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Free water clearance

Haisheng He, Jian Zhang, Yunchang Xie, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Ejaj Ahmad, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
One of the biggest challenges in bioimaging of nanoparticles is how to identify integral particles from bulk signals of probes. Signals of free probes are always mistakenly counted into total signals of particles. In this study, in vivo fate of intravenous polymeric micelles (PMs, mPEG2.5k-PDLLA2.5k) was explored using a highly sensitive near-infrared environment-responsive fluorescent probe. This probe is able to emit fluorescence when embedded in nanocarriers but quench spontaneously and absolutely upon release into water, based on the aggregation-caused quenching effect, which means that the interference generated by free probes can be completely diminished...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Haroon Ur Rashid, Marco Antonio Utrera Martines, Juliana Jorge, Paula Martin de Moraes, Muhammad Naveed Umar, Kamin Khan, Hanif Ur Rehman
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive radiology technique used to examine the internal organs of human body. It is useful for the diagnosis of structural abnormalities in the body. Contrast agents are used to increase the sensitivity of this technique. 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) is a macrocyclic tetraamine. Its derivatives act as useful ligands to produce stable complexes with Gd(3+) ion. Such chelates are investigated as MRI contrast agents. Free Gd(3+) ion is extremely toxic for in vivo use...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Yu V Natochin, A S Marina, A V Kutina, E V Balbotkina, T A Karavashkina
We have found the physiological mechanism of intensification of the excessive fluid removal from the body under the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 and its analog exenatide. Under the water load in rats, exenatide significantly increased the clearance of lithium, reduced fluid reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the nephron and intensified reabsorption of sodium ions in the distal parts, which contributed to the formation of sodium-free water and faster recovery of osmotic homeostasis. Blocking this pathway with a selective antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors slowed down the elimination of excessive water from the body...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Tamar I Schwarz, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Benjamin H Maskrey, Alexander P Scott
Six experiments were carried out to define the optimum conditions for investigating the dynamics of uptake and metabolism of tritiated E2 from water by adult blue mussels, Mytilus spp. Optimum uptake was achieved using 400mL aerated sea water animal(-1) and an incubation period of no more than 24h. The pattern of disappearance conformed closest to an inverse hyperbolic curve with the percentage of radiolabel that could be measured in the water reaching an asymptote that was on average 50% of the original. This apparent inability of the animals to absorb all the radiolabel was investigated further...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nicole M R McNeil, David J Press, Don M Mayder, Pablo Garnica, Lisa M Doyle, Thomas G Back
Diaryl selenides containing o-hydroxymethylene substituents function as peroxide-destroying mimetics of the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), via oxidation to the corresponding spirodioxyselenuranes with hydrogen peroxide and subsequent reduction back to the original selenides with glutathione. Parent selenides with 3-hydroxypropyl or 2,3-dihydroxypropyl groups produced the novel compounds 10 and 11, respectively, with greatly improved aqueous solubility and catalytic activity. The phenolic derivative 28 displayed similarly ameliorated properties and also modest radical-inhibiting antioxidant activity, as evidenced by an assay based on phenolic hydrogen atom transfer to the stable free radical DPPH...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
M A Denys, A Viaene, A S Goessaert, F Vanhaverbeke, P Hoebeke, A Raes, K Everaert
PURPOSE: To evaluate nocturnal urine production and circadian rhythms of renal functions (glomerular filtration, water and solute diuresis) in adults with a spinal cord injury compared to controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in Ghent University Hospital, Belgium. Participants were asked to perform a 24h urine collection and a blood sample was taken to calculate diuresis rate and renal clearance of creatinine, free water, solutes, sodium and urea...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Urology
Ramy Magdy Hanna, Wan-Ting Yang, Eduardo A Lopez, Joseph Nabil Riad, James Wilson
BACKGROUND: Improper correction of hyponatremia can cause severe complications, including osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The Adrogué-Madias equation (AM), the Barsoum-Levine (BL) equation, the Electrolyte Free Water Clearance (EFWC) equation and the Nguyen-Kurtz (NK) equation are four derived equations based on the empirically derived Edelman equation for predicting sodium at a later time (Na2) from a known starting sodium (Na1), fluid/electrolyte composition and input and output volumes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
J D Bergiannaki, P Kostaras
The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women...
April 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
M P Sutunkova, B A Katsnelson, L I Privalova, V B Gurvich, L K Konysheva, V Ya Shur, E V Shishkina, I A Minigalieva, S N Solovjeva, S V Grebenkina, I V Zubarev
The aim of our study was to test a hypothesis according to which the pulmonary clearance vs. retention of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is controlled not only by physiological mechanisms but also by their solubilization which in some cases may even prevail. Airborne Fe2O3 NPs with the mean diameter of 14±4nm produced by sparking from 99.99% pure iron rods were fed into a nose-only exposure tower. Rats were exposed to these NPs for 4h a day, 5days a week during 3, 6 or 10 months at the mean concentration of 1...
July 1, 2016: Toxicology
Guoping Sheng, Ying Chen, Lijie Han, Yong Huang, Xiaoli Liu, Lanjuan Li, Zhengwei Mao
UNLABELLED: Although indocyanine green (ICG) has promising applications in photothermal therapy (PPT) because of its low toxicity and high efficiency in inducing heat and singlet oxygen formation in response to near-infrared light with a wavelength of approximately 800nm, its clinical application has been restricted because of its rapid body clearance and poor water stability. Therefore, cell membrane capsules (CMCs) derived from mammalian cells were used to encapsulate negatively charged ICG by temporarily permeating the plasma membrane and resealing using positively charged doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX)...
October 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Jianbing Wu, Zhaozhu Zheng, Gang Li, David L Kaplan, Xiaoqin Wang
UNLABELLED: A one step, rapid method to prepare silk microspheres was developed, with particle size controlled by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG molecular weight (4.0K-20.0KDa) and concentration (20-50wt%), as well as silk concentration (5-20wt%), were key factors that determined particle sizes varying in a range of 1-100μm. Addition of methanol to the PEG-silk combinations increased the content of crystalline β-sheet in the silk microspheres. To track the distribution and degradation of silk microspheres in vivo, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-coated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were physically entrapped in the silk microspheres...
July 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Elizabeth Dabrowski, Rachel Kadakia, Donald Zimmerman
Diabetes insipidus, the inability to concentrate urine resulting in polyuria and polydipsia, can have different manifestations and management considerations in infants and children compared to adults. Central diabetes insipidus, secondary to lack of vasopressin production, is more common in children than is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the inability to respond appropriately to vasopressin. The goal of treatment in both forms of diabetes insipidus is to decrease urine output and thirst while allowing for appropriate fluid balance, normonatremia and ensuring an acceptable quality of life for each patient...
March 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Hoang D Lu, Brian K Wilson, Andrew Heinmiller, Bill Faenza, Shahram Hejazi, Robert K Prud'homme
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging hybrid optical-ultrasound based imaging technique that can be used to visualize optical absorbers in deep tissue. Free organic dyes can be used as PA contrast agents to concurrently provide additional physiological and molecular information during imaging, but their use in vivo is generally limited by rapid renal clearance for soluble dyes and by the difficulty of delivery for hydrophobic dyes. We here report the use of the block copolymer directed self-assembly process, Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), to form series of highly hydrophobic optical dyes into stable, biocompatible, and water-dispersible nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes from 38 to 88 nm and with polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coatings suitable for in vivo use...
June 15, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A Faure, E Dicrocco, G Hery, R Boissier, L Bienvenu, S Thirakul, P Maffei, N Panait, G Karsenty, T Merrot, P Alessandrini, J-M Guys, E Lechevallier
INTRODUCTION: Despite many advances, the management of renal stones - especially lower caliceal stones (LCS) - remains a challenge. The gravity-dependent location of the lower calices hinders the spontaneous clearance of fragments, which can be a nidus for future growth and symptomatic recurrence. Currently, there is no standard adjunctive therapy to facilitate fragment passage. OBJECTIVES: To report the safety and effectiveness of mechanical percussion diuresis and inversion (PDI) therapy for eliminating renal stones in children...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Houshang Najafi, Seyed Mohammad Owji, Eskandar Kamali-Sarvestani, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi
What is the central question of this study? A1 -Adenosine receptor (A1 AR) blockade before renal ischaemia aggravated kidney injury after 24 h reperfusion in several studies, whereas we previously observed a renoprotective effect of A1 AR blockade during a 4 h reperfusion period. What are the underlying mechanisms for this biphasic effect of pretreatment with an A1 AR antagonist at 4 and 24 h reperfusion? What is main finding and its importance? A1 -Adenosine receptor blockade protects the kidney against ischaemia-induced injury during the early hours of reperfusion by attenuating the reduction in renal blood flow and lowering energy expenditure, whereas its inflammatory effects gradually dominate over 24 h reperfusion to intensify kidney injury...
July 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a critical role for the renin-angiotensin system in regulating renal function during postnatal development. However, the physiological relevance of a highly elevated renin-angiotensin system early in life is not well understood, nor which angiotensin receptors might be involved. This study was designed to investigate the roles of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) in regulating glomerular and tubular function during postnatal development...
2016: BMC Physiology
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: We included overweight (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35-75 years with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 48-75 mmol/mol; 6.5-9.0%) and estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2). Exenatide or placebo (NaCl solution, 154 mmol/l) was administrated intravenously in an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Diabetes Center VU University Medical Center (VUMC)...
July 2016: Diabetologia
Claudia Krieger-Grübel, Radu Tutuian, Jan Borovicka
BACKGROUND: Early relapse after treatment of achalasia occurs in 10-32 % of patients. The best method to follow up these patients is not known. Symptoms often do not correlate with esophageal clearance: some patients are oligosymptomatic despite persistent esophageal stasis/dilatation. AIM: The aim was to compare two methods of measurement of esophageal clearance (impedance manometry with barium swallow) in achalasia patients following treatment. Symptom assessment (Eckardt score/detailed dysphagia questions) was correlated with objective measurements of esophageal stasis (barium swallow and impedance manometry) in achalasia patients following treatment...
February 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Priyanka Tyagi, Amit Kumar, Dikshi Gupta, Harpal Singh
Deferoxamine iron chelator has a limited therapeutic index due to rapid clearance from blood and possesses dose-limiting toxicity. Therefore, an intravenous deferoxamine delivery system based on dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) polymer was developed and its efficacy and toxicity were tested in iron-overloaded animals. The amino groups of deferoxamine were conjugated to free aldehyde moieties of dialdehyde cellulose via Schiff base reaction to form dialdehyde cellulose-deferoxamine (DAC-DFO) conjugate and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction...
February 24, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Carlos G Musso, Waldo H Belloso, Richard J Glassock
The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability...
January 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
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