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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908410/elevated-serum-mda-and-depleted-non-enzymatic-antioxidants-macro-minerals-and-trace-elements-are-associated-with-bipolar-disorder
#2
Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Maimuna Hasan, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Md Shahid Sarwar, Mohammad Nurul Amin, S M Naim Uddin, Md Zahedur Rahaman, Sujan Banik, Md Saddam Hussain, Kazushige Yokota, Abul Hasnat
Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of mood and mental disorders. However, over the past few years, increased levels of serum malondialdehyde and altered levels of various non-enzymatic antioxidants and essential minerals involved in abnormal functional activity have been identified as major contributing factors to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the serum lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C), macro-minerals (calcium, potassium and sodium) and trace elements (zinc, iron and selenium) in patients with bipolar disorder and to explore their role in disease progression...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906749/sodium-and-potassium-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension-focus-on-the-brain
#3
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary hypertension is characterized by Na excess and K deficit in the body, which together are key to its pathogenesis. These derangements work jointly in the brain and the peripheral vascular wall to establish hypertension. In this review, we highlight recent evidence describing the central mechanisms through which Na surfeit and K deficit enhance sympathetic nerve activity, thereby raising peripheral vascular resistance and generating hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies point to a small increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Na], a small decrease in CSF [K], and increased levels of circulating angiotensin II, aldosterone, and endogenous ouabain as the central signals evoking hypertension...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903231/new-analogues-of-mycophenolic-acid
#4
Agnieszka Głowacka, Michal Prejs, Grzegorz Cholewinski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) possesses antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunosuppressive and anticancer properties. It is a non-competitive and reversible inhibitor of dehydrogenase inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMPDH) [1,2]. This compound belongs to the immunosuppressive drugs used for the prevention of both acute and chronic transplant rejection [3]. Until now clinically have been used two derivatives of MPA: mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, CellCept) and mycophenolate sodium (MPS, Myfortic). They cause, similar to MPA, although at lower degree, the side effects such as vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, gastrointestinal, urogenital tract, blood or nervous system disorders...
November 29, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#5
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888687/accurate-quantitation-of-choline-and-ethanolamine-plasmalogen-molecular-species-in-human-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Yurika Otoki, Shunji Kato, Fumiko Kimura, Katsutoshi Furukawa, Shinji Yamashita, Hiroyuki Arai, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Concentration of both choline plasmalogen (PC-Pls) and ethanolamine Pls (PE-Pls) in human plasma/serum has been getting attention to, since certain patients including those with neurodegenerative disorders, have been reported to exhibit reduced levels of specific Pls species. However, despite using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), accurate quantitation of Pls is still difficult because of less product ion from PC-Pls and quantitative issues (e.g., extraction recoveries and matrix effects)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883989/recombinant-anthrax-protective-antigen-observation-of-aggregation-phenomena-by-tem-reveals-specific-effects-of-sterols
#7
J Robin Harris, Andrei Soliakov, Allan Watkinson, Jeremy H Lakey
Negatively stained transmission electron microscope images are presented that depict the aggregation of recombinant anthrax protective antigen (rPA83 monomer and the PA63 prepore oligomer) under varying in vitro biochemical conditions. Heat treatment (50°C) of rPA83 produced clumped fibrils, but following heating the PA63 prepore formed disordered aggregates. Freeze-thaw treatment of the PA63 prepore generated linear flexuous aggregates of the heptameric oligomers. Aqueous suspensions of cholesterol microcrystals were shown to bind small rPA83 aggregates at the edges of the planar bilayers...
November 15, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883916/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-learning-memory-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-a-novel-mechanism-mediated-by-the-activation-of-nrf2
#8
Yuangui Liu, Yuanyuan Deng, Huiyu Liu, Caixia Yin, Xiaohui Li, Qihai Gong
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a cytoprotectant, which improves learning memory impairment and exerts antioxidant effects in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. The experiment was projected to explore the effects of H2S on cognitive deficits, Aβ levels and possible antioxidant mechanisms. Here, APP/PS1 transgenic mice were injected sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor, 2...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881118/electrolyte-disorders-and-aging-risk-factors-for-delirium-in-patients-undergoing-orthopedic-surgeries
#9
Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Juan Xu, Xian-Jiao Wei, Hao-Teng Chang, Guo-Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: At present, the exact mechanism of postoperative delirium has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries and to explore possible related factors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. We used 582 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery between January 2011 and December 2014. The surgeries consisted of 155 cases of internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture (IFIF), 128 cases of femoral head replacement (FHR), 169 cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 130 cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
November 23, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876598/antithrombotic-activity-of-batroxase-a-metalloprotease-from-bothrops-atrox-venom-in-a-model-of-venous-thrombosis
#10
Anna L Jacob-Ferreira, Danilo L Menaldo, Marco A Sartim, Thalita B Riul, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Suely V Sampaio
BACKGROUND: Snake venoms are great sources of bioactive molecules, which may be used as models for new drugs. Toxins that interfere in hemostasis have received considerable attention over the years. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at the evaluation of the antithrombotic activity of Batroxase, a P-I metalloprotease from Bothrops atrox venom, in an animal model of venous thrombosis. METHODS: The antithrombotic activity of Batroxase was tested in vivo in a model based on two factors of the Virchow's Triad: blood flow alterations (partial stenosis of the inferior vena cava), and vessel wall injury (10% ferric chloride for 5min), in comparison with sodium heparin (positive control) and saline (negative control)...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875951/effect-of-supraphysiological-doses-of-nandrolone-decanoate-upon-aldosterone-concentration-and-serum-na-k-levels-in-albino-mice
#11
Parmita Chowdhury, Rita Mahanta
BACKGROUND: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Nandrolone Decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of nandrolone decanoate when consumed at an abused dose, upon serum aldosterone concentration in albino mice...
November 21, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871223/patients-with-hfpef-and-hfref-have-different-clinical-characteristics-but-similar-prognosis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Tamrat Befekadu Abebe, Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Yonas Getaye Tefera, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz
BACKGROUND: Globally, heart failure (HF) has been recognized as one of the major cardiovascular disorder with high morbidity, mortality and considerable social impact. In Sub Saharan African countries, HF has turned out as a leading form of cardiovascular diseases, and has considerable socioeconomic impact. However, there are differences in clinical characteristics and survival status among patients with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction. The aim of this study is to outline the clinical characteristics and medication profile, assess the survival status and prognostic factors of Ethiopian HF patients with HFrEF and HFpEF...
November 21, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869282/adsorption-and-desorption-behavior-of-ionic-and-nonionic-surfactants-on-polymer-surfaces
#13
Giulia Magi Meconi, Nicholas Ballard, José M Asua, Ronen Zangi
We report combined experimental and computational studies aiming to elucidate the adsorption properties of ionic and nonionic surfactants on hydrophobic polymer surface such as poly(styrene). To represent these two types of surfactants, we choose sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene) block copolymers, both commonly utilized in emulsion polymerization. By applying quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring we find that the non-ionic surfactants are desorbed from the poly(styrene) surface slower, and at low surfactant concentrations they adsorb with stronger energy, than the ionic surfactant...
November 21, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867157/effects-of-salt-loading-on-plasma-osteoprotegerin-levels-and-protective-role-of-potassium-supplement-in-normotensive-subjects
#14
Fu-Qiang Liu, Sheng-Qiang Liu, Yong Zhang, Yang Wang, Chao Chu, Dan Wang, Shuo Pan, Jun-Kui Wang, Qi Yu, Jian-Jun Mu
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects on cardiovascular disorders. In epidemiological studies, increased plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis and vascular deaths. Our study was designed to examine the effects of salt intake and potassium supplementation on plasma OPG levels in normotensive subjects.Methods and Results:The 18 normotensive subjects were selected from a rural community in China...
November 19, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864708/thyroid-dysfunction-and-kidney-disease-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Pedro Iglesias, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Rafael Selgas, Juan José Díez
Thyroid hormones influence renal development, kidney hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate and sodium and water homeostasis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect renal function by direct renal effects as well as systemic hemodynamic, metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased serum creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate. The reverse effects have been reported in thyrotoxicosis. Most of renal manifestations of thyroid dysfunction are reversible with treatment...
November 18, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#16
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#17
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848996/development-and-characterization-of-lecithin-based-self-assembling-mixed-polymeric-micellar-sampms-drug-delivery-systems-for-curcumin
#18
Ling-Chun Chen, Yin-Chen Chen, Chia-Yu Su, Wan-Ping Wong, Ming-Thau Sheu, Hsiu-O Ho
Self-assembling mixed polymeric micelles (saMPMs) were developed for overcoming major obstacles of poor bioavailability (BA) associated with curcumin delivery. Lecithin added was functioned to enlarge the hydrophobic core of MPMs providing greater solubilization capacity. Amphiphilic polymers (sodium deoxycholate [NaDOC], TPGS, CREMOPHOR, or a PLURONIC series) were examined for potentially self-assembling to form MPMs (saMPMs) with the addition of lecithin. Particle size, size distribution, encapsulation efficacy (E...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847525/hydroalcoholic-extract-from-inflorescences-of-achyrocline-satureioides-compositae-ameliorates-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-attenuation-in-the-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-mediators
#19
Luisa Mota da Silva, Jaime Antonio Machado Farias, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Ana Paula Beber, Benhur Judah Cury, José Roberto Santin, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used to treat inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. This study evaluated intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of inflorescences of satureioides (HEAS) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. Mice were orally treated with vehicle, 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg), or HEAS (1-100 mg/kg). Clinical signs of colitis and colonic histopathological parameters were evaluated, along with the determination of levels of reduced glutathione and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colon...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844061/lithium-responsive-seizure-like-hyperexcitability-is-caused-by-a-mutation-in-the-drosophila-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-paralytic
#20
Garrett A Kaas, Junko Kasuya, Patrick Lansdon, Atsushi Ueda, Atulya Iyengar, Chun-Fang Wu, Toshihiro Kitamoto
Shudderer (Shu) is an X-linked dominant mutation in Drosophila melanogaster identified more than 40 years ago. A previous study showed that Shu caused spontaneous tremors and defects in reactive climbing behavior, and that these phenotypes were significantly suppressed when mutants were fed food containing lithium, a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Williamson, 1982). This unique observation suggested that the Shu mutation affects genes involved in lithium-responsive neurobiological processes...
September 2016: ENeuro
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