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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441072/fatal-necrotizing-encephalopathy-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-for-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440919/efficacy-and-safety-of-cox-2-inhibitors-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-chemotherapy-a-meta-analysis
#2
Ping Dai, Jing Li, Xiao-Ping Ma, Jian Huang, Juan-Juan Meng, Ping Gong
Background: The study of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now mired in controversy. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety profile of COX-2 inhibitors in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central databases, and ClinicalTrials.gov, up until March 26, 2017, identified relevant randomized controlled trials. Data analysis was performed using Stata 12...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439651/serum-and-blood-based-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review
#3
Gavin C W Chu, Kim Lazare, Frank Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. Although low-dose CT (LDCT) is recommended for lung cancer screening in high-risk populations and may decrease lung cancer mortality, there is a need to improve the accuracy of lung cancer screening to decrease over-diagnosis and morbidity. Blood and serum-based biomarkers, including EarlyCDT-lung and microRNA based biomarkers, are promising adjuncts to LDCT in lung cancer screening...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437466/gene-promoter-hypermethylation-detected-in-sputum-predicts-fev1-decline-and-all-cause-mortality-in-smokers
#4
Shuguang Leng, Brenda Diergaarde, Maria A Picchi, David O Wilson, Frank D Gilliland, Jian-Min Yuan, Jill M Siegfried, Steven A Belinsky
RATIONALE: Gene promoter hypermethylation detected in sputum assesses the extent of field cancerization and predicts lung cancer (LC) risk in ever smokers. A rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is a major driver for development of airway obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylation of 12 genes on FEV1 decline and of FEV1 decline on subsequent LC incidence using two independent, longitudinal cohorts (i.e., Lovelace Smokers cohort [LSC] and Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study [PLuSS])...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436187/efficacy-of-pemetrexed-based-chemotherapy-in-comparison-to-non-pemetrexed-based-chemotherapy-in-advanced-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Jaemin Jo, Se Hyun Kim, Yu Jung Kim, Juhyun Lee, Miso Kim, Bhumsuk Keam, Tae Min Kim, Dong Wan Kim, Dae Seog Heo, Jin Haeng Chung, Yoon Kyung Jeon, Jong Seok Lee
PURPOSE: Previous retrospective studies suggest that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are sensitive to pemetrexed. To determine its efficacy, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in patients with ALK+ NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 126 patients with advanced, ALK+ NSCLC who received first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy. We compared response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates according to chemotherapy regimens...
March 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434143/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-treatment-with-nab-paclitaxel-and-carboplatin-for-patients-with-advanced-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-concurrent-with-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias
#6
Tetsuo Fujita, Takuma Hiroishi, Kohei Shikano, Asako Yanagisawa, Noriko Hayama, Hiroyuki Amano, Makoto Nakamura, Satoshi Hirano, Hiroshi Tabeta, Sukeyuki Nakamura
Background Although lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for 20%-30% of lung cancer cases, new treatment options are limited. The CA031 study showed that nanoparticle albumin-bound-paclitaxel (nab-PTX) plus carboplatin produced a significantly higher overall response rate (41%) than solvent-based paclitaxel plus carboplatin in patients with lung SCC. However, the safety and efficacy of combination chemotherapy of nab-PTX and carboplatin has not yet been established for patients with concurrent lung SCC and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs)...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432918/exploration-of-the-platelet-proteome-in-patients-with-early-stage-cancer
#7
Siamack Sabrkhany, Marijke J E Kuijpers, Jaco C Knol, Steven W M Olde Damink, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Henk M Verheul, Sander R Piersma, Thang V Pham, Arjan W Griffioen, Mirjam G A Oude Egbrink, Connie R Jimenez
Platelets play an important role in tumor growth and, at the same time, platelet characteristics are affected by cancer presence. Therefore, we investigated whether the platelet proteome harbors differentially expressed proteins associated with early-stage cancer. For this proof-of-concept study, patients with early-stage lung (n = 8) or head of pancreas cancer (n = 4) were included, as were healthy sex- and age-matched controls for both subgroups. Blood samples were collected from controls and from patients before surgery...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429153/cancer-prevention-with-green-tea-and-its-principal-constituent-egcg-from-early-investigations-to-current-focus-on-human-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Hirota Fujiki, Tatsuro Watanabe, Eisaburo Sueoka, Anchalee Rawangkan, Masami Suganuma
Cancer preventive activities of green tea and its main constituent, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been extensively studied by scientists all over the world. Since 1983, we have studied the cancer chemopreventive effects of EGCG as well as green tea extract and underlying molecular mechanisms. The first part of this review summarizes groundbreaking topics with EGCG and green tea extract: 1) Delayed cancer onset as revealed by a 10-year prospective cohort study, 2) Prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence by a double-blind randomized clinical phase II trial, 3) Inhibition of metastasis of B16 melanoma cells to the lungs of mice, 4) Increase in the average value of Young's moduli, i...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423555/second-malignancies-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Ivetta Danylesko, Avichai Shimoni
Second malignancies are a rare but well-defined late complication after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Solid malignancies occur in up to 15% of patients 15 years after SCT with myeloablative conditioning, with no plateau in the incidence rates. They are responsible for 5-10% of late deaths after SCT. The incidence is increased with advanced age at SCT. The major risk factors are the use of total body irradiation, which is associated with adenocarcinomas and with chronic graft-versus-host disease which is associated with squamous cell cancers...
February 8, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423106/the-vascular-disrupting-agent-combretastatin-a-4-phosphate-causes-prolonged-elevation-of-proteins-involved-in-heme-flux-and-function-in-resistant-tumor-cells
#10
Sanchareeka Dey, Sharda Kumari, Sarada Preeta Kalainayakan, James Campbell, Poorva Ghosh, Heling Zhou, Keely E FitzGerald, Maoping Li, Ralph P Mason, Li Zhang, Li Liu
Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) represent a promising class of anti-cancer drugs for solid tumor treatment. Here, we aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying tumor reccurrence and treatment resistance following the administration of a VDA, combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P). Firstly, we used photoacoustic tomography to noninvasively map the effect of CA4P on blood oxygen levels throughout subcutaneous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors in mice. We found that the oxygenation of peripheral tumor vessels was significantly decreased at 1 and 3 hours post-CA4P treatment...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423041/individual-and-combined-effect-of-tp53-mdm2-mdm4-mthfr-ccr5-and-casp8-gene-polymorphisms-in-lung-cancer
#11
Ausra Stumbryte, Zivile Gudleviciene, Gabrielis Kundrotas, Daiva Dabkeviciene, Agne Kunickaite, Saulius Cicenas
Lung cancer (LC) is the second common and with the highest mortality oncological disease. Specific biomarkers for its diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis are still under the investigations. Aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the polymorphisms of TP53 pathway genes TP53, MDM2, MDM4, the polymorphisms of HPV-associated genes MTHFR, CASP8, CCR5, and HPV infection with survival of LC patients. SNPs were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. qRT-PCR was used to detect, identify, and quantify HPV. No statistically significant differences were detected between individual SNPs and patient survival with stage I-IV LC...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421609/colorectal-cancer-lung-metastasis-treatment-with-polymer-drug-nanoparticles
#12
Piotr Rychahou, Younsoo Bae, Derek Reichel, Yekaterina Y Zaytseva, Eun Y Lee, Dana Napier, Heidi L Weiss, Nick Roller, Heather Frohman, Anh-Thu Le, B Mark Evers
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States; the predominant cause for mortality is metastasis to distant organs (e.g., lung). A major problem limiting the success of chemotherapy in metastatic CRC is the inability to target tumor tissues selectively and avoid severe side effects to normal tissues and organs. Here, we demonstrate polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) entrapping chemotherapeutic agents provide a new therapeutic option for treating CRC that has metastasized to the lung...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416630/prognostic-value-of-quantitative-ctdna-levels-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#13
Mariano Provencio, María Torrente, Virginia Calvo, David Pérez-Callejo, Lourdes Gutiérrez, Fernando Franco, Clara Pérez-Barrios, Miguel Barquín, Ana Royuela, Francisco García-García, Coralia Bueno, Aranzazu Garcia-Grande, Carlos Camps, Bartomeu Massuti, Eduardo Sotomayor, Atocha Romero
Background: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels correlate well with tumor bulk. In this paper we aim to estimate the prognostic value of the dynamic quantification of ctDNA levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 serial plasma samples from 41 non-small-cell lung cancer patients who carried an activating EGFR mutation were analysed by digital PCR. For survival analysis, ctDNA levels were computed as a time-dependent covariate. Results: Dynamic ctDNA measurements had prognostic significance (hazard ratio for overall survival and progression free survival according to p...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413046/alk-fusion-variants-detection-by-targeted-rna-next-generation-sequencing-and-clinical-responses-to-crizotinib-in-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Anne McLeer-Florin, Michael Duruisseaux, Julian Pinsolle, Sylvian Dubourd, Julie Mondet, Mathilde Phillips Houlbracq, Nelly Magnat, Julien Fauré, Amandine Chatagnon, Florence de Fraipont, Matteo Giaj Levra, Anne-Claire Toffart, Gilbert Ferretti, Pierre Hainaut, Elisabeth Brambilla, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Sylvie Lantuejoul
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was firstly to assess in a clinical setting the yields of an amplicon-based parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assay for ALK fusion transcript variants detection in comparison with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) in a selected population of ALK-positive and ALK-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, and secondly to evaluate the impact of the ALK variant on crizotinib efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cohort used for the assessment of the RNA-seq assay comprised 53 samples initially diagnosed as being ALK-positive based on the results obtained by IHC and/or FISH, and 23 ALK-negative samples...
February 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411536/use-of-the-22c3-anti-programmed-death-ligand-1-antibody-to-determine-programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-in-cytology-samples-obtained-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#15
Marius Ilie, Jonathan Juco, Lingkang Huang, Veronique Hofman, Shirin Khambata-Ford, Paul Hofman
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab monotherapy is a standard-of-care treatment for the first- and second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) values ≥ 50% and ≥ 1%, respectively. PD-L1 testing with the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 22C3 pharmDx companion assay has been validated on tumor tissue with the Dako Autostainer Link 48 (ASL48). 22C3 anti-PD-L1 antibody-based laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) compatible with other autostainers and cytology samples are essential to support pembrolizumab treatment decisions across institutions globally...
February 7, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409038/second-primary-cancer-in-survivors-of-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-concurrent-chemoradiation-followed-by-surgery
#16
Go Makimoto, Toshio Kubo, Isao Oze, Kadoaki Ohashi, Katsuyuki Hotta, Masahiro Tabata, Junichi Soh, Shinichi Toyooka, Kuniaki Katsui, Nagio Takigawa, Mitsune Tanimoto, Katsuyuki Kiura
The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but surgical resection following induction CRT can extend overall survival in a select population. However, patients who survive longer are at risk of developing a second primary cancer (SPC). This is the first report to determine the incidence of SPC in survivors with LA-NSCLC after trimodal therapy. Between October 1997 and October 2013, 112 Stage III NSCLC patients underwent trimodal therapy in our hospital...
February 2, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408789/automatic-calcium-scoring-in-low-dose-chest-ct-using-deep-neural-networks-with-dilated-convolutions
#17
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404164/treatment-after-first-generation-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Seher Nazlı Kazaz, İlhan Öztop
Systemic treatment is the basic treatment approach to advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and chemotherapy and targeted treatments are commonly employed in these patients. Recently, positive results achieved with immunotherapy have led to a growing number of treatment options and prolonged survival time. Today, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the TKI crizotinib, which targets anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement, have become the standard treatment among targeted therapies for patients with sensitive molecular anomalies...
July 2017: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403496/recent-advances-in-targeting-cd8-t-cell-immunity-for-more-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Aurélie Durgeau, Yasemin Virk, Stéphanie Corgnac, Fathia Mami-Chouaib
Recent advances in cancer treatment have emerged from new immunotherapies targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed cell death (PD)-1. In this context, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated survival benefits in numerous cancers, including melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. PD-1-expressing CD8+ T lymphocytes appear to play a major role in the response to these immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) eliminate malignant cells through recognition by the T-cell receptor (TCR) of specific antigenic peptides presented on the surface of cancer cells by major histocompatibility complex class I/beta-2-microglobulin complexes, and through killing of target cells, mainly by releasing the content of secretory lysosomes containing perforin and granzyme B...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403311/radiation-induced-secondary-malignancies-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-pilot-study-of-patients-treated-via-imrt-or-vmat
#20
Hsiao-Fei Lee, Jen-Hong Lan, Pei-Ju Chao, Hui-Min Ting, Hui-Chun Chen, Hsuan-Chih Hsu, Tsair-Fwu Lee
Background: Patients treated with radiotherapy are at risk of developing a second cancer during their lifetime, which can directly impact treatment decision-making and patient management. The aim of this study was to qualify and compare the secondary cancer risk (SCR) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Patients and methods: We analyzed the treatment plans of a cohort of 10 NPC patients originally treated with IMRT or VMAT...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
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