in rats for up to 13 weeks with a four-week recovery period. The extent of PFOS formation was also measured because POSF hydrolyzed to form PFOS...
February 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168658/plumbagin-prevents-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-and-prevents-the-progression-of-osteoarthritis-in-mice
#4
Wenhao Zheng, Zhenyu Tao, Chunhui Chen, Chuanxu Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xiaozhou Ying, Hua Chen
Inflammation and inflammatory cytokines have been reported to play vital roles in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Plumbagin, a quinonoid compound extracted from the roots of medicinal herbs of the Plumbago genus, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of plumbagin on OA have not been reported. This study aimed to assess the effects of plumbagin on human OA chondrocytes and in a mouse model of OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
February 7, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148295/synovitis-in-osteoarthritis-current-understanding-with-therapeutic-implications
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Mathiessen, Philip G Conaghan
Modern concepts of osteoarthritis (OA) have been forever changed by modern imaging phenotypes demonstrating complex and multi-tissue pathologies involving cartilage, subchondral bone and (increasingly recognized) inflammation of the synovium. The synovium may show significant changes, even before visible cartilage degeneration has occurred, with infiltration of mononuclear cells, thickening of the synovial lining layer and production of inflammatory cytokines. The combination of sensitive imaging modalities and tissue examination has confirmed a high prevalence of synovial inflammation in all stages of OA, with a number of studies demonstrating that synovitis is related to pain, poor function and may even be an independent driver of radiographic OA onset and structural progression...
February 2, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108560/cxcr3-cxcl10-axis-regulates-neutrophil-nk-cell-cross-talk-determining-the-severity-of-experimental-osteoarthritis
#6
Giorgia Benigni, Petya Dimitrova, Fabrizio Antonangeli, Emilio Sanseviero, Viktoriya Milanova, Arjen Blom, Peter van Lent, Stefania Morrone, Angela Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini
Several immune cell populations are involved in cartilage damage, bone erosion, and resorption processes during osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of experimental osteoarthritis and whether and how neutrophils can regulate their synovial localization in the disease. Experimental osteoarthritis was elicited by intra-articular injection of collagenase in wild type and Cxcr3(-/-) 8-wk old mice. To follow osteoarthritis progression, cartilage damage, synovial thickening, and osteophyte formation were measured histologically...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965138/the-str-ort-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-osteoarthritis-an-update
#7
REVIEW
K A Staines, B Poulet, D N Wentworth, A A Pitsillides
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease and a world-wide healthcare burden. Characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, osteoarthritis inflicts much pain and suffering, for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. Mouse models of osteoarthritis are proving critical in advancing our understanding of the underpinning molecular mechanisms. The STR/ort mouse is a well-recognized model which develops a natural form of osteoarthritis very similar to the human disease...
December 11, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911782/egfr-signaling-is-critical-for-maintaining-the-superficial-layer-of-articular-cartilage-and-preventing-osteoarthritis-initiation
#8
Haoruo Jia, Xiaoyuan Ma, Wei Tong, Basak Doyran, Zeyang Sun, Luqiang Wang, Xianrong Zhang, Yilu Zhou, Farid Badar, Abhishek Chandra, X Lucas Lu, Yang Xia, Lin Han, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Ling Qin
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. The surface of joint cartilage is the first defensive and affected site of OA, but our knowledge of genesis and homeostasis of this superficial zone is scarce. EGFR signaling is important for tissue homeostasis. Immunostaining revealed that its activity is mostly dominant in the superficial layer of healthy cartilage but greatly diminished when OA initiates. To evaluate the role of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage, we studied a cartilage-specific Egfr-deficient (CKO) mouse model (Col2-Cre EgfrWa5/flox)...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836707/celecoxib-loaded-pea-microspheres-as-an-auto-regulatory-drug-delivery-system-after-intra-articular-injection
#9
Maarten Janssen, Ufuk Tan Timur, Nina Woike, Tim J M Welting, Guy Draaisma, Marion Gijbels, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, George Mihov, Jens Thies, Pieter J Emans
In this study, we investigated the potential of celecoxib-loaded polyester amide (PEA) microspheres as an auto-regulating drug delivery system for the treatment of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Celecoxib release from PEA microspheres and inflammation responsive release of a small molecule from PEA was investigated in vitro. Inflammation responsive release of a small molecule from PEA was observed when PEA was exposed to cell lysates obtained from a neutrophil-like Hl-60 cell line. Following a short initial burst release of ~15% of the total drug load in the first days, celecoxib was slowly released throughout a period of >80days...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717548/an-evolutionary-model-of-osteoarthritis-including-articular-cartilage-damage-and-bone-remodeling-in-a-computational-study
#10
Michael E Stender, R Dana Carpenter, Richard A Regueiro, Virginia L Ferguson
With osteoarthritis, a complex set of progressive chemical, biological, and mechanical changes occur in both cartilage and bone. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity computational model of the complete bone-cartilage unit to study the evolution of osterarthritis-induced articular cartilage (AC) damage and remodeling of subchondral cortical bone (SCB) and subchondral trabecular bone (STB). A finite element model of spherical indentation was developed with a depth-dependent anisotropic model of degenerating articular cartilage, a calcified cartilage (CC) zone, and SCB and STB remodeling regions...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605784/histopathological-and-bacterial-study-of-persian-sturgeon-fry-acipenser-persicus-borodin-1897-exposed-to-copper-sulfate-and-potassium-permanganate
#11
Batol Moshtaghi, Hossein Khara, Zabiyollah Pazhan, Alireza Shenavar
Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520654/better-late-than-never-effective-air-borne-hearing-of-toads-delayed-due-to-late-maturation-of-the-tympanic-middle-ear-structures
#12
Molly C Womack, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Kim L Hoke
Most vertebrates have evolved a tympanic middle ear that enables effective hearing of airborne sound on land. Although inner ears develop during the tadpole stages of toads, tympanic middle ear structures are not complete until months after metamorphosis, potentially limiting the sensitivity of post-metamorphic juveniles to sounds in their environment. We tested the hearing of five species of toads to determine how delayed ear development impairs airborne auditory sensitivity. We performed auditory brainstem recordings to test the hearing of the toads and used micro-CT and histology to relate the development of ear structures to hearing ability...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460999/repetitive-stresses-generate-osteochondral-lesions-in-skeletally-immature-rabbits
#13
Austin V Stone, Kevin J Little, David L Glos, Keith F Stringer, Eric J Wall
BACKGROUND: The origin of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is unknown. Existing experimental animal models of OCD most frequently involve surgically created lesions but do not examine repetitive stress as a possible cause of OCD. HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive stresses can cause OCD-like lesions in immature animals. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Six juvenile rabbits were subjected to repetitive loading forces of approximately 160% body weight to the right hindlimb during five 45-minute sessions per week for 5 weeks...
July 26, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413297/gill-histopathology-of-maria-da-toca-hypleurochilus-fissicornis-by-metacercariae-of-bucephalus-margaritae-digenea-bucephalidae
#14
Renato Z Silva, Natalia da Costa Marchiori, Aimê Rachel M Magalhães, João Carlos B Cousin, Luis Alberto Romano, Joaber Pereira
Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349462/articular-cartilage-degeneration-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-a-comparison-of-surgical-transection-and-noninvasive-rupture-as-preclinical-models-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#15
Tristan Maerz, Michael D Newton, Michael D Kurdziel, Perry Altman, Kyle Anderson, Howard W T Matthew, Kevin C Baker
OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonly studied using animal models. Surgical ACL transection is an established model, but noninvasive models may mimic human injury more closely. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare changes in 3D articular cartilage (AC) morphology following noninvasive ACL rupture and surgical ACL transection. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were randomized to uninjured control, noninvasive ACL rupture (Rupture), and surgical ACL transection (Transection), and 4 and 10 week time points (n=6 per group)...
June 24, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312644/advances-in-biomedical-and-pharmaceutical-applications-of-functional-bacterial-cellulose-based-nanocomposites
#16
REVIEW
Hanif Ullah, Fazli Wahid, Hélder A Santos, Taous Khan
Bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesized by certain species of bacteria, is a fascinating biopolymer with unique physical and mechanical properties. BC's applications range from traditional dessert, gelling, stabilizing and thickening agent in the food industry to advanced high-tech applications, such as immobilization of enzymes, bacteria and fungi, tissue engineering, heart valve prosthesis, artificial blood vessels, bone, cartilage, cornea and skin, and dental root treatment. Various BC-composites have been designed and investigated in order to enhance its biological applicability...
October 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198611/magnetic-resonance-imaging-scoring-of-an-experimental-model-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-in-the-equine-carpus
#17
Andrew D Smith, Alison J Morton, Matthew D Winter, Patrick T Colahan, Steve Ghivizzani, Murray P Brown, Jorge A Hernandez, David M Nickerson
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality to detect the early changes of osteoarthritis. Currently, there is no quantifiable method to tract these pathological changes over time in the horse. The objective of this experimental study was to characterize the progression of MRI changes in an equine model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis using a semiquantitative scoring system for whole-organ evaluation of the middle carpal joint. On day 0, an osteochondral fragment was created in one middle carpal joint (OCI) and the contralateral joint (CON) was sham-operated in 10 horses...
September 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165071/morphological-characteristics-of-the-cartilaginous-tissue-of-human-auricle-in-different-age-periods
#18
V P Novoselov, S V Savchenko, E V Pyatkova, A P Nadeev, T A Ageeva, Yu V Chikinev, A S Polyakevich
A complex morphological study of the auricle to determine the human age was performed by evaluating the metric sizes between fixed points in each auricle with axial guidelines. The auricular elastic cartilage in different age periods was characterized by thickening of the cartilaginous plate, different mature and immature cartilage zone ratio, variations in the volume density of the intercellular substance and elastic fibers, and change in the numerical density of individual chondrocytes and isogroups. Aggrecan content in the cartilage was shown to increase in different age periods...
April 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106736/verminous-arteritis-due-to-crassicauda-sp-in-cuvier-s-beaked-whales-ziphius-cavirostris
#19
J Díaz-Delgado, A Fernández, A Xuriach, E Sierra, Y Bernaldo de Quirós, B Mompeo, L Pérez, M Andrada, J Marigo, J L Catão-Dias, K R Groch, J F Edwards, M Arbelo
The vascular system of Cuvier's beaked whales (CBW) (Ziphius cavirostris; family Ziphiidae), an extremely deep, prolonged-diving cetacean, is increasingly receiving anatomic and physiologic study due to possible anthropogenic interactions; however, vascular pathology rarely has been reported in this species. Thirteen CBW stranded in the Canary Islands from June 2008 to June 2014 were autopsied. A careful dissection of the thoracic and abdominal vasculature was performed on these animals. All had moderate to severe and extensive chronic fibrosing arteritis with aneurysms, hemorrhages, and thrombosis primarily involving the mesenteric and gastroepiploic arteries and the thoracic and abdominal aorta...
April 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102547/sostdc1-deficiency-accelerates-fracture-healing-by-promoting-the-expansion-of-periosteal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Nicole M Collette, Cristal S Yee, Nicholas R Hum, Deepa K Murugesh, Blaine A Christiansen, LiQin Xie, Aris N Economides, Jennifer O Manilay, Alexander G Robling, Gabriela G Loots
Loss of Sostdc1, a growth factor paralogous to Sost, causes the formation of ectopic incisors, fused molars, abnormal hair follicles, and resistance to kidney disease. Sostdc1 is expressed in the periosteum, a source of osteoblasts, fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells, which are critically important for fracture repair. Here, we investigated the role of Sostdc1 in bone metabolism and fracture repair. Mice lacking Sostdc1 (Sostdc1(-/-)) had a low bone mass phenotype associated with loss of trabecular bone in both lumbar vertebrae and in the appendicular skeleton...
July 2016: Bone
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