keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Free water clearance

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024278/why-do-sglt2-inhibitors-reduce-heart-failure-hospitalization-a-differential-volume-regulation-hypothesis
#1
REVIEW
K Melissa Hallow, Gabriel Helmlinger, Peter J Greasley, John J V McMurray, David W Boulton
The effect of a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) in reducing heart failure hospitalization in the EMPA-REG OUTCOMES trial has raised the possibility of using these agents to treat established heart failure. We hypothesize that osmotic diuresis induced by SGLT2 inhibition, a distinctly different diuretic mechanism than other diuretic classes, results in greater electrolyte-free water clearance, and ultimately in greater fluid clearance from the interstitial fluid (IF) space than from the circulation, potentially resulting in congestion relief with minimal impact on blood volume, arterial filling, and organ perfusion...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#2
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857279/self-perceived-mouthfeel-and-physico-chemical-surface-effects-after-chewing-gums-containing-sorbitol-and-magnolia-bark-extract
#3
Stefan W Wessel, Henny C van der Mei, Anje M Slomp, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Michael W J Dodds, Henk J Busscher
The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its effects on self-perceived mouthfeel are unknown. This paper aims to relate the effects of sorbitol-containing chewing gum, with and without Magnolia bark extract, on tooth-surface hydrophobicity and salivary-film composition with self-perceived mouthfeel...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815743/pathophysiology-of-nocturnal-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-older-patients-with-urinary-incontinence
#4
Marie-Astrid Denys, Veerle Decalf, Candy Kumps, Mirko Petrovic, An-Sofie Goessaert, Karel Everaert
OBJECTIVES: To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. METHODS: The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810844/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-handling-of-water-and-sodium-gfr-and-central-hemodynamics-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-during-inhibition-of-the-nitric-oxide-system-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#5
Safa Al Therwani, My Emma Sofie Malmberg, Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Jesper Noergaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min...
August 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777197/elabela-improves-cardio-renal-outcome-in-fatal-experimental-septic-shock
#6
David Coquerel, Frédéric Chagnon, Xavier Sainsily, Lauralyne Dumont, Alexandre Murza, Jérôme Côté, Robert Dumaine, Philippe Sarret, Éric Marsault, Dany Salvail, Mannix Auger-Messier, Olivier Lesur
OBJECTIVES: Apelin-13 was recently proposed as an alternative to the recommended β-adrenergic drugs for supporting endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. Since Apelin-13 signals through its receptor (Apelin peptide jejunum) to exert singular inotropic/vasotropic actions and to optimize body fluid balance, this candidate pathway might benefit septic shock management. Whether the newly discovered ELABELA (ELA), a second endogenous ligand of the Apelin peptide jejunum receptor highly expressed in the kidney, further improves cardio-renal impairment remains unknown...
November 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688582/net-k-secretion-in-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-mice-on-a-low-na-high-k-diet
#7
Bangchen Wang, Donghai Wen, Huaqing Li, Jun Wang-France, Steven C Sansom
Because of its cardio-protective effects, a low-Na, high-K diet (LNaHK) is often warranted in conjunction with diuretics to treat hypertensive patients. However, it is necessary to understand the renal handling of such diets in order to choose the best diuretic. Wild-type (WT) or Renal Outer Medullary K channel (ROMK) knockout mice (KO) were given a regular (CTRL), LNaHK, or high-K diet (HK) for 4-7 days. On LNaHK, mice treated with either IP furosemide for 12 hrs, or given furosemide in drinking water for 7 days, exhibited decreased K clearance...
October 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633516/synthesis-of-curcumin-glycosides-with-enhanced-anticancer-properties-using-one-pot-multienzyme-glycosylation-technique
#8
Rit Bahadur Gurung, So Youn Gong, Dipesh Dhakal, Tuoi Thi Le, Na Rae Jung, Hye Jin Jung, Tae Jin Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound, widely acclaimed for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancerous properties. However, its use has been limited due to its low-aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability, rapid clearance, and low cellular uptake. In order to assess the effect of glycosylation on the pharmacological properties of curcumin, one-pot multienzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic glycosylation reactions with UDP- α-D-glucose or UDP-α-D-2-deoxyglucose as donor substrate were employed...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540204/advanced-wasting-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#9
Zhi Xu, Glen H Murata, Robert H Glew, Yijuan Sun, Darlene Vigil, Karen S Servilla, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
AIM: To identify patients with end-stage renal disease treated by peritoneal dialysis (PD) who had zero body fat (BF) as determined by analysis of body composition using anthropometric formulas estimating body water (V) and to compare nutritional parameters between these patients and PD patients whose BF was above zero. METHODS: Body weight (W) consists of fat-free mass (FFM) and BF. Anthropometric formulas for calculating V allow the calculation of FFM as V/0.73, where 0...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507171/first-in-man-demonstration-of-direct-endothelin-mediated-natriuresis-and-diuresis
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Robert W Hunter, Rebecca Moorhouse, Tariq E Farrah, Iain M MacIntyre, Takae Asai, Peter J Gallacher, Debbie Kerr, Vanessa Melville, Alicja Czopek, Emma E Morrison, Jess R Ivy, James W Dear, Matthew A Bailey, Jane Goddard, David J Webb, Neeraj Dhaun
Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists are potentially novel therapeutic agents in chronic kidney disease and resistant hypertension, but their use is complicated by sodium and water retention. In animal studies, this side effect arises from ETB receptor blockade in the renal tubule. Previous attempts to determine whether this mechanism operates in humans have been confounded by the hemodynamic consequences of ET receptor stimulation/blockade. We aimed to determine the effects of ET signaling on salt transport in the human nephron by administering subpressor doses of the ET-1 precursor, big ET-1...
July 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490529/effect-of-sodium-nitrite-on-renal-function-and-sodium-and-water-excretion-and-brachial-and-central-blood-pressure-in-healthy-subjects-a-dose-response-study
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Safa Al Therwani, Janni Majgaard Jensen, Frank Holden Mose, Christine Wandall-Frostholm, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen, Jesper Noergaard Bech
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, 1.74, or 3.48 μmol NaNO2·kg(-1)·h(-1) for 2 h in 12 healthy subjects, after 4 days of a standard diet. Subjects were supine and water loaded. We measured brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (P-AVP), and plasma nitrite (P-[Formula: see text]), GFR by Cr-EDTA clearance, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) free water clearance (CH2O), and urinary excretion rate of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (U-cGMP)...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438697/predicting-drug-loading-in-pla-peg-nanoparticles
#12
M Meunier, A Goupil, P Lienard
Polymer nanoparticles present advantageous physical and biopharmaceutical properties as drug delivery systems compared to conventional liquid formulations. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are often hydrophobic, thus not soluble in conventional liquid delivery. Encapsulating the drugs in polymer nanoparticles can improve their pharmacological and bio-distribution properties, preventing rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Such nanoparticles are commonly made of non-toxic amphiphilic self-assembling block copolymers where the core (poly-[d,l-lactic acid] or PLA) serves as a reservoir for the API and the external part (Poly-(Ethylene-Glycol) or PEG) serves as a stealth corona to avoid capture by macrophage...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414302/increased-salt-consumption-induces-body-water-conservation-and-decreases-fluid-intake
#13
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
BACKGROUND: The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS: Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411157/the-separate-effects-of-lipids-and-proteins-on-brain-mri-contrast-revealed-through-tissue-clearing
#14
Christoph Leuze, Markus Aswendt, Emily Ferenczi, Corey W Liu, Brian Hsueh, Maged Goubran, Qiyuan Tian, Gary Steinberg, Michael M Zeineh, Karl Deisseroth, Jennifer A McNab
Despite the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, the relative contribution of different biological components (e.g. lipids and proteins) to structural MRI contrasts (e.g., T1, T2, T2*, proton density, diffusion) remains incompletely understood. This limitation can undermine the interpretation of clinical MRI and hinder the development of new contrast mechanisms. Here, we determine the respective contribution of lipids and proteins to MRI contrast by removing lipids and preserving proteins in mouse brains using CLARITY...
August 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352627/treatment-of-cirrhosis-associated-hyponatremia-with-midodrine-and-octreotide
#15
Sharad Patel, Dai-Scott Nguyen, Anjay Rastogi, Minh-Kevin Nguyen, Minhtri K Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia in the setting of cirrhosis is a common electrolyte disorder with few therapeutic options. The free water retention is due to non-osmotic vasopressin secretion resulting from the cirrhosis-associated splanchnic vasodilatation. Therefore, vasoconstrictive therapy may correct this electrolyte abnormality. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of midodrine and octreotide as a therapeutic approach to increasing urinary electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC) in the correction of cirrhosis-associated hyponatremia...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288570/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-water-and-sodium-excretion-and-blood-pressure-during-nitric-oxide-inhibition-a-dose-response-study-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Safa Al Therwani, Jeppe Bakkestrøm Rosenbæk, Frank Holden Mose, Jesper Nørgaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium and systemic hemodynamics, during baseline and NO-inhibition with L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine). METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, cross over study, 15 healthy subjects received tolvaptan 15, 30 and 45 mg or placebo...
March 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272337/impact-of-isotonic-beverage-on-the-hydration-status-of-healthy-chinese-adults-in-air-conditioned-environment
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Phei Ching Siow, Wei Shuan Kimberly Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W) or isotonic beverage (IB) on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h) in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h...
March 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247754/small-sized-mpeg-plga-nanoparticles-of-schisantherin-a-with-sustained-release-for-enhanced-brain-uptake-and-anti-parkinsonian-activity
#18
Tongkai Chen, Chuwen Li, Ye Li, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
Schisantherin A (SA) is a promising anti-Parkinsonism natural product. However, its poor water solubility and rapid serum clearance impose significant barriers to delivery of SA to the brain. This work aimed to develop SA in a nanoparticle formulation that extended SA circulation in the bloodstream and consequently an increased brain uptake and thus to be potentially efficacious for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Spherical SA nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 70 nm were prepared by encapsulating SA into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l)-lactic-co-glycolic acid (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (SA-NPs) with an encapsulation efficiency of ∼91% and drug loading of ∼28%...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195741/behavior-of-ppi-g2-dendrimer-in-a-microemulsion
#19
Shifra Rokach, Maria Francesca Ottaviani, Alexander I Shames, Abraham Aserin, Nissim Garti
Dendrimer nanostructures are of eminent interest in biomedical applications because of their uniform and well-defined molecular size and shape, and their ability to cross cell membranes and reduce the risk of premature clearance from the human body. Dendrimers perform as gene and drug carriers and have also shown significant therapeutic properties for treating cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A complex drug delivery system, based on a dendrimer solubilized in the aqueous core of a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion (ME) along with the drug may combine the advantages of both dendrimers and MEs to provide better control of drug release...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063291/glucogenic-treatment-creates-an-optimal-metabolic-milieu-for-the-conception-period-in-ewes
#20
C Porcu, V Pasciu, S Succu, E Baralla, M E Manca, E Serra, G G Leoni, M Dattena, G C Bomboi, G Molle, S Naitana, F Berlinguer
This study determined the influence of a short-term glucogenic nutritional treatment on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and urea, and on their correspondent levels in follicular fluid (FF) collected 12 h after the end of the treatment. After estrous synchronization with intravaginal progestagen-impregnated sponges, 20 Sarda ewes were randomly allocated into two experimental groups (GLU and WAT) and, from day 7 to day 10 (day 0 = day of sponge removal), the GLU group was gavaged with a glycogenic mixture, whereas the WAT group was gavaged with water (control group)...
December 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
keyword
keyword
89878
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"