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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679729/a-longitudinal-study-of-disc-height-narrowing-and-facet-joint-osteoarthritis-at-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine-evaluated-by-computed-tomography-the-framingham-study
#1
Mohamed Jarraya, Ali Guermazi, Amanda L Lorbergs, Elana Brochin, Douglas P Kiel, Mary L Bouxsein, L Adrienne Cupples, Elizabeth J Samelson
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Prevalence and progression of disc height narrowing (DHN) and facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) in the thoracic and lumbar regions in non-clinical populations are not well-established. PURPOSE: Use computed tomography (CT) images to determine prevalence and progression of DHN and FJOA according to age, sex, and spinal region. STUDY DESIGN: Six-year longitudinal study SAMPLE: 1,196 members of the Framingham Study (mean baseline age 61 ±9 years) OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared prevalence and progression (new or worsening) of moderate-to-severe DHN and FJOA by age, sex, and spinal region...
April 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679223/association-between-lepr-fto-mc4r-and-pparg-2-polymorphisms-with-obesity-traits-and-metabolic-phenotypes-in-school-aged-children
#2
Sílvia M Almeida, José M Furtado, Paulo Mascarenhas, Maria E Ferraz, José C Ferreira, Mariana P Monteiro, Manuel Vilanova, Fernando P Ferraz
PURPOSE: Evaluate the relationship of leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101, fat mass obesity-associated (FTO) receptors 9939609, melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) rs2229616 and rs17782313, and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) rs1801282 with clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the effect of polymorphisms on clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children? METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed to evaluate anthropometric features, percentage body fat (%BF), biochemical parameters, and genotype in 773 prepubertal children...
April 20, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678777/a-10-year-review-of-sudden-death-during-sporting-activities
#3
Mark Dennis, Alexander Elder, Christopher Semsarian, John Orchard, Isabel Brouwer, Rajesh Puranik
BACKGROUND: Sudden death during sport is a rare but devastating event. Previous research has mostly focused on sudden deaths in young competitive athletes. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the demographics and aetiology of sudden cardiac death (SCD) during sport in Australia. METHODS: All autopsies conducted at our forensic medicine facility between the years 2006-2015 (inclusive) were reviewed. Sporting related deaths amongst those 7-65 years of age were identified...
April 17, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678696/sarcopenic-obesity-revisited-insights-from-the-mr-and-ms-os-cohort
#4
Jean Woo, Jason Leung
OBJECTIVES: Following the concept of a metabolic load-capacity model, we propose the use of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) to total body fat (TBF) ratio in predicting 4-year physical limitations, physical performance measures, 6-year incident diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and 12-year mortality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 4000 men and women aged 65 years and older living in the community...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678392/skeletal-status-in-women-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-1-yr-prospective-study
#5
Aleksander Kisała, Wojciech Pluskiewicz, Piotr Adamczyk
Functional deterioration due to carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may influence the bone status of the forearm and hand. The aim of this prospective study was to establish whether CTS has an impact on bone status at distal parts of the upper limb and to monitor the longitudinal changes of that status during a 1-yr follow-up after surgical treatment. Fifteen women with CTS at mean age of 55.13 ± 9.3 yr, mean weight of 79.18 ± 20.37 kg, and mean height of 157.8 ± 6.17 cm were enrolled into the study...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677785/catalytic-pyrolysis-of-pinus-densiflora-over-mesoporous-al%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-catalysts
#6
Young-Min Kim, Gwang Hoon Rhee, Chang Hyun Ko, Ki Hoon Kim, Kyeong Youl Jung, Ji Man Kim, Young-Kwon Park
The thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of Pinus densiflora (P. densiflora) were performed to test the catalytic cracking efficiency of two mesoporous Al2O3 catalysts with different surface areas. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of P. densiflora showed that the differential TG (DTG) peak heights obtained from catalytic pyrolysis were smaller than those of non-catalytic pyrolysis due to the conversion of the reaction intermediates to coke. Pyrolyzer-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis/flame ionization detection (Py-GC/MS/FID) suggested that using the Al2O3 catalysts, the yields of phenols and levoglucosan decreased with a concomitant increase in the yields of aldehydes, alcohol, ketones, and furans...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677354/retinoic-acid-maintains-function-of-neural-crest-derived-ocular-and-craniofacial-structures-in-adult-zebrafish
#7
Bahaar Chawla, William Swain, Antionette L Williams, Brenda L Bohnsack
Purpose: Retinoic acid (RA) is required for embryonic formation of the anterior segment of the eye and craniofacial structures. The present study further investigated the role of RA in maintaining the function of these neural crest-derived structures in adult zebrafish. Methods: Morphology and histology were analyzed by using live imaging, methylacrylate sections, and TUNEL assay. Functional analysis of vision and aqueous humor outflow were assayed with real-time imaging...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676965/the-influence-of-wind-speed-on-airflow-and-fine-particle-transport-within-different-building-layouts-of-an-industrial-city
#8
Dan Mei, Meng Wen, Yuzheng Zhu, Xuemei Xu, Futang Xing
In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676628/increasing-the-resolution-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-definition-lessons-from-a-cohort-with-remote-but-extensive-exposure-to-secondhand-tobacco-smoke
#9
Mehrdad Arjomandi, Siyang Zeng, Paul D Blanc, Warren M Gold
RATIONALE: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria require a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV1 /FVC) of less than 0.70 for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas other criteria emphasize a lower limit of normal approach. However, the use of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (or lower limit of normal) criteria may result in classification of many smokers with respiratory morbidities as not having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675881/bmi-trajectories-from-birth-to-young-adulthood
#10
Shannon M McGinty, Stavroula K Osganian, Henry A Feldman, Carly E Milliren, Alison E Field, Tracy K Richmond
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. METHODS: Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity...
April 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674044/the-increase-of-detection-sensitivity-of-micellar-electrokinetic-capillary-chromatography-method-of-stamp-pad-inks-components-by-applying-a-sample-stacking-mode-for-the-purpose-of-questioned-document-examination
#11
Marta Gładysz, Małgorzata Król, Michał Woźniakiewicz, Paweł Kościelniak
The study focused on comparison of on-line sample concentration techniques, i.e. sample stacking modes, applied in capillary electrophoresis in order to improve the detection of components of stamp pad inks so that destruction of analysed document could be minimized. In particular, such techniques were taken into consideration as: normal stacking mode/field amplified sample stacking (NSM/FASS), high-salt concentration, sweeping, electrokinetic injection + FASS, and field enhanced sample injection (FESI). At first, two mixtures of 4 red dyes and 4 violet/blue dyes were examined...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673428/ice-slurry-ingestion-and-physiological-strain-during-exercise-in-non-compensable-heat-stress
#12
Jason Ng, Jonathan E Wingo, Phillip A Bishop, Jason C Casey, Elizabeth K Aldrich
INTRODUCTION: Precooling with ice slurry ingestion attenuates the increase in rectal temperature (Tre) during subsequent running and cycling. It remains unclear how this cooling method affects physiological strain during work while wearing protective garments. This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion on physiological strain during work in hot conditions while wearing firefighter protective clothing. METHODS: In three counterbalanced trials, eight men (mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 2 yr, height = 179...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673397/sex-differences-in-kinematic-adaptations-to-muscle-fatigue-induced-by-repetitive-upper-limb-movements
#13
Jason Bouffard, Chen Yang, Mickael Begon, Julie Côté
BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue induced by repetitive movements contributes to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Men and women respond differently to muscle fatigue during isometric single-joint efforts, but sex differences during dynamic multi-joint tasks have not been clearly identified. Moreover, most studies comparing men and women during fatigue development assessed endurance time. However, none evaluated sex differences in kinematic adaptations to fatigue during multi-joint dynamic tasks...
April 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673204/older-adults-with-weaker-muscle-strength-stand-up-from-a-sitting-position-with-more-dynamic-trunk-use
#14
Rob C van Lummel, Jordi Evers, Martijn Niessen, Peter J Beek, Jaap H van Dieën
The ability to stand up from a sitting position is essential for older adults to live independently. Body-fixed inertial sensors may provide an approach for quantifying the sit-to-stand (STS) in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether measurements of STS movements using body-fixed sensors yield parameters that are informative regarding changes in STS performance in older adults with reduced muscle strength. In twenty-seven healthy older adults, handgrip strength was assessed as a proxy for overall muscle strength...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672852/responses-of-insect-herbivores-and-their-food-plants-to-wind-exposure-and-the-importance-of-predation-risk
#15
Cong Chen, Arjen Biere, Rieta Gols, Wouter Halfwerk, Kees van Oers, Jeffrey A Harvey
1.Wind is an important abiotic factor that influences an array of biological processes, but it is rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. 2.Here, we tested whether wind exposure could directly or indirectly affect the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on Brassica nigra plants. 3.In a greenhouse study using a factorial design, B. nigra plants were exposed to different wind regimes generated by fans before and after caterpillars were introduced on plants in an attempt to separate the effects of direct and indirect wind exposure on herbivores...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672353/association-of-bmi-and-height-with-the-risk-of-endometrial-cancer-overall-and-by-histological-subtype-a-population-based-prospective-cohort-study-in-japan
#16
Asuka Kawachi, Taichi Shimazu, Sanjeev Budhathoki, Norie Sawada, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
Evidence on the association between BMI, height, and endometrial cancer risk, including by subtypes, among Asian populations remains limited. We evaluated the impact of BMI and height on the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by histological subtype. We prospectively investigated 53 651 Japanese women aged 40-69 years. With an average follow-up duration of 18.6 years, 180 newly diagnosed endometrial cancers were reported, including 119 type 1 and 21 type 2. The association between BMI, height, and endometrial cancer risk was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671684/smoking-stress-eating-and-body-weight-the-moderating-role-of-perceived-stress
#17
Adrian Meule, Julia Reichenberger, Jens Blechert
BACKGROUND: Some individuals respond to stress with increased food intake while others reduce their food intake. Smokers often report using smoking to cope with stress and have a lower body weight than nonsmokers on average. Thus, smokers may tend to eat less when stressed, which may partly explain their lower body weight as compared to nonsmokers. In turn, nonsmokers may tend to eat more when stressed, which may partly explain their higher body weight as compared to smokers. OBJECTIVE: To examine the interplay between smoking and stress-related eating...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671440/alloy-composition-dependent-oxygen-reduction-reaction-activity-and-electrochemical-stability-of-pt-based-bimetallic-systems-a-model-electrocatalyst-study-of-pt-pt-x-ni-100-x-111
#18
Naoto Todoroki, Ryutaro Kawamura, Masato Asano, Ren Sasakawa, Shuntaro Takahashi, Toshimasa Wadayama
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and electrochemical stability of well-defined n monolayer (ML)-Pt/PtxNi100-x(111) (n = 2 and 4; x = 75, 50, and 25) model electrocatalyst surfaces were investigated in this study. The initial activity of the as-prepared two-monolayered Pt-covered PtxNi100-x(111) substrates (2ML-Pt/PtxNi100-x(111)) increased with increasing Ni composition in the PtxNi100-x(111) substrate. In particular, 2ML-Pt/Pt25Ni75(111) showed the initial activity that was 25 times higher than that of clean Pt(111) although the higher Ni composition resulted in destabilization of the catalyst upon the application of potential cycles (PCs)...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670914/association-of-wrist-circumference-and-waist-to-height-ratio-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-type-ii-diabetics-in-a-ghanaian-population
#19
Christian Obirikorang, Yaa Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Emmanuel Toboh, Evans Adu Asamoah, Bright Amakwaa, Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu, Peter Brenya
The study determined the association of wrist circumference (WrC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiometabolic risk factors among diabetics in a Ghanaian population. This cross-sectional study involved 384 diabetic patients at Begoro District Hospital, Ghana. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, and biochemical indices were measured. The overall prevalence of dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and hypertension was 42.4%, 76.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. The optimum cut-off range of WrC to identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk was 17...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670582/boosting-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-production-with-rhizobacteria-from-various-plants-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Ihsanullah Daur, Maged M Saad, Abdul Aziz Eida, Shakeel Ahmad, Zahid Hussain Shah, Muhammad Z Ihsan, Yasir Muhammad, Sayed S Sohrab, Heribert Hirt
This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter . Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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