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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243413/clinical-response-to-apatinib-monotherapy-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Jianping Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Sheng Yang, Xiangru Zhang, Yuankai Shi
AIM: Apatinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor mainly targeting VEGFR-2, exerts both antiangiogenesis and antiproliferation effects. Apatinib shows clinical benefit in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at an initial dose of 750 mg qd. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of apatinib at a more frequently used dose of 500 mg qd. The preliminary clinical outcome of apatinib in patients with brain metastases was also reported. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 25 patients who received apatinib between August 2015 and May 2016...
December 15, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237484/the-clinical-efficacy-of-afatinib-30%C3%A2-mg-daily-as-starting-dose-may-not-be-inferior-to-afatinib-40%C3%A2-mg-daily-in-patients-with-stage-iv-lung-adenocarcinoma-harboring-exon-19-or-exon-21-mutations
#2
Chih-Jen Yang, Ming-Ju Tsai, Jen-Yu Hung, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Ying-Ming Tsai, Yu-Chen Tsai, Jui-Feng Hsu, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Shyan Huang, Inn-Wen Chong
BACKGROUND: Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, afatinib has been shown to have better efficacy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations. However, 40 mg daily as the initial dose is often accompanied by serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and 28 to 53.3% of patients required a dose reduction. No previous study has compared the clinical efficacy and ADRs of different initial doses (40 mg vs...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234921/a-phase-ii-trial-of-ifosfamide-combination-with-recommended-supportive-therapy-for-recurrent-sclc-in-second-line-and-heavily-treated-setting
#3
Ichidai Tanaka, Kenji Kawada, Masahiro Morise, Tetsunari Hase, Hiroaki Hayashi, Akihiko Sokai, Asuki Fukatsu, Masashi Kondo, Fumio Nomura, Yoshinori Hasegawa
PURPOSE: The response rate of ifosfamide (IFM) monotherapy for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is reported as 42.4% in Japanese package insert. However, these efficacy data are based on clinical studies conducted in 1970s. This phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of IFM combination with recommended current supportive therapy for recurrent SCLC in second-line and heavily treated setting. METHODS: Recurrent SCLC patients pretreated with one to three prior regimens received IFM monotherapy (1...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230123/molecular-targets-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Ryan Griffin, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the United States among men and women, and it is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases. Historically, patients with metastatic NSCLC received similar cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. Genotyping studies have revealed genetic/molecular abnormalities in lung cancer. These driver mutations render a cancer dependent on that specific mutation's biochemical pathway for its growth and survival...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228636/the-efficacy-of-40-mg-versus-dose-de-escalation-to-less-than-40-mg-of-afatinib-giotrif-as-the-first-line-therapy-for-patients-with-primary-lung-adenocarcinoma-harboring-favorable-epidermal-growth-factor-mutations
#5
Chien-Ying Liu, Chih-Liang Wang, Shih-Hong Li, Ping-Chih Hsu, Chih-Hung Chen, Ting-Yu Lin, Chih-Hsi Kuo, Yueh-Fu Fang, How-Wen Ko, Chih-Teng Yu, Tai-Yun Yang, Cheng-Ta Yang
The choice of a first-line therapy for lung cancer is a crucial decision that can impact the survival as well as the quality of life of a patient. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as afatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib have previously been used to treat non-small cell lung cancer harboring favorable EGFR mutations. Although afatinib has greater efficacy than other EGFR inhibitors, adverse events related to its use can result in the discontinuation of the therapy. In this study, we compared the therapeutic efficacy in lung cancer patients of a regimen of 40 mg/day of afatinib with that of a lower dose regimen of <40 mg/day resulting either from a lower starting dose of 30 mg/day or dose adjustment...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228305/familial-cancer-clustering-in-urothelial-cancer-a-population-based-case-control-study
#6
Christopher Martin, Claire L Leiser, Brock O'Neil, Sumati Gupta, William T Lowrance, Wendy Kohlmann, Samantha Greenberg, Piyush Pathak, Ken R Smith, Heidi A Hanson
Background: Family history of bladder cancer confers an increased risk for concordant and discordant cancers in relatives. However, previous studies investigating this relationship lack any correction for smoking status of family members. We conducted a population-based study of cancer risks in relatives of bladder cancer patients and matched controls with exclusion of variant subtypes to improve the understanding of familial cancer clustering. Methods: Case subjects with urothelial carcinoma were identified using the Utah Cancer Registry and matched 1:5 to cancer-free controls from the Utah Population Database...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228249/autofluorescence-for-the-diagnosis-of-visceral-pleural-invasion-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Hiromitsu Takizawa, Kazuya Kondo, Naoya Kawakita, Mitsuhiro Tsuboi, Hiroaki Toba, Koichiro Kajiura, Yukikiyo Kawakami, Shoji Sakiyama, Akira Tangoku, Atsushi Morishita, Yasushi Nakagawa, Toshiyuki Hirose
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of autofluorescence as a mode of diagnosis for visceral pleural invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer compared with white-light by means of clinical questions to several thoracic surgeons. METHODS: Eight independent thoracic surgeons evaluated visceral pleural invasion in 25 cases of non-small-cell lung cancer attached to the visceral pleura on lung windows of preoperative computed tomography images...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227909/navigating-the-no-man-s-land-of-tki-failed-egfr-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Patrick Ma, Tony R Reid, Pedro Cabrales, Michelle Lybeck, Arnold Oronsky, Neil Oronsky, Corey A Carter
As the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, lung cancer is a worldwide health issue that is overwhelmingly caused by smoking. However, a substantial minority (~25%) of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has never smoked. In these patients, activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are more likely, which render their tumors susceptible for a finite period to treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and confer a better prognosis than EGFR wild-type NSCLC...
December 8, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227252/-mortality-and-morbidity-from-prostate-cancer-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan-from-2007-to-2016
#9
Е Ospanov, Т Adylkhanov, Sh Tokanova, Yu Semenova, М Dauletyarova, S Bolsynbekova, N Zhumykbaeva
Worldwide, prostate cancer is the second most common male malignancy after lung cancer. However, prostate cancer is less common for the Asian population. We performed statistical analysis of official data on newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer based on the annual reports of cancer hospitals in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period of 10 years (2007-2016). We observed an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer among the population of Kazakhstan for the period of 2007-2016, which may be due to the screening program, which started in 2013...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225480/role-of-afatinib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Tiziana Vavalà
Lung cancer treatment has considerably changed over the last few years: the identification of druggable oncogenic alterations and innovative immunotherapic approaches granted lung cancer patients the possibility of more efficient and less toxic therapeutic options than chemotherapy. Nowadays, lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) patients have the chance to benefit from novel treatment alternatives, including immune checkpoint blockade and anti-angiogenic agents and, given positive trial results, from afatinib, a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that irreversibly antagonizes ErbB family tyrosine kinase receptors...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225262/the-effectiveness-of-afatinib-in-a-patient-with-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma-harboring-rare-g719x-and-s768i-mutations
#11
Masahiro Watanabe, Satoshi Oizumi, Shizuka Kiuchi, Noriyuki Yamada, Hiroshi Yokouchi, Shinichi Fukumoto, Masao Harada
The uncommon mutations in the EGFR (the epithelial growth factor receptor) gene include a heterogeneous group of genomic alterations within exons 18-21. The clinical response of patients with such mutations to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment, however, remains unclear. We herein report a case of advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring complex exon 18 G719X (Gly719Xaa) and exon 20 S768I (Ser768Ile) mutations. The patient started to receive afatinib and has exhibited good response without progression for 12 months...
December 8, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223168/serious-gastric-perforation-after-second-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-peripheral-lung-cancer-that-recurred-after-initial-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-a-case-report
#12
Hotaka Nonaka, Hiroshi Onishi, Masatoki Ozaki, Kengo Kuriyama, Takafumi Komiyama, Ryo Saito
BACKGROUND: In recent reports, re-irradiation with stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors in patients previously treated with thoracic radiation therapy resulted in several serious toxicities. Serious non-lung toxicities were observed mostly in patients with central tumors, but we experienced a case of fatal gastric perforation after a second stereotactic body radiotherapy in a patient with a peripheral lung tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old Asian man was diagnosed with T2N0M0 lung cancer in the form of squamous cell carcinoma in the lower lobe of his left lung...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221308/how-to-manage-tumor-located-between-upper-division-and-lingular-segment-s3-s4-segmentectomy-and-s3b-s4-segmentectomy
#13
Shin-Ichi Yamashita, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Daisuke Hamatake, Takeshi Shiraishi, Katsunobu Kawahara, Akinori Iwasaki
Segmentectomy is one of the treatment of choice for small-sized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although simple segmentectomy is feasible even if under thoracoscopy, complicated segmentectomy which contains more than two segmental plane divisions is difficult especially thoracoscopic surgery. We here present the case of totally thoracoscopic segmentectomy between upper division and lingular segment. In the first case, the 64-year-old female patient admitted for further examination and treatment of left lung ground glass nodule...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220296/carcinosarcomas-and-related-cancers-tumors-caught-in-the-act-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#14
Angela Pang, Mariana Carbini, Andre L Moreira, Robert G Maki
In this review, we outline the biology and management of patients with carcinosarcomas and related malignancies, which are often included under the broader concept of sarcomatoid carcinomas. Carcinosarcomas are unusual tumors that are commonly gynecologic in origin, where they are referred to as malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, but may appear in any anatomic site. Although a variety of hypotheses have been presented as to the biphasic nature of these tumors, carcinosarcomas seem to represent the best example in human cancers of the concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which the two parts of the tumor are genomically related to one another, as opposed to the mesenchymal component that represents a second neoplasm or (benign) reactive process...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212784/an-oligoclonal-antibody-durably-overcomes-resistance-of-lung-cancer-to-third-generation-egfr-inhibitors
#15
Maicol Mancini, Hilah Gal, Nadège Gaborit, Luigi Mazzeo, Donatella Romaniello, Tomer Meir Salame, Moshit Lindzen, Georg Mahlknecht, Yehoshua Enuka, Dominick Ga Burton, Lee Roth, Ashish Noronha, Ilaria Marrocco, Dan Adreka, Raya Eilam Altstadter, Emilie Bousquet, Julian Downward, Antonio Maraver, Valery Krizhanovsky, Yosef Yarden
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations identify patients with lung cancer who derive benefit from kinase inhibitors. However, most patients eventually develop resistance, primarily due to the T790M second-site mutation. Irreversible inhibitors (e.g., osimertinib/AZD9291) inhibit T790M-EGFR, but several mechanisms, including a third-site mutation, C797S, confer renewed resistance. We previously reported that a triple mixture of monoclonal antibodies, 3×mAbs, simultaneously targeting EGFR, HER2, and HER3, inhibits T790M-expressing tumors...
December 6, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212524/successful-management-of-retinal-metastasis-from-renal-cancer-with-everolimus-in-a-monophthalmic-patient-a-case-report
#16
Ismail Essadi, Issam Lalya, Mohamed Kriet, Abdelhamid El Omrani, Rhizlane Belbaraka, Mouna Khouchani
BACKGROUND: The retina is an uncommon site for metastases, in particular from solid tumors. Some authors have reported a recent increase in the incidence of metastases in infrequent sites, such as brain or bone, probably due to the expanded treatment options and the resulting improved survival. Choroidal metastasis is the most common type of intraocular malignancy. The most common primary sites associated with choroidal metastasis are breast cancer in women and lung cancer in men. Treatment options are limited, but they must be discussed and adapted to the patient profile...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211297/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Hazem I Assi, Alice O Kamphorst, Nour M Moukalled, Suresh S Ramalingam
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of cancer has led to major changes to the therapeutic landscape of lung cancer. Improvements in overall survival relative to standard chemotherapy have been observed in the first-line and second-line therapy settings for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Consequently, every patient with advanced-stage NSCLC is now a candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. However, it is clear that the benefit from therapy is not universal, and identification of biomarkers to select therapy has assumed importance...
December 6, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209527/pembrolizumab-as-second-line-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-northern-norway-budget-impact-and-expected-gain-a-model-based-analysis
#18
Jan Norum, Margareth Aarag Antonsen, Terje Tollåli, Khalid Al-Shibli, Gry Andersen, Kristin Helene Svanqvist, Nina Helbekkmo
Background: Pembrolizumab is a new drug approved in several countries for second-line therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1) positive. This drug has a high cost, and the cost-effectiveness ratio has been debated. Patients and methods: The budget impact to the Northern Norwegian Regional Health Authority trust of implementing pembrolizumab in second-line therapy in patients with PD-L1-positive NSCLC was calculated...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207902/analgesics-promote-welfare-and-sustain-tumour-growth-in-orthotopic-4t1-and-b16-mouse-cancer-models
#19
Jennifer Lofgren, Amy L Miller, Claudia Chui Shan Lee, Carla Bradshaw, Paul Flecknell, Johnny Roughan
Murine orthotopic cancer models often require surgery, potentially causing pain or distress. However, analgesics are often withheld because they may alter tumour development. Two orthotopically implanted cancers were investigated in mice pre-treated with meloxicam (10 mg/kg), buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg). Tumours were imaged and welfare was assessed using body weight, behaviour and nociceptive responses. In study 1, BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma or saline during surgery or anaesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207685/excellent-response-to-chemotherapy-post-immunotherapy
#20
Ashish D Dwary, Samip Master, Abhishek Patel, Constance Cole, Richard Mansour, Glenn Mills, Nebu Koshy, Prakash Peddi, Gary Burton, Dalia Hammoud, Kavitha Beedupalli
Introduction: Immunotherapy in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. Newer monoclonal antibodies are coming up and are being tested in various cancers during different stages of treatment. With the increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the management of various types of cancers, the question is raised as to what next can be offered to a patient who has progressed on this newer treatment. Does Sequence matter? There have been reports of improved responses to chemotherapy after immunotherapy in the form of vaccines...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
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