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thickening cartilage

K A Staines, B Poulet, D N Wentworth, A A Pitsillides
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease and a world-wide healthcare burden. Characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, osteoarthritis inflicts much pain and suffering, for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. Mouse models of osteoarthritis are proving critical in advancing our understanding of the underpinning molecular mechanisms. The STR/ort mouse is a well-recognized model which develops a natural form of osteoarthritis very similar to the human disease...
December 11, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Haoruo Jia, Xiaoyuan Ma, Wei Tong, Basak Doyran, Zeyang Sun, Luqiang Wang, Xianrong Zhang, Yilu Zhou, Farid Badar, Abhishek Chandra, X Lucas Lu, Yang Xia, Lin Han, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Ling Qin
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. The surface of joint cartilage is the first defensive and affected site of OA, but our knowledge of genesis and homeostasis of this superficial zone is scarce. EGFR signaling is important for tissue homeostasis. Immunostaining revealed that its activity is mostly dominant in the superficial layer of healthy cartilage but greatly diminished when OA initiates. To evaluate the role of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage, we studied a cartilage-specific Egfr-deficient (CKO) mouse model (Col2-Cre EgfrWa5/flox)...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maarten Janssen, Ufuk Tan Timur, Nina Woike, Tim J M Welting, Guy Draaisma, Marion Gijbels, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, George Mihov, Jens Thies, Pieter J Emans
In this study, we investigated the potential of celecoxib-loaded polyester amide (PEA) microspheres as an auto-regulating drug delivery system for the treatment of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Celecoxib release from PEA microspheres and inflammation responsive release of a small molecule from PEA was investigated in vitro. Inflammation responsive release of a small molecule from PEA was observed when PEA was exposed to cell lysates obtained from a neutrophil-like Hl-60 cell line. Following a short initial burst release of ~15% of the total drug load in the first days, celecoxib was slowly released throughout a period of >80days...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Michael E Stender, R Dana Carpenter, Richard A Regueiro, Virginia L Ferguson
With osteoarthritis, a complex set of progressive chemical, biological, and mechanical changes occur in both cartilage and bone. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity computational model of the complete bone-cartilage unit to study the evolution of osterarthritis-induced articular cartilage (AC) damage and remodeling of subchondral cortical bone (SCB) and subchondral trabecular bone (STB). A finite element model of spherical indentation was developed with a depth-dependent anisotropic model of degenerating articular cartilage, a calcified cartilage (CC) zone, and SCB and STB remodeling regions...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Batol Moshtaghi, Hossein Khara, Zabiyollah Pazhan, Alireza Shenavar
Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Molly C Womack, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Kim L Hoke
Most vertebrates have evolved a tympanic middle ear that enables effective hearing of airborne sound on land. Although inner ears develop during the tadpole stages of toads, tympanic middle ear structures are not complete until months after metamorphosis, potentially limiting the sensitivity of post-metamorphic juveniles to sounds in their environment. We tested the hearing of five species of toads to determine how delayed ear development impairs airborne auditory sensitivity. We performed auditory brainstem recordings to test the hearing of the toads and used micro-CT and histology to relate the development of ear structures to hearing ability...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Austin V Stone, Kevin J Little, David L Glos, Keith F Stringer, Eric J Wall
BACKGROUND: The origin of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is unknown. Existing experimental animal models of OCD most frequently involve surgically created lesions but do not examine repetitive stress as a possible cause of OCD. HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive stresses can cause OCD-like lesions in immature animals. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Six juvenile rabbits were subjected to repetitive loading forces of approximately 160% body weight to the right hindlimb during five 45-minute sessions per week for 5 weeks...
July 26, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Renato Z Silva, Natalia da Costa Marchiori, Aimê Rachel M Magalhães, João Carlos B Cousin, Luis Alberto Romano, Joaber Pereira
Gills of Maria-da-toca Hypleurochilus fissicornis collected at Ponta do Sambaqui-Florianópolis island-Brazil, were analyzed to describe the histopathology caused by metacercaria of Bucephalus margaritae. Gills were submitted to the routine histological techniques for embedding in paraffin and permanent mounting in Balsam and stereoscopic analysis. Metacercariae showed a branchial infection site pattern for encystations. The branchial infection site pattern is half-basalward in the primary branchial filament with amplitude of the infection of 1-3 metacercaria...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Tristan Maerz, Michael D Newton, Michael D Kurdziel, Perry Altman, Kyle Anderson, Howard W T Matthew, Kevin C Baker
OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonly studied using animal models. Surgical ACL transection is an established model, but noninvasive models may mimic human injury more closely. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare changes in 3D articular cartilage (AC) morphology following noninvasive ACL rupture and surgical ACL transection. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were randomized to uninjured control, noninvasive ACL rupture (Rupture), and surgical ACL transection (Transection), and 4 and 10 week time points (n=6 per group)...
June 24, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Hanif Ullah, Fazli Wahid, Hélder A Santos, Taous Khan
Bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesized by certain species of bacteria, is a fascinating biopolymer with unique physical and mechanical properties. BC's applications range from traditional dessert, gelling, stabilizing and thickening agent in the food industry to advanced high-tech applications, such as immobilization of enzymes, bacteria and fungi, tissue engineering, heart valve prosthesis, artificial blood vessels, bone, cartilage, cornea and skin, and dental root treatment. Various BC-composites have been designed and investigated in order to enhance its biological applicability...
October 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Andrew D Smith, Alison J Morton, Matthew D Winter, Patrick T Colahan, Steve Ghivizzani, Murray P Brown, Jorge A Hernandez, David M Nickerson
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality to detect the early changes of osteoarthritis. Currently, there is no quantifiable method to tract these pathological changes over time in the horse. The objective of this experimental study was to characterize the progression of MRI changes in an equine model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis using a semiquantitative scoring system for whole-organ evaluation of the middle carpal joint. On day 0, an osteochondral fragment was created in one middle carpal joint (OCI) and the contralateral joint (CON) was sham-operated in 10 horses...
September 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
V P Novoselov, S V Savchenko, E V Pyatkova, A P Nadeev, T A Ageeva, Yu V Chikinev, A S Polyakevich
A complex morphological study of the auricle to determine the human age was performed by evaluating the metric sizes between fixed points in each auricle with axial guidelines. The auricular elastic cartilage in different age periods was characterized by thickening of the cartilaginous plate, different mature and immature cartilage zone ratio, variations in the volume density of the intercellular substance and elastic fibers, and change in the numerical density of individual chondrocytes and isogroups. Aggrecan content in the cartilage was shown to increase in different age periods...
April 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
J Díaz-Delgado, A Fernández, A Xuriach, E Sierra, Y Bernaldo de Quirós, B Mompeo, L Pérez, M Andrada, J Marigo, J L Catão-Dias, K R Groch, J F Edwards, M Arbelo
The vascular system of Cuvier's beaked whales (CBW) (Ziphius cavirostris; family Ziphiidae), an extremely deep, prolonged-diving cetacean, is increasingly receiving anatomic and physiologic study due to possible anthropogenic interactions; however, vascular pathology rarely has been reported in this species. Thirteen CBW stranded in the Canary Islands from June 2008 to June 2014 were autopsied. A careful dissection of the thoracic and abdominal vasculature was performed on these animals. All had moderate to severe and extensive chronic fibrosing arteritis with aneurysms, hemorrhages, and thrombosis primarily involving the mesenteric and gastroepiploic arteries and the thoracic and abdominal aorta...
April 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Nicole M Collette, Cristal S Yee, Nicholas R Hum, Deepa K Murugesh, Blaine A Christiansen, LiQin Xie, Aris N Economides, Jennifer O Manilay, Alexander G Robling, Gabriela G Loots
Loss of Sostdc1, a growth factor paralogous to Sost, causes the formation of ectopic incisors, fused molars, abnormal hair follicles, and resistance to kidney disease. Sostdc1 is expressed in the periosteum, a source of osteoblasts, fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells, which are critically important for fracture repair. Here, we investigated the role of Sostdc1 in bone metabolism and fracture repair. Mice lacking Sostdc1 (Sostdc1(-/-)) had a low bone mass phenotype associated with loss of trabecular bone in both lumbar vertebrae and in the appendicular skeleton...
July 2016: Bone
Serpil Tuna, Nilüfer Balcı, Levent Özçakar
To explore whether femoral cartilage thickness is related (and changes) with muscle strength in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty patients (27 F, 13 M) with knee OA-who were under quadriceps muscle strengthening program-were enrolled in the study. Isokinetic/isometric knee muscle strength measurements (at 30-60° angles and 60-180° velocity) were performed at baseline, end of the muscle strengthening program, and third month control visit using a biodex dynamometer. Femoral cartilage thicknesses (at medial/lateral condyle and intercondylar area) were measured using ultrasonography...
August 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Marylène Danto, Florian Witzmann, Nadia B Fröbisch
Basal tetrapods display a wide spectrum of vertebral centrum morphologies that can be used to distinguish different tetrapod groups. The vertebral types range from multipartite centra in stem-tetrapods, temnospondyls, and seymouriamorphs up to monospondylous centra in lepospondyls and have been drawn upon for reconstructing major evolutionary trends in tetrapods that are now considered textbook knowledge. Two modes of vertebral formation have been postulated: the multipartite vertebrae formed first as cartilaginous elements with subsequent ossification...
2016: PloS One
Yu Si, Yubin Chen, Peng Li, Huaili Jiang, Guo Xu, Zhuohao Li, Zhigang Zhang
This study aims to explore the eardrum thickening approach via cartilage myringoplasty for the cessation of symptoms of patulous Eustachian tube (PET), including autophony, aural fullness and breathing synchronous tinnitus. A total of 12 patients who met the diagnosis criteria of PET were included and given an eardrum patching test preoperatively. Then, myringoplasty with ipsilateral full-thickness tragus cartilage under general anesthesia was performed. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months postoperatively...
November 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Yasuhito Yahara, Hiroshi Takemori, Minoru Okada, Azuma Kosai, Akihiro Yamashita, Tomohito Kobayashi, Kaori Fujita, Yumi Itoh, Masahiro Nakamura, Hiroyuki Fuchino, Nobuo Kawahara, Naoshi Fukui, Akira Watanabe, Tomoatsu Kimura, Noriyuki Tsumaki
Osteoarthritis is a common debilitating joint disorder. Risk factors for osteoarthritis include age, which is associated with thinning of articular cartilage. Here we generate chondrocyte-specific salt-inducible kinase 3 (Sik3) conditional knockout mice that are resistant to osteoarthritis with thickened articular cartilage owing to a larger chondrocyte population. We also identify an edible Pteridium aquilinum compound, pterosin B, as a Sik3 pathway inhibitor. We show that either Sik3 deletion or intraarticular injection of mice with pterosin B inhibits chondrocyte hypertrophy and protects cartilage from osteoarthritis...
2016: Nature Communications
Blandine Poulet, Katherine A Staines
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and the most common form of arthritis. Characterised by articular cartilage loss, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, the OA joint afflicts much pain and disability. Whilst OA has been associated with many contributing factors, its underpinning molecular mechanisms are, nevertheless, not fully understood. Clinical management of OA is largely palliative and there is an ever growing need for an effective disease modifying treatment. This review discusses some of the recent progress in OA therapies in the different joint tissues affected by OA pathology...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Masaaki Yamamoto, Makoto Yamasaki, Daisuke Sakai, Tomoki Makino, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Yukinori Kurokawa, Kiyokazu Nakajima, Shuji Takiguchi, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
An 83-year-old man with a history of esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer presented with a chief complaint of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy abnormality. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed colon cancer developing in the subcutaneously reconstructed colon, located 45 cm from the incisor tooth. Computed tomography and positron-emission tomography revealed a thickening of the wall of the reconstructed colon, a lymph node metastasis adjacent to the reconstructed colon, and no distant metastases...
November 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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