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Ruqayah G Y Al-Obaidi, Bassam M S Al-Musawi, Munib Ahmed K Al-Zubaidi, Christian Oberkanins, Stefan Németh, Yusra G Y Al-Obaidi
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders. The most frequent one is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Analyzing CYP21A2 gene mutations was so far not reported in Iraq. This work aims to analyze the spectrum and frequency of CYP21A2 mutations among Iraqi CAH patients. Sixty-two children were recruited from the Pediatric Endocrine Consultation Clinic, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2014 till June 2015. Their ages ranged between one day and 15 years...
2016: Enzyme Research
Jamie Kwan, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, Simon Wessely, Nicola Fear, Deirdre MacManus
Large numbers of British and American Reservists have been deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Little is known about the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violent behavior in Reservists. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported violent behavior among a representative sample of United Kingdom Reservists, the risk factors associated with violence and the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violence. This study used data from a large cohort study of randomly selected UK military personnel and included Reservists who were in service at the time of sampling (n = 1710)...
October 24, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Shang-Ju Li, Abraham Flaxman, Riyadh Lafta, Lindsay Galway, Tim K Takaro, Gilbert Burnham, Amy Hagopian
OBJECTIVES: We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. METHOD: To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings...
2016: PloS One
Yuheng Wang, Konstantin von Gunten, Barbora Bartova, Nicolas Meisser, Markus Astner, Mario Burger, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these post-conflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Omran S Habib, Jasim N Al-Asadi, Osama G Hussein
OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence rate of lung cancer and its time trend in Basrah during 2005-2012. METHODS: This was a cancer registry-based retrospective study including all Basrah inhabitant patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer during the period from January 2005 to December 2012. The crude incidence rate was calculated in addition to the age standardized incidence rate (ASIR)/100,000 using the world standard population. Results: Out of 746 registered cases of lung cancer in Basrah, 75...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Abdulrahman O Musaiger, Mariam Al-Mannai, Ahmad R Al-Haifi, Fatima Nabag, Jalila Elati, Nada Abahussain, Reema Tayyem, Marwan Jalambo, Mofida Benhamad, Berivan Al-Mufty
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to highlight the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in eight Arab countries. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight Arab countries: Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Tunisia. The total sample included was 6,447 adolescents aged 15-18 years (3,111 males, 3,336 females). The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) reference standards were used to determine obesity levels...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mohamed Farouk Allam
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, the possible association between underarm deodorants/ antiperspirants use and breast cancer risk has raised important interest in the scientific community. The objective of our systematic review is to estimate the pooled risk of deodorants/antiperspirants use for breast cancer. METHODS: All observational studies that evaluated the association between breast cancer risk and deodorants/antiperspirants use were reviewed. We have only identified two case-control studies, carried out between 2002 and 2006...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Nicholas S Szuflita, Chris J Neal, Michael K Rosner, Ralph F Frankowski, Robert G Grossman
Spine injuries are more prevalent among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans than among veterans of previous conflicts. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the context, mode, and clinical outcomes of spine injuries sustained by U.S. military personnel in theater. Injury and clinical data from patients who sustained a spine injury in Iraq or Afghanistan between 2003 and 2008 were extracted from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Fischer's exact test was used to compare demographic variables between battle and nonbattle spine injuries...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Larry Applewhite, Derrick Arincorayan, Barry Adams
This exploratory study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in soldiers who sought behavioral health support during a combat deployment. We conducted a secondary analysis of data extracted from two studies on the basis of retrospective reviews of behavioral health records of soldiers deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Of 162 clinical samples, 135 (83%) reported at least one type of childhood adversity. ACE scores ranged from 0 to 9 with a mean of 3 (standard deviation = 2.4) and mode of 0...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Todd C Leroux, Hye-Chung Kum, Alan Dabney, Rebecca Wells
Since the onset of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan attention has increased on the importance of mental health with military service members. An integral component, although far less studied, are the ties between mental health and military spouses. Military deployments place considerable stress on military families. This study analyzed the mental health utilization of military spouses of active duty service members assigned to an aircraft carrier between 2011 and 2014. A negative binomial generalized estimating equation was used to examine the rate of change in mental health utilization over time against various deployment phases...
October 2016: Military Medicine
David R Tribble, Ping Li, Tyler E Warkentien, Bradley A Lloyd, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Anuradha Ganesan, William Bradley, Deepak Aggarwal, M Leigh Carson, Amy C Weintrob, Clinton K Murray
The Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study began in June 2009 as combat operations were decreasing in Iraq and increasing in Afghanistan. Our analysis examines the rate of infections of wounded U.S. military personnel from operational theaters in Iraq and Afghanistan admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center between June 2009 and December 2013 and transferred to a participating U.S. hospital. Infection risk factors were examined in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (expressed as odds ratios [OR]; 95% confidence intervals [CI])...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Eileen M Stock, Laurel A Copeland, Jack Y Tsan, John E Zeber, Michael A Veronin, Alexander W Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the influence of various statistical analysis approaches while assessing the marginal effect of polypharmacy (prescription of multiple psychotropics including a first-line antidepressant) on all-cause hospital admission among veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. METHODS: Data were obtained on 398 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans being followed in a southwestern U.S. health care system from October 2005 through September 2009, diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and receiving first-line antidepressants (serotonin selective or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors)...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Garen A Collett, Kangwon Song, Carlos A Jaramillo, Jennifer S Potter, Erin P Finley, Mary Jo Pugh
BACKGROUND: The increase in the quantities of central nervous system (CNS)-acting medications prescribed has coincided with increases in overdose mortality, suicide-related behaviors, and unintentional deaths in military personnel deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on the extent and impact of prescribing multiple CNS drugs among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAVs) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the characteristics of IAVs with CNS polypharmacy and examine the association of CNS polypharmacy with drug overdose and suicide-related behaviors controlling for known risk factors...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Alexandra J Hawkey, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz, Christine Metusela
Experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation are shaped by the sociocultural environment in which women are embedded. We explored experiences and constructions of menarche and menstruation among migrant and refugee women resettled in Sydney, Australia, and Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-eight semistructured individual interviews and 15 focus groups comprised of 82 participants were undertaken with women from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and varying South American countries...
October 14, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Sharon Edwards, Jason Smith
Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, in civilian environments and on the battlefield. Trauma-induced haemorrhage is the principal cause of potentially preventable death, which is generally attributable to a combination of vascular injury and coagulopathy. Survival rates following severe traumatic injury have increased due to advanced trauma management initiatives and treatment protocols, influenced by lessons learned from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The use of tourniquets and intraosseous needles, early blood and blood product transfusion, administration of tranexamic acid in pre-hospital settings, and consultant-led damage control resuscitation incorporating damage control surgery have all played their part...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Ellen R DeVoe, Ruth Paris, Ben Emmert-Aronson, Abigail Ross, Michelle Acker
Objective: Parenting through the deployment cycle presents unique stressors for military families. To date, few evidence-based and military-specific parenting programs are available to support parenting through cycles of deployment separation and reintegration, especially for National Guard/Reserve members. The purpose of this research was to test the efficacy of a parenting program developed specifically to support military families during reintegration. Method: Within 1 year of returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq, 115 service members with very young children were randomly assigned to receive either the Strong Families Strong Forces Parenting Program at baseline or after a 12-week waiting period...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Keyvan Amjadian, Elisa Sacchi, Meisam Rastegari Mehr
Urban soil contamination is a growing concern for the potential health impact on the increasing number of people living in these areas. In this study, the concentration, the distribution, the contamination levels, and the role of land use were investigated in Erbil metropolis, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. A total of 74 soil samples were collected, treated, and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, and for 7 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) and 16 PAH contents. High concentrations, especially of Cd, Cu Pb, and Zn, were found...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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