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bioengineering, drug delivery, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering

Bhupinder Singh, Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Babita Garg, Sumant Saini, Ranjot Kaur
With the advent of "intelligent" polymeric systems, the use of stimuli-responsive in situ gelling systems has been revolutionized. These interesting polymers exist as free-flowing aqueous solutions before administration and undergo a phase transition to form a viscoelastic gel in a physiological environ through various stimuli such as temperature, pH, solvent, biochemical, magnetic, electric, ultrasound, and photo-polymerization. These smart polymers are endowed with numerous merits such as ease of administration, sustained release, reduced frequent administration with improved patient compliance, and targeted and spatial delivery of a drug with reduced frequency of side effects...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Su Jing Chan, Christopher Love, Myron Spector, Simon M Cool, Victor Nurcombe, Eng H Lo
Despite the efforts in developing therapeutics for stroke, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the only FDA approved drug for ischemic stroke. Regenerative medicine targeting endogenous growth factors has drawn much interest in the clinical field as it provides potential restoration for the damaged brain tissue without being limited by a narrow therapeutic window. To date, most of the translational studies using regenerative medicines have encountered problems and failures. In this review, we discuss the effects of some trophic factors which include of erythropoietin (EPO), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) in experimental ischemic stroke models and elaborate the lost in translation of the candidate growth factors from bench to bedside...
July 2017: Neurochemistry International
D W Green, G S Watson, J A Watson, D-J Lee, J-M Lee, H-S Jung
UNLABELLED: Regenerative medicine and biomaterials design are driven by biomimicry. There is the essential requirement to emulate human cell, tissue, organ and physiological complexity to ensure long-lasting clinical success. Biomimicry projects for biomaterials innovation can be re-invigorated with evolutionary insights and perspectives, since Darwinian evolution is the original dynamic process for biological organisation and complexity. Many existing human inspired regenerative biomaterials (defined as a nature generated, nature derived and nature mimicking structure, produced within a biological system, which can deputise for, or replace human tissues for which it closely matches) are without important elements of biological complexity such as, hierarchy and autonomous actions...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Tek N Lamichhane, Sonja Sokic, John S Schardt, Rahul S Raiker, Jennifer W Lin, Steven M Jay
Extracellular vesicles (EVs)-comprising a heterogeneous population of cell-derived lipid vesicles including exosomes, microvesicles, and others-have recently emerged as both mediators of intercellular information transfer in numerous biological systems and vehicles for drug delivery. In both roles, EVs have immense potential to impact tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. For example, the therapeutic effects of several progenitor and stem cell-based therapies have been attributed primarily to EVs secreted by these cells, and EVs have been recently reported to play direct roles in injury-induced tissue regeneration processes in multiple physiological systems...
February 2015: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Nasim Annabi, Ali Tamayol, Jorge Alfredo Uquillas, Mohsen Akbari, Luiz E Bertassoni, Chaenyung Cha, Gulden Camci-Unal, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Nicholas A Peppas, Ali Khademhosseini
Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer-based materials with high water content and physical characteristics that resemble the native extracellular matrix. Because of their remarkable properties, hydrogel systems are used for a wide range of biomedical applications, such as three-dimensional (3D) matrices for tissue engineering, drug-delivery vehicles, composite biomaterials, and as injectable fillers in minimally invasive surgeries. In addition, the rational design of hydrogels with controlled physical and biological properties can be used to modulate cellular functionality and tissue morphogenesis...
January 8, 2014: Advanced Materials
Corey J Bishop, Jayoung Kim, Jordan J Green
To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer...
July 2014: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Suzanne M Watt, Francesca Gullo, Mark van der Garde, Daniel Markeson, Rosalba Camicia, Cheen P Khoo, Jaap Jan Zwaginga
BACKGROUND: Blood vessel formation is fundamental to development, while its dysregulation can contribute to serious disease. Expectations are that hundreds of millions of individuals will benefit from therapeutic developments in vascular biology. MSCs are central to the three main vascular repair mechanisms. SOURCES OF DATA: Key recent published literature and AREAS OF AGREEMENT: MSCs are heterogeneous, containing multi-lineage stem and partly differentiated progenitor cells, and are easily expandable ex vivo...
2013: British Medical Bulletin
Tobias Miller, Melissa C Goude, Todd C McDevitt, Johnna S Temenoff
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear, negatively charged polysaccharides that interact with a variety of positively charged growth factors. In this review article the effects of engineering GAG chemistry for molecular delivery applications in regenerative medicine are presented. Three major areas of focus at the structure-function-property interface are discussed: (1) macromolecular properties of GAGs; (2) effects of chemical modifications on protein binding; (3) degradation mechanisms of GAGs. GAG-protein interactions can be based on: (1) GAG sulfation pattern; (2) GAG carbohydrate conformation; (3) GAG polyelectrolyte behavior...
April 2014: Acta Biomaterialia
Bengt Fadeel, Neus Feliu, Carmen Vogt, Abuelmagd M Abdelmonem, Wolfgang J Parak
Engineered nanomaterials offer exciting opportunities for 'smart' drug delivery and in vivo imaging of disease processes, as well as in regenerative medicine. The ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale enables many new properties that are both desirable and exploitable, but the same properties could also give rise to unexpected toxicities that may adversely affect human health. Understanding the physicochemical properties that drive toxicological outcomes is a formidable challenge as it is not trivial to separate and, hence, to pinpoint individual material characteristics of nanomaterials...
March 2013: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Maria Chiara Barsotti, Francesca Felice, Alberto Balbarini, Rossella Di Stefano
Fibrin is a natural biopolymer with many interesting properties, such as biocompatibility, bioresorbability, ease of processing, ability to be tailored to modify the conditions of polymerization, and potential for incorporation of both cells and cell mediators. Moreover, the fibrin network has a nanometric fibrous structure, mimicking extracellular matrix, and it can also be used in autologous applications. Therefore, fibrin has found many applications in tissue engineering, combined with cells, growth factors, or drugs...
September 2011: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Juan Zhang, Min Wang, Jae Min Cha, Athanasios Mantalaris
Transplantation of encapsulated living cells is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Bioactive glass (bioglass) can be used for drug delivery and other regenerative medicine applications. First of all, we established a scenario of bioglass-incorporated alginate encapsulation. Then we studied the expansion of encapsulated murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in bioreactors with exposure to 70s bioglass. Finally, an integrated osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated mESCs with the presence of 70s bioglass was investigated...
January 2009: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
C E Semino
In recent years, the development of new biomaterials with specifications for tissue and organ functional requirements-such as proper biological, structural, and biomechanical properties as well as designed control for biodegradation and therapeutic drug-release capacity-is the main aim of many academic and industrial programs. Hence, the concept of molecular self-assembly is the driving force for the development of new biomaterials that support the growth and functional differentiation of cells and tissues in a controlled manner...
July 2008: Journal of Dental Research
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