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elongate vertebrae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830290/a-new-armored-archosauriform-diapsida-archosauromorpha-from-the-marine-middle-triassic-of-china-with-implications-for-the-diverse-life-styles-of-archosauriforms-prior-to-the-diversification-of-archosauria
#1
Chun Li, Xiao-Chun Wu, Li-Jun Zhao, Sterling J Nesbitt, Michelle R Stocker, Li-Ting Wang
Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691948/radiographic-thoracic-anatomy-of-the-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens
#2
Modesta Makungu, Wencke M du Plessis, Michelle Barrows, Hermanus B Groenewald, Katja N Koeppel
The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615817/a-new-species-of-elongate-unpatterned-moray-eel-of-the-genus-gymnothorax-muraenidae-muraeninae-from-the-bay-of-bengal
#3
Anil Mohapatra, Dipanjan Ray, David G Smith, Subhrendu Sekhar Mishra
An elongate, brown unpatterned moray eel, Gymnothorax indicus sp. nov., is described based on four specimens collected from the northern Bay of Bengal. The new species is differentiated from other elongate, unpatterned moray eels in having the following combination of characters: anus at about mid-point of body, preanal length 2.0 in total length; snout blunt and short; dorsal fin margin black, 5 mandibular pores; maxillary teeth uniserial, sharp and depressible, total vertebrae 194 (MVF: 9-79-194).
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551226/a-new-deep-reef-scorpionfish-teleostei-scorpaenidae-scorpaenodes-from-the-southern-caribbean-with-comments-on-depth-distributions-and-relationships-of-western-atlantic-members-of-the-genus
#4
Carole C Baldwin, Diane E Pitassy, D Ross Robertson
A new species of scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin, sp. n. which is described, was collected during submersible diving in the southern Caribbean as part of the Smithsonian's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). It differs from the other two western Atlantic species of the genus, Scorpaenodes caribbaeus and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus, in various features, including its color pattern, having an incomplete lateral line comprising 8-10 pored scales, tending to be more elongate, usually having the 11(th)-12(th) pectoral-fin rays elongate, and by 20-23% divergence in the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544049/demographical-aspects-in-cervical-vertebral-bodies-size-and-shape-c3-c7-a-skeletal-study
#5
David Ezra, Youssef Masharawi, Khalil Salame, Viviane Slon, Deborah Alperovitch-Najenson, Israel Hershkovitz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the skeletal remains of individuals of known sex, age, and ethnic origin. The vertebral bodies of levels C3-C7 were measured and analyzed. Whereas many studies were performed on the size and shape of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spines, few have focused on the cervical vertebral bodies. Thus, there is insufficient data in the literature on the anatomy of the cervical spine, especially based on large study populations...
August 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514517/evolution-of-the-locomotory-system-in-eels-teleostei-elopomorpha
#6
Cathrin Pfaff, Roberto Zorzin, Jürgen Kriwet
BACKGROUND: Living anguilliform eels represent a distinct clade of elongated teleostean fishes inhabiting a wide range of habitats. Locomotion of these fishes is highly influenced by the elongated body shape, the anatomy of the vertebral column, and the corresponding soft tissues represented by the musculotendinous system. Up to now, the evolution of axial elongation in eels has been inferred from living taxa only, whereas the reconstruction of evolutionary patterns and functional ecology in extinct eels still is scarce...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505413/of-mice-and-snakes-a-tail-of-oct4
#7
Natalia A Shylo, Scott D Weatherbee
The vertebrate axial skeleton comprises regions of specialized vertebrae, which vary in length between lineages. Aires et al. (2016) uncover a key role for Oct4 in determining trunk length in mice. Additionally, a heterochronic shift in Oct4 expression may underlie the extreme elongation of the trunk in snakes.
August 8, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478655/maxillofacial-changes-in-melnick-needles-syndrome
#8
Leilane Larissa Albuquerque do Nascimento, Monica da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, Mariana Quintela, Victor Perez Teixeira, Ana Carolina Costa Mota, Camila Haddad Leal de Godoy, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460961/osteology-of-the-crescent-gunnel-pholis-laeta-and-the-phylogeny-of-the-family-pholidae-cottiformes-zoarcoidei
#9
P W Sweetser, E J Hilton
This study provides a complete description of the osteology of the crescent gunnel Pholis laeta based on cleared-and-stained specimens and X-rays to help provide sufficient morphological data to generate a robust phylogeny for the family Pholidae. Pholis laeta exhibits high variation in the structure of its caudal skeleton. The length of the preural (pu)2 neural spine is variably reduced (most common) or elongated (i.e. of similar length to that of pu3). Additionally, the neural spine of pu3 is either bifurcated or single...
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441118/new-information-on-the-wukongopteridae-pterosauria-revealed-by-a-new-specimen-from-the-jurassic-of-china
#10
Xin Cheng, Shunxing Jiang, Xiaolin Wang, Alexander W A Kellner
The Wukongopteridae is an important pterosaur group discovered from Yanliao Biota, because it combines character states seen in non-pterodactyloid and pterodactyloid pterosaurs. So far, the Wukongopteridae contains three genera: Wukongopterus, Darwinopterus and Kunpengopterus; representing five species. Here we report on a new specimen, IVPP V 17959, that can be undoubtedly referred to the Wukongopteridae based on the presence of a confluent nasoantorbital fenestra, elongated cervical vertebrae (convergent with Pterodactyloidea) and a long tail enclosed by rod-like bony extensions of the zygapophyses...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398895/does-the-traversing-length-of-the-aorta-change-after-closing-wedge-osteotomy-for-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients-with-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation
#11
Hao Liu, Bang-Ping Qian, Yong Qiu, Sai-Hu Mao, Zhe Qu, Bin Wang, Yang Yu, Ze-Zhang Zhu
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in aortic traversing length in patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) after closing wedge osteotomy (CWO). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The CWO has been widely adopted for the correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis caused by AS. During this procedure, the aorta may be elongated in the instrumented area, which implies a potential risk of the aortic injury...
July 7, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365419/material-properties-of-hagfish-skin-with-insights-into-knotting-behaviors
#12
Andrew J Clark, Callie H Crawford, Brooke D King, Andrew M Demas, Theodore A Uyeno
Hagfishes (Myxinidae) often integrate whole-body knotting movements with jawless biting motions when reducing large marine carcasses to ingestible items. Adaptations for these behaviors include complex arrangements of axial muscles and flexible, elongate bodies without vertebrae. Between the axial muscles and the hagfish skin is a large, blood-filled subcutaneous sinus devoid of the intricate, myoseptal tendon networks characteristic of the taut skins of other fishes. We propose that the loose-fitting skin of the hagfish facilitates the formation and manipulation of body knots, even if it is of little functional significance to steady swimming...
June 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267146/vertebral-shape-and-body-elongation-in-triturus-newts
#13
Aleksandar Urošević, Maja D Slijepčević, Jan W Arntzen, Ana Ivanović
Body elongation in vertebrates is often related to a lengthening of the vertebrae and an increase in their number. Changes in the number and shape of vertebrae are not necessarily linked. In tailed amphibians, a change in body shape is mostly associated with an increase in the number of trunk and tail vertebrae. Body elongation without a numerical change of vertebrae is rare. In Triturus aquatic salamanders body elongation is achieved by trunk elongation through an increase in the number of trunk vertebrae...
October 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129238/two-different-functions-of-connexin43-confer-two-different-bone-phenotypes-in-zebrafish
#14
Akihiro Misu, Hiroaki Yamanaka, Toshihiro Aramaki, Shigeru Kondo, I Martha Skerrett, M Kathryn Iovine, Masakatsu Watanabe
Fish remain nearly the same shape as they grow, but there are two different modes of bone growth. Bones in the tail fin (fin ray segments) are added distally at the tips of the fins and do not elongate once produced. On the other hand, vertebrae enlarge in proportion to body growth. To elucidate how bone growth is controlled, we investigated a zebrafish mutant, steopsel (stp(tl28d)). Vertebrae of stp(tl28d) (/+) fish look normal in larvae (∼30 days) but are distinctly shorter (59-81%) than vertebrae of wild type fish in adults...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115989/a-basal-lithostrotian-titanosaur-dinosauria-sauropoda-with-a-complete-skull-implications-for-the-evolution-and-paleobiology-of-titanosauria
#15
Rubén D F Martínez, Matthew C Lamanna, Fernando E Novas, Ryan C Ridgely, Gabriel A Casal, Javier E Martínez, Javier R Vita, Lawrence M Witmer
We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla-lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) 'tongue-like' ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with 'strut-like' centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877687/a-new-genus-and-species-of-arboreal-toad-with-phytotelmonous-larvae-from-the-andaman-islands-india-lissamphibia-anura-bufonidae
#16
S R Chandramouli, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, S Harikrishnan, Sushil Kumar Dutta, S Jegath Janani, Richa Sharma, Indraneil Das, Ramesh K Aggarwal
A new bufonid amphibian, belonging to a new monotypic genus, is described from the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, Republic of India, based on unique external morphological and skeletal characters which are compared with those of known Oriental and other relevant bufonid genera. Blythophryne gen. n. is distinguished from other bufonid genera by its small adult size (mean SVL 24.02 mm), the presence of six presacral vertebrae, an absence of coccygeal expansions, presence of an elongated pair of parotoid glands, expanded discs at digit tips and phytotelmonous tadpoles that lack oral denticles...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818178/oscillatory-control-of-delta-like1-in-somitogenesis-and-neurogenesis-a-unified-model-for-different-oscillatory-dynamics
#17
REVIEW
Hiromi Shimojo, Ryoichiro Kageyama
During somite segmentation, mRNA expression of the mouse Notch ligand Delta-like1 (Dll1) oscillates synchronously in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). However, the dynamics of Dll1 protein expression were rather controversial, and their functional significance was not known. Recent live-imaging analysis showed that Dll1 protein expression also oscillates synchronously in the PSM. Interestingly, accelerated or delayed Dll1 expression by shortening or elongating the Dll1 gene, respectively, dampens or quenches Dll1 oscillation at intermediate levels, a phenomenon known as "amplitude/oscillation death" of coupled oscillators in mathematical modeling...
January 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728556/oscillatory-control-of-delta-like1-in-cell-interactions-regulates-dynamic-gene-expression-and-tissue-morphogenesis
#18
Hiromi Shimojo, Akihiro Isomura, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Hiroshi Kori, Hitoshi Miyachi, Ryoichiro Kageyama
Notch signaling regulates tissue morphogenesis through cell-cell interactions. The Notch effectors Hes1 and Hes7 are expressed in an oscillatory manner and regulate developmental processes such as neurogenesis and somitogenesis, respectively. Expression of the mRNA for the mouse Notch ligand Delta-like1 (Dll1) is also oscillatory. However, the dynamics of Dll1 protein expression are controversial, and their functional significance is unknown. Here, we developed a live-imaging system and found that Dll1 protein expression oscillated in neural progenitors and presomitic mesoderm cells...
January 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26716010/the-cervical-anatomy-of-samotherium-an-intermediate-necked-giraffid
#19
Melinda Danowitz, Rebecca Domalski, Nikos Solounias
Giraffidae are represented by many extinct species. The only two extant taxa possess diametrically contrasting cervical morphology, as the okapi is short-necked and the giraffe is exceptionally long-necked. Samotherium major, known from the Late Miocene of Samos in Greece and other Eurasian localities, is a key extinct giraffid; it possesses cervical vertebrae that are intermediate in the evolutionary elongation of the neck. We describe detailed anatomical features of the cervicals of S. major, and compare these characteristics with the vertebrae of the two extant giraffid taxa...
November 2015: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26701587/a-new-species-of-moray-eel-anguilliformes-muraenidae-from-taiwan-with-comments-on-related-elongate-unpatterned-species
#20
Kar-Hoe Loh, Kwang-Tsao Shao, Hsuan-Ching Ho, Phaik-Eem Lim, Hong-Ming Chen
The following nine elongate unpatterned muraenid species of the subfamily Muraeninae, including one new species, are recognized from Taiwan and adjacent waters: Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel), G. dorsalis Seale, G. melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen, G. phasmatodes (Smith), G. prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka, G. sagmacephalus Böhlke, Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker), Strophidon sathete (Hamilton) and G. pseudomelanosomatus new species, described from two specimens. This new moray eel is distinguished from its similar species, G...
2015: Zootaxa
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