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mental health problems in hiv infected adolescents and adults

Ashraf Kagee, Geri Donenberg, Alicia Davids, Redwaan Vermaak, Leickness Simbayi, Catherine Ward, Pamela Naidoo, Jacky Mthembu
High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children...
2014: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Matthew J Mimiaga, Conall OʼCleirigh, Katie B Biello, Angela M Robertson, Steven A Safren, Thomas J Coates, Beryl A Koblin, Margaret A Chesney, Deborah J Donnell, Ron D Stall, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or "syndemics" of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how 5 syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. METHODS: Eligible men in a large prospective cohort of sexually active HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nicole Blair Johnson, Locola D Hayes, Kathryn Brown, Elizabeth C Hoo, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to be solved. Life expectancy is increasing, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators (i.e., measures of observed or calculated data on the status of a condition) of the health and safety of the U.S. population remain poor. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives...
October 31, 2014: MMWR Supplements
Mark Newmeyer, Benjamin Keyes, Sonji Gregory, Kamala Palmer, Daniel Buford, Priscilla Mondt, Benjamin Okai
Mental health service providers are at risk of experiencing compassion fatigue, burnout, and vicarious traumatization as a result of working in difficult contexts or when working with individuals who have experienced trauma. Numerous studies have examined the mitigating factors in professional caregivers' stress and related prevention strategies thought to be associated with professional self-care. This retrospective study examined the impact of debriefing strategies referred to as Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) and spirituality in 22 mental health service providers working in a stressful, cross-cultural context...
2014: International Journal of Emergency Mental Health
Karl Peltzer, Helena Szrek, Shandir Ramlagan, Rui Leite, Li-Wei Chao
Depression and other health problems are common co-morbidities among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The aim of this study was to investigate depression, health status, and substance use in relation to HIV-infected and uninfected individuals in South Africa. Using a cross-sectional case-control design, we compared depression, physical health, mental health, problem alcohol use, and tobacco use in a sample of HIV-infected (N = 143) and HIV-uninfected (N = 199) respondents who had known their HIV status for two months...
2015: AIDS Care
Catherine Campbell, Louise Andersen, Alice Mutsikiwa, Claudius Madanhire, Morten Skovdal, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson
BACKGROUND: HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in 'substituting for families' (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being...
2014: BMC Public Health
Sarah Skeen, Mark Tomlinson, Ana Macedo, Natasha Croome, Lorraine Sherr
There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) services to improve child outcomes...
2014: AIDS Care
Cheryl L Robbins, Lauren B Zapata, Sherry L Farr, Charlan D Kroelinger, Brian Morrow, Indu Ahluwalia, Denise V D'Angelo, Danielle Barradas, Shanna Cox, David Goodman, Letitia Williams, Violanda Grigorescu, Wanda D Barfield
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC...
April 25, 2014: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Li Li, Li-Jung Liang, Guoping Ji, Jie Wu, Yongkang Xiao
This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior...
November 2014: AIDS and Behavior
Haochu Howard Li, Eleanor Holroyd, Xiaoming Li, Joseph Lau
In China, specific HIV/AIDS-related services have been in place since 2004. However, utilisation of these services remains limited among people living with HIV. We explored barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS-related services from the perspective of newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men. We conducted repeated in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men, using the socio-ecological framework and thematic content analysis. Multiple barriers for utilisation of HIV/AIDS-related services were identified, including perceptions of subjective health and poor quality of services, mental and emotional health problems, lack of trust and understanding of the services on offer, low economic status, lack of insurance, and high medical fees, being refused access to services, and restrictive attendance policies...
January 2015: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Shaobing Su, Xiaoming Li, Liying Zhang, Danhua Lin, Chen Zhang, Yuejiao Zhou
HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study, we divided a sample of 1022 FSWs into three age groups (≤ 20 years, 21-34 years, and ≥ 35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (1) older FSWs (≥ 35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (2) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use, and sexually transmitted diseases history; (3) younger FSWs (≤ 20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (4) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSWs aged 21-34 years; and (5) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors...
2014: AIDS Care
Fabienne Laraque, Heather A Mavronicolas, McKaylee M Robertson, Heidi W Gortakowski, Arpi S Terzian
OBJECTIVE: HIV infection is a major problem in New York City (NYC), with more than 100,000 living HIV-infected persons. Novel public health approaches are needed to control the epidemic. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) analysed community viral load (CVL) for a baseline to monitor the population-level impact of HIV control interventions. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using routinely collected surveillance data. METHODS: All HIV-infected persons reported to the NYC HIV Registry who were at least 13 years of age, with at least one viral load test result in 2008, and alive at the end of 31 December 2008 were included...
August 24, 2013: AIDS
Richard Harding, Victoria Simms, Suzanne Penfold, Julia Downing, Richard A Powell, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Eve Namisango, Scott Moreland, Nancy Gikaara, Mackuline Atieno, Jeniffer Kataike, Clare Nsubuga, Grace Munene, Geoffrey Banga, Irene J Higginson
New WHO guidance stipulates six-monthly CD4 testing and treatment initiation at CD4 less than 350. This study aimed to determine the presence of CD4 results in patient records across five care facilities in Kenya, and to identify factors associated with the presence of CD4 count. This is a cross-sectional study of consecutive outpatients. Participants completed self-reported outcomes of demographics, and both physical and mental health dimensions of quality of life and function; charts were reviewed for a CD4 count in the previous 13 months; 548 patients participated...
2014: AIDS Care
Kelly E Dunn, Kathryn A Saulsgiver, Mollie E Patrick, Sarah H Heil, Stephen T Higgins, Stacey C Sigmon
BACKGROUND: The high rates of HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infection among opioid abusers is a serious public health problem, and efforts to enhance knowledge regarding risks for HIV/hepatitis infection in this population are important. Abuse of prescription opioids (POs), in particular, has increased substantially in the past decade and is associated with increasing rates of injection drug use and HCV infection. METHODS: This study describes the effects of a brief HIV/HCV educational intervention delivered in the context of a larger randomized, double-blind clinical trial evaluating the relative efficacy of 1-, 2-, and 4-week outpatient buprenorphine tapers and subsequent oral naltrexone maintenance for treating PO dependence...
December 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kinke Lommerse, Robert C Stewart, Queen Chilimba, Thomas van den Akker, Crick Lund
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mental illness are interlinked health problems; mental illness may pose a risk for contracting HIV and HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk of mental illness. However, in countries with high HIV prevalence, the main focus of HIV-related health programmes is usually on prevention and treatment of somatic complications of HIV, and mental illness is not given high priority. We examined HIV prevalence, uptake of HIV services, and HIV-related risk behaviour among people attending a mental health clinic in rural Malawi...
2013: PloS One
Michael B Blank, Michael Hennessy, Marlene M Eisenberg
The heightened risk of persons with serious mental illness (SMI) to contract and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a public health problem. Our objective was test the effectiveness of a community-based advanced practice nurse intervention to promote adherence to HIV and psychiatric treatment regimens call Preventing AIDS Through Health for Positives (PATH+). We enrolled 238 HIV-positive subjects with SMI who were in treatment at community HIV provider agencies from 2004 to 2009. Participants in the intervention group were assigned an advanced practice nurse who provided community-based care management at a minimum of one visit/week and coordinated their medical and mental healthcare for 12 months...
April 2014: AIDS and Behavior
Mark Orkin, Mark E Boyes, Lucie D Cluver, Yuning Zhang
A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems...
2014: AIDS Care
Jamie M Lachman, Lucie D Cluver, Mark E Boyes, Caroline Kuo, Marisa Casale
Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27...
2014: AIDS Care
Wen Huang, Don Operario, Yanyan Dong, Nickolas Zaller, Dandan Song, Huan He, Haidong Tao, Junrui Xia, Hongbo Zhang
China has experienced a surge in internal migration during the past decade, and migrant populations have been identified as a high-risk group for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young female migrants often find employment in entertainment venues (bars, karaoke parlors, and massage parlors) located in metropolitan cities, and sex work transactions frequently occur in these venues. We examined factors associated with risk for HIV, other STIs, and reproductive health challenges in a cross-sectional study of 358 young female migrants, ages 18-29, working in entertainment venues in a rapidly growing urban city in China...
June 2014: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Sylwia Kalinowska, Beata Trześniowska-Drukała, Jerzy Samochowiec
HIV infection is an important medical and social problem. In Poland, similarly to other countries, patients with HIV infections are mostly young people. Apart from typical immunologic pathologies, the HIV infection leads to some neurocognitive, motoric and behavioral disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the up-to-date knowledge of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).
May 2013: Psychiatria Polska
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