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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350602/a-novel-approach-to-32-channel-peripheral-nervous-system-myelin-imaging-in-vivo-with-single-axon-resolution
#1
Joey Grochmal, Wulin Teo, Hardeep Gambhir, Ranjan Kumar, Jo Anne Stratton, Raveena Dhaliwal, Craig Brideau, Jeff Biernaskie, Peter K Stys, Rajiv Midha
OBJECTIVE Intravital spectral imaging of the large, deeply situated nerves in the rat peripheral nervous system (PNS) has not been well described. Here, the authors have developed a highly stable platform for performing imaging of the tibial nerve in live rodents, thus allowing the capture of high-resolution, high-magnification spectral images requiring long acquisition times. By further exploiting the qualities of the topically applied myelin dye Nile red, this technique is capable of visualizing the detailed microenvironment of peripheral nerve demyelination injury and recovery, while allowing us to obtain images of exogenous Schwann cell myelination in a living animal...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350435/from-micro-to-macro-structures-in-multiple-sclerosis-what-is-the-added-value-of-diffusion-imaging
#2
Mara Cercignani, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
Diffusion imaging has been instrumental in understanding damage to the central nervous system as a result of its sensitivity to microstructural changes. Clinical applications of diffusion imaging have grown exponentially over the past couple of decades in many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). For several reasons, MS has been extensively researched using advanced neuroimaging techniques, which makes it an 'example disease' to illustrate the potential of diffusion imaging for clinical applications...
January 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350067/soluble-neuregulin1-is-strongly-up-regulated-in-the-rat-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-1a-disease
#3
Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giulia Ronchi, Davide Pascal, Davide Visigalli, Giovanna Capodivento, Lucilla Nobbio, Isabelle Perroteau, Angelo Schenone, Stefano Geuna, Giovanna Gambarotta
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a growth factor playing a pivotal role in peripheral nerve development through the activation of the transmembrane co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3. Soluble NRG1 isoforms, mainly secreted by Schwann cells, are strongly and transiently up-regulated after acute peripheral nerve injury, thus suggesting that they play a crucial role also in the response to nerve damage. Here we show that in the rat experimental model of the peripheral demyelinating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) the expression of the different NRG1 isoforms (soluble, type α and β, type a and b) is strongly up-regulated, as well as the expression of NRG1 co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3, thus showing that CMT1A nerves have a gene expression pattern highly reminiscent of injured nerves...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349574/pacific-ciguatoxin-induces-excitotoxicity-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-motor-cortex-via-caspase-3-activation-implication-for-irreversible-motor-deficit
#4
Pallavi Asthana, Ni Zhang, Gajendra Kumar, Virendra Bhagawan Chine, Kunal Kumar Singh, Yim Ling Mak, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347989/bal%C3%A3-s-concentric-sclerosis-is-immunologically-distinct-from-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-retrospective-analysis-of-almost-150-lumbar-punctures
#5
S Jarius, C Würthwein, J R Behrens, J Wanner, J Haas, F Paul, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Baló's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterised by concentric layers of demyelination. It is unclear whether BCS is a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) or a disease entity in its own right. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) features of BCS to those of MS. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the CSF profile of all patients with BCS reported in the medical literature between 1980 and 2017...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346632/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-jc-virus-dna-in-plasma-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#6
Francesca Ferretti, Arabella Bestetti, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Beverly S Musick, Simonetta Gerevini, Laura Passeri, Simona Bossolasco, Antonio Boschini, Diego Franciotta, Adriano Lazzarin, Paola Cinque
Background: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) affecting subjects with impaired immune system. While JCV-DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is diagnostic of PML, the clinical significance of plasma JCV-DNA is still uncertain. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed plasma samples drawn from patients with PML close to disease onset, and controls without PML. In PML patients, we compared plasma JCV DNA detection and levels to: JCV DNA in the other biological samples, clinical and laboratory parameters and patients' survival...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345733/putative-mechanisms-of-cognitive-decline-with-implications-for-clinical-research-and-practice
#8
Tadeu Oliveira, Angela Starkweather, Divya Ramesh, Joseph Fetta, Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon, Lana Sargent
Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms contribute to vulnerability of cognitive decline and nurses play a significant role in assisting individuals and families to use strategies for healthy cognitive aging. The objective of this narrative review is to provide a synthesis of the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of cognitive decline and conditions that are associated with cognitive decline. Well-established intrinsic mechanisms of cognitive decline include aging, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status, SORL1 mutations, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, amyloid deposition, and demyelination...
January 18, 2018: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344669/clc-2-is-a-positive-modulator-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-differentiation-and-myelination
#9
Xiaolin Hou, Rui Zhang, Junyan Wang, Yunhong Li, Fan Li, Yan Zhang, Xiaomin Zheng, Ying Shen, Yin Wang, Liang Zhou
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelin-forming cells that are present within the central nervous system. Impaired oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation into mature OLs is a major cause of demyelination diseases. Therefore, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms of OPC differentiation is crucial to understand the processes of myelination and demyelination. It has been acknowledged that various extrinsic and intrinsic factors are involved in the control of OPC differentiation; however, the function of ion channels, particularly the voltage‑gated chloride channel (CLC), in OPC differentiation and myelination are not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341326/elevated-leukocyte-count-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#10
Ilse M Lucke, Stojan Peric, Gwen G A van Lieverloo, Luuk Wieske, Camiel Verhamme, Ivo N van Schaik, Ivana Basta, Filip Eftimov
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is often part of the diagnostic work-up of a patient suspected of having chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). According to the EFNS/PNS criteria, an elevated protein level without pleocytosis (leukocytes <10 cells/μl) is supportive of the diagnosis CIDP. It is unclear how many CSF leukocytes are compatible with the diagnosis CIDP and how extensive the diagnostic work-up should be in patients with a demyelinating neuropathy and pleocytosis. We performed a retrospective study at two tertiary neuromuscular referral clinics and identified 14 out of 273 (6%) patients with CIDP with elevated CSF leukocytes (≥10 cells/μl)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340311/hyponatremia-and-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Fabrice Gankam Kengne, Guy Decaux
Hyponatremia is defined by low serum sodium concentration and is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Serum sodium is the main determinant of plasma osmolality, which, in turn, affects cell volume. In the presence of low extracellular osmolality, cells will swell if the adaptation mechanisms involved in the cell volume maintenance are inadequate. The most dramatic effects of hyponatremia on the brain are seen when serum sodium concentration decreases in a short period, allowing little or no adaptation...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336841/economic-impact-of-the-new-oral-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis
#12
L Álvarez Ayuso, B Rodríguez Marrodán, M R Blasco Quílez, J A García-Merino, A Sánchez Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease affecting the central nervous system and is characterised by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, and axonal damage. The introduction of dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide has led to an increase in the number of alternative first-line therapies for MS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of the incorporation of new oral therapies at the reference unit (CSUR) at Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda...
January 11, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336201/poor-motor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-anxiety-model-mice-with-phospholipase-c-related-catalytically-inactive-protein-type-1-knockout
#13
Taku Fujita, Gentaro Kumagai, Xizhe Liu, Kanichiro Wada, Toshihiro Tanaka, Hitoshi Kudo, Toru Asari, Tatsuhiro Fukutoku, Ayako Sasaki, Yohshiro Nitobe, Yoshikazu Nikaido, Ken-Ichi Furukawa, Masato Hirata, Takashi Kanematsu, Shinya Ueno, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
Mice with a knockout of phospholipase C (PLC)-related inactive protein type 1 (PRIP1-/- mice) display anxiety-like behavior and altered GABAA-receptor pharmacology. Here we examined associations between anxiety and motor-function recovery in PRIP1-/- mice after a spinal-cord injury (SCI) induced by a moderate contusion injury at the 10th thoracic level. Uninjured PRIP1-/- mice spent less distance than wild-type (WT) mice in the center 25% in an open field test (OFT), indicating anxiety-like behavior. Anxiety behavior increased in both WT and PRIP1-/- mice after SCI...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335314/teaching-video-neuroimages-electromyographic-variation-in-stiff-person-syndrome
#14
Xiao-Zhong Jing, Dan Zhu, Ya-Qian Zhang, Ming Dong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332021/the-effects-of-reflexology-on-fatigue-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Afitap Ozdelikara, Seval Agcadiken Alkan
Context • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In addition to the progressive nature of the disease, devastating symptoms adversely affect the patient's daily life and future expectations. This situation leads patients to seek complementary and alternative treatments. Objectives • This study was conducted to determine the effects of reflexology on fatigue severity and anxiety in patients with MS. Design • The research was a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design...
January 15, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331875/the-association-between-vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-and-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-turkish-population
#16
Ozden Kamisli, Ceren Acar, Mert Sozen, Mehmet Tecellioglu, Fatma Ebru Yücel, Dilara Vaizoglu, Cemal Özcan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Genetic and environmental factors are important in disease development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between MS and VDR polymorphisms. VDR gene polymorphism has not been previously studied in Turkish MS patients. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MS and VDR genotypes Taq I, Apa I and Fok I polymorphisms in a Turkish population. METHODS: 167 MS patients and 146 healthy control subjects were included in the present study...
January 9, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331869/dietary-naringenin-supplementation-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-modulating-autoimmune-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#17
Junpeng Wang, Ying Qi, Xinli Niu, Hua Tang, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Dayong Wu
Autoimmune disease is highly prevalent in humans. Since conventional therapies have limited efficacy and often come with significant side effects, nutrition may provide an alternative and complementary approach to improving autoimmune disorders. Naringenin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of human multiple sclerosis, we determined the effect of dietary naringenin (0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331745/tumefactive-multiple-sclerosis-masquerading-as-high-grade-glioma
#18
Michelle Lin, Patrick Reid, Joshua Bakhsheshian
Tumefactive multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating lesion that can radiographically mimic high-grade gliomas during acute episodes, impacting clinical decision making. Delay in appropriate diagnoses may result in unnecessary invasive resections. The following case is a patient who presented with unilateral weakness and radiologic findings concerning for a high grade glioma. Peripheral studies were equivocal. The decision was made to proceed with a stereotactic biopsy, yielding a definitive diagnosis of tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL)...
January 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#19
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330393/haploidentical-bone-marrow-transplantation-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-for-patients-with-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-a-suitable-choice-in-an-urgent-situation
#20
Juliana Folloni Fernandes, Carmem Bonfim, Fábio Rodrigues Kerbauy, Morgani Rodrigues, Iracema Esteves, Nathalia Halley Silva, Alessandra Prandini Azambuja, Luiz Fernando Mantovani, José Mauro Kutner, Gisele Loth, Cilmara Cristina Kuwahara, Clarissa Bueno, Andrea Tiemi Kondo, Andreza Alice Feitosa Ribeiro, Fernando Kok, Nelson Hamerschlak
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that enhances survival and stabilizes neurologic symptoms in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) with cerebral involvement, a severe demyelinating disease of childhood. Patients with X-ALD who lack a well-matched HLA donor need a rapid alternative. Haploidentical HSCT using post transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) has been performed in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases showing similar outcomes compared to other alternative sources...
January 12, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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