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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641949/reduced-protein-expressions-of-cytomembrane-gabaar%C3%AE-3-at-different-postnatal-developmental-stages-of-rats-exposed-prenatally-to-valproic-acid
#1
Yixin Li, Yang Zhou, Li Peng, Yong Zhao
Decreased inhibition plays an extremely important role in pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, we aimed to determine whether expression levels of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor β3 subunit (GABAARβ3), K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2), and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) related to inhibition transmission are changed in a sodium valproate-induced rat model of ASD. Decreased expression levels of membrane GABAARβ3 (m-GABAARβ3) and KCC2 as well as increased endocytosis of GABAARs were found in the model group...
June 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635121/exposure-to-sodium-valproate-during-pregnancy-facial-features-and-signs-of-autism
#2
Rachel Stadelmaier, Hanah Nasri, Curtis K Deutsch, Margaret Bauman, Anne Hunt, Christopher J Stodgell, Jane Adams, Lewis B Holmes
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is the most teratogenic anticonvulsant drug in clinical use today. Children exposed prenatally to VPA have previously been shown to have dysmorphic craniofacial features, identified subjectively but not by anthropometric methods. Exposure to VPA has also been associated with an increased frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An increased cephalic index (the ratio of the cranial lateral width to the cranial anterior-posterior length) has been observed in children with ASD...
June 21, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630618/perinatal-effects-of-scorpion-venoms-maternal-and-offspring-development
#3
REVIEW
Ana Leticia Coronado Dorce, Adriana do Nascimento Martins, Valquiria Abrão Coronado Dorce, Ana Leonor Abrahão Nencioni
Scorpion envenomation is a public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Considering the high incidence of scorpionism in some areas, pregnant women and nursing mothers may be possible victims. Scorpion stings alter the release of neurotransmitters and some cytokines. These mediators act as organizers and programmers in the adequate formation of the nerves, and non-physiological concentrations of them during the brain organization originate disorders and diseases that can appear later in the life of the individual...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626634/an-unusual-late-onset-of-pulmonary-alveolar-microlithiasis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Alexandros Stamatopoulos, Davide Patrini, Sofoklis Mitsos, Reena Khiroya, Elaine Borg, Martin Hayward, David Lawrence, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with alveolar cell injury. This injury is caused in most cases by inactivating mutations in SLC34A2 gene, which is responsible for the production of a sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter. The dysfunction or deficiency of this transporter leads to the aggregation of local phosphate intra-alveolarly and formation of microliths. Most of the patients are asymptomatic at the time of the diagnosis but as the disease progress it leads to fatal respiratory or cardiac failure...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622482/antidiabetic-properties-of-an-apple-kale-extract-in-vitro-in-situ-and-in-mice-fed-a-western-type-diet
#5
Anke Schloesser, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Gerhard Schultheiß, Henning Vollert, Kai Lüersen, Alexandra Fischer, Gerald Rimbach
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common and increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder, and effective preventive strategies against this disease are needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic properties of a dietary apple/kale extract (AKE), which was rich in phlorizin and flavonoids, in laboratory mice. Mice were fed a control diet, a Western-type high-sugar, high-fat diet (WTD), or a WTD plus AKE for 10 weeks. Body weight, food and energy intake, body composition, and blood glucose level were recorded in addition to the postprandial rise in blood glucose concentration after a single administration of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621445/nutritional-and-functional-bioactivity-value-of-selected-azorean-macroalgae-ulva-compressa-ulva-rigida-gelidium-microdon-and-pterocladiella-capillacea
#6
Lisete Paiva, Elisabete Lima, Ana Isabel Neto, Massimo Marcone, José Baptista
This study presents information on the biochemical composition (dry weight basis), nutritional aspects, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of selected macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea) from Azores. Moisture content was very high (83.2% to 90.0% of fresh weight). Total dietary fiber (33.7% to 41.0%) that presented a good balance of both soluble and insoluble fibers (15.5% to 19.2% and 18.2% to 21.8%, respectively) was the most abundant component in these macroalgae...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619175/sodium-oxybate-treatment-in-narcolepsy-and-its-effect-on-muscle-tone
#7
Geert Mayer, Andrea Rodenbeck, Karl Kesper
AIMS: To estimate the effect of the compound sodium oxybate (SO) on chin muscle tone in sleep, a re-analysis of the results of the international multicenter study SXB-15 was performed, applying a validated semi-automatic analysis of muscle tone. This analysis distinguishes short (<0.5 s) and long (>0.5 s) muscle activity indices per hour (SMI, LMI) in 116 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. While stable stimulant medication was permitted, tricyclics and SSRIs were withdrawn. Polysomnographies were performed at baseline (V5), four weeks after titration of SO to 4...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611211/metabolic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-dapagliflozin-and-liraglutide-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Tony Bjourson, Maurice O'Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
This study assessed the metabolic and neuroprotective actions of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in combination with the GLP-1 agonist liraglutide in dietary-induced diabetic mice. Mice administered low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) on a high fat diet received dapagliflozin, liraglutide, dapagliflozin-plus-liraglutide (DAPA-Lira) or vehicle once-daily over 28 days. Energy intake, body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at regular intervals. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, hormone and biochemical analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry, novel object recognition, islet and brain histology were examined...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610743/valproate-and-sodium-butyrate-attenuate-manganese-decreased-locomotor-activity-and-astrocytic-glutamate-transporters-expression-in-mice
#9
James Johnson, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Equar Taka, Romonia Reams, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Lee
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, but chronic overexposure to this metal, either environmentally or occupationally may cause manganism, a disease analogous to Parkinson's disease. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases, such as valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) exert neuroprotective effects in various animal models of neurological disorders. Thus, the present study investigated whether VPA or NaB prevent Mn-induced neurotoxicity by assessing locomotor activities and expression of astrocytic glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST), in C57BL/6 mice...
June 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607094/pharmacology-of-the-nav1-1-domain-iv-voltage-sensor-reveals-coupling-between-inactivation-gating-processes
#10
Jeremiah D Osteen, Kevin Sampson, Vivek Iyer, David Julius, Frank Bosmans
The Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel is a critical contributor to excitability in the brain, where pathological loss of function leads to such disorders as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism. This voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subtype also plays an important role in mechanical pain signaling by primary afferent somatosensory neurons. Therefore, pharmacologic modulation of Nav1.1 represents a potential strategy for treating excitability disorders of the brain and periphery. Inactivation is a complex aspect of Nav channel gating and consists of fast and slow components, each of which may involve a contribution from one or more voltage-sensing domains...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606628/hippocampal-and-cerebellar-histological-changes-and-their-behavioural-repercussions-caused-by-brain-ischaemic-hypoxia-experimentally-induced-by-sodium-nitrite
#11
Mara Cláudia Ribeiro, Thiago Dos Santos Bezerra, Aluízio Carlos Soares, Raphael Boechat-Ramos, Fabiana Pirani Carneiro, Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna, Lilian Rosana Ferreira Faro, Mônica Valero da Silva, Matheus Papa Vieira, Isabelle de Oliveira Monteiro, Vania Moraes Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Brain ischaemic hypoxia can produce severe neurological damage that leads to behavioural disorders. This research analysed the hippocampal and cerebellar histological alterations caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and possible direct repercussions of this hypoxia on behaviour. METHODOLOGY: An experimental study was carried out by administering 60mg/kg NaNO2 to 10 Wistar rats at 3 months of age for 15 consecutive days...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604246/is-portomesenteric-vein-thrombosis-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-related-to-short-course-prophylaxis-of-thromboembolism-a-monocentric-retrospective-analysis-about-an-infrequent-but-not-rare-complication-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Francesco Caruso, Giovanni Cesana, Laura Lomaglio, Stefano Cioffi, Francesca Ciccarese, Matteo Uccelli, Stefano Olmi
BACKGROUND: Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) is considered a rare and potentially fatal complication of bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most performed bariatric procedures in the world. PMVT in LSG was first reported in 2009 by Berthet et al. in a thrombophilic patient. No data exist regarding the real prevalence of this complication specifically after LSG. METHODS: We examined retrospectively all the clinical records of patients who underwent LSG for morbid obesity from January 2011 to December 2016...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593901/pseudohypoaldosteronism-types-i-and-ii-little-more-than-a-name-in-common
#13
Dídac Casas-Alba, Jordi Vila Cots, Laura Monfort Carretero, Loreto Martorell Sampol, Maria-Christina Zennaro, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Juan Antonio Camacho Díaz
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) comprises a diverse group of rare diseases characterized by sodium and potassium imbalances incorrectly attributed to a defect in aldosterone production. Two different forms of PHA have been described, type I (PHAI) and type II (PHAII). PHAI has been subclassified into renal and systemic. Given the rarity and heterogeneity of this group of disorders we report three patients who carry PHA and a brief revision of current literature focused on the comparative analysis of PHAI and PHAII...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589973/the-effect-of-a-membrane-mimicking-environment-on-the-interactions-of-cu-2-with-an-amyloidogenic-fragment-of-chicken-prion-protein
#14
Aleksandra Hecel, Sara Draghi, Daniela Valensin, Henryk Kozlowski
Prion proteins (PrP) from different species have the ability to tightly bind Cu(2+) ions. Copper coordination sites are located in the disordered and flexible N-terminal region which contains several His anchoring sites. Among them, two His residues are found in the so called amyloidogenic PrP region which is believed to play a key role in the process leading to oligomer and fibril formation. Both chicken and human amyloidogenic regions have a hydrophobic C-terminal region rich in Ala and Val amino acids. Recent findings revealed that this domain undergoes random coil to α-helix structuring upon interaction with membrane models...
June 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589518/forty-years-of-sodium-channels-structure-function-pharmacology-and-epilepsy
#15
William A Catterall
Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons. In the 1970s, much was known about the function of sodium channels from measurements of ionic currents using the voltage clamp method, but there was no information about the sodium channel molecules themselves. As a postdoctoral fellow and staff scientist at the National Institutes of Health, I developed neurotoxins as molecular probes of sodium channels in cultured neuroblastoma cells. During those years, Bruce Ransom and I crossed paths as members of the laboratories of Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Nelson and shared insights about sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells from my work and electrical excitability and synaptic transmission in cultured spinal cord neurons from Bruce's pioneering electrophysiological studies...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589054/a-patient-with-msud-acute-management-with-sodium-phenylacetate-sodium-benzoate-and-sodium-phenylbutyrate
#16
Melis Köse, Ebru Canda, Mehtap Kagnici, Sema Kalkan Uçar, Mahmut Çoker
In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584888/autism-spectrum-disorder-neuropathology-and-animal-models
#17
REVIEW
Merina Varghese, Neha Keshav, Sarah Jacot-Descombes, Tahia Warda, Bridget Wicinski, Dara L Dickstein, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Silvia De Rubeis, Elodie Drapeau, Joseph D Buxbaum, Patrick R Hof
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a major impact on the development and social integration of affected individuals and is the most heritable of psychiatric disorders. An increase in the incidence of ASD cases has prompted a surge in research efforts on the underlying neuropathologic processes. We present an overview of current findings in neuropathology studies of ASD using two investigational approaches, postmortem human brains and ASD animal models, and discuss the overlap, limitations, and significance of each...
June 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584071/scn5a-genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-increased-defibrillator-shocks-in-brugada-syndrome
#18
Pattarapong Makarawate, Narumol Chaosuwannakit, Suda Vannaprasaht, Dujdao Sahasthas, Seok Hwee Koo, Edmund Jon Deoon Lee, Wichittra Tassaneeyakul, Hector Barajas-Martinez, Dan Hu, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited primary arrhythmia disorder leading to sudden cardiac arrest. SCN5A, encoding the α-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5), is the most common pathogenic gene of BrS. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the standard treatment for secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate association of the SCN5A variant with this cardiac conduction disturbance and appropriate ICD shock therapy in Thai symptomatic BrS patients with ICD implants...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583780/-nephrogenic-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-early-diagnosis-avoids-severe-hyponatremia-complications
#19
A Cailleaux, F Mahieu, C Heinrichs, B Adams, K Ismaili, C Brachet
AIM: Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a rare disease characterized by a kidney disability to dilute urine and, as a result, severe recurrent hyponatremia. Due to wide variability in clinical expression, the diagnosis still remains a challenge for clinicians. We report our experience of a case in which NSIAD was diagnosed early. We also stress the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, which protects an infant with NSAID from severe hyponatremia. BACKGROUND: A 1-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for persistent hyponatremia and intense vomiting...
June 2, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582470/estradiol-upregulates-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-1-7-in-trigeminal-ganglion-contributing-to-hyperalgesia-of-inflamed-tmj
#20
Rui-Yun Bi, Zhen Meng, Peng Zhang, Xue-Dong Wang, Yun Ding, Ye-Hua Gan
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have the highest prevalence in women of reproductive age. The role of estrogen in TMDs and especially in TMDs related pain is not fully elucidated. Voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7) plays a prominent role in pain perception and Nav1.7 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) is involved in the hyperalgesia of inflamed Temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Whether estrogen could upregulate trigeminal ganglionic Nav1.7 expression to enhance hyperalgesia of inflamed TMJ remains to be explored...
2017: PloS One
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