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Sodium disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213045/identification-of-the-causes-for-chronic-hypokalemia-importance-of-urinary-sodium-and-chloride-excretion
#1
Kun-Lin Wu, Chih-Jen Cheng, Chih-Chen Sung, Ming-Hua Tseng, Yu-Juei Hsu, Sung-Sen Yang, Tom Chau, Shih-Hua Lin
BACKGROUND: Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. METHODS: Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over five years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries and hormones-as well as genetic analysis were determined...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209384/non-homogeneous-distribution-of-al-3-in-doped-phosphate-glasses-revealed-by-27-al-31-p-solid-state-nmr
#2
G Tricot, B Doumert, B Revel, M Bria, J Trebosc, H Vezin
Solid state NMR is applied in this contribution on the xAl2O3-(50-x/2)Na2O-(50-x/2)P2O5 composition line (with 0<x<5mol%) in order to investigate the distribution of Al(3+) ions in Al2O3-doped sodium phosphate glasses. The structure was analysed by (i) (27)Al 1D-, 3Q-, DQ- MAS-NMR analysis and (ii) 1D (31)P, (27)Al((31)P) 2D D-HMQC MAS-NMR and 2D (31)P R-INADEQUATE technique. The (27)Al NMR results confirm the presence of six-coordinated aluminate as major aluminate species and indicate that Al(3+) ions are fully dissociated in the glass network...
February 9, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202576/differential-effect-of-brief-electrical-stimulation-on-voltage-gated-potassium-channels
#3
Morven Alison Cameron, Amr Al Abed, Yossi Buskila, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, John W Morley
Electrical stimulation of neuronal tissue is a promising strategy to treat a variety of neurological disorders. The mechanism of neuronal activation by external electrical stimulation is governed by voltage-gated ion channels. This stimulus, typically brief in nature, leads to membrane potential depolarization, which increases ion flow across the membrane by increasing the open probability of these voltage-gated channels. In spiking neurons, it is activation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV-channels) that leads to action potential generation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194046/morinda-citrifolia-noni-fruit-juice-reduces-inflammatory-cytokines-expression-and-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-intestinal-mucosal-integrity-in-dss-experimental-colitis
#4
Beatriz Coutinho de Sousa, Juliana Reis Machado, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Thiago Alvares da Costa, Javier Emilio Lazo-Chica, Thatiane do Prado Degasperi, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Elizabeth Uber Bucek, Carlo José Freire Oliveira
Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has been shown to treat different disorders. However, data concerning its role in the treatment of intestinal inflammation still require clarification. In the current study, we investigated the effects of noni fruit juice (NFJ) in the treatment of C57BL/6 mice, which were continuously exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 9 consecutive days. NFJ consumption had no impact on the reduction of the clinical signs of the disease or on weight loss. Nonetheless, when a dilution of 1 : 10 was used, the intestinal architecture of the mice was preserved, accompanied by a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190873/the-role-of-uric-acid-in-hypertension-of-adolescents-prehypertension-and-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure
#5
Yang Wang, Jia-Wen Hu, Yong-Bo Lv, Chao Chu, Ke-Ke Wang, Wen-Ling Zheng, Yu-Meng Cao, Zu-Yi Yuan, Jian-Jun Mu
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Metabolic disorders of uric acid are associated with many disease states. Substantial evidence suggests the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in adolescents and prehypertension; and urate-lowering agents can significantly improve these early stages of hypertension. Uric acid also influences salt sensitivity of blood pressure through two phases. Local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation initiates renal damage, arteriolopathy, and endothelium dysfunction, which is followed by the dysregulation of sodium homeostasis, thereby leading to increased salt sensitivity...
February 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182562/in-silico-modeling-of-the-functional-role-of-reduced-sialylation-in-sodium-and-potassium-channel-gating-of-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#6
Dongping Du, Hui Yang, Andrew R Ednie, Eric S Bennett
Cardiac ion channels are highly glycosylated membrane proteins, with up to 30% of the protein's mass containing glycans. Heart diseases often accompany individuals with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). However, cardiac dysfunction among CDG patients is not yet fully understood. There is an urgent need to study how aberrant glycosylation impacts cardiac electrical signaling. Our previous works reported that congenitally reduced sialylation achieved through deletion of the sialyltransferase gene, ST3Gal4, leads to altered gating of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels (Nav and Kv, respectively)...
February 6, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182284/development-and-validation-of-a-reversed-phase-hplc-method-for-licarbazepine-monitoring-in-serum-of-patients-under-oxcarbazepine-treatment
#7
Elias Begas, Andreas Tsakalof, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgios Emmanouil Vatidis, Evangelos Kouvaras, Eftihia Konstadinos Asprodini
Licarbazepine is the pharmacologically active metabolite of oxcarbazepine, a drug indicated for the treatment of partial seizures and bipolar disorders. Several HPLC methods have been developed thus far but there is lack of control for interferences from antipsychotic drugs. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, low-cost and reliable HPLC-UV method for the determination of licarbazepine in human serum in the presence of co-administered antiepileptic, antipsychotic and commonly prescribed drugs...
February 9, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182047/hyponatremia-a-rare-complication-of-gitelman-s-syndrome
#8
A Ganguli, J H Veis
Gitelman's syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter. We report a 49-year-old, normotensive lady with prolonged hypokalemia since her 20s who was diagnosed with GS at our renal clinic. During follow-up, she was found to have mild, asymptomatic, euvolemic hyponatremia with low serum uric acid, inappropriately high urine osmolality and sodium consistent with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone-like presentation. Despite life-long urinary sodium losses, hyponatremia has rarely been reported in GS to be due to the primary disease process...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177094/-analysis-of-the-parameters-traditional-or-not-for-the-evaluation-of-the-metabolic-acidosis
#9
Caterina Urso, Salvatore Brucculeri, Caterina Carollo, Gregorio Caimi
Despite huge progress in acidbase knowledge, several confusing, irrational and controversial issues still remain. Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and with BE evaluation that seem inadequate since they define the magnitude of metabolic acidosis rather than its cause. Some studies have shown that the traditional approach is often not able to highlight the complicated acid-base disorders in critically ill patients; in these subjects, the possibility to identify tissue acids could offer a greater prognostic value than the evaluation of traditional parameters...
January 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#10
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#11
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168425/the-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-levels-of-cerebral-cytokines-in-an-animal-model-of-mania-induced-by-dextroamphetamine
#12
Samira S Valvassori, Wilson R Resende, Roger B Varela, Camila O Arent, Fernanda F Gava, Bruna R Peterle, Gustavo C Dal-Pont, André F Carvalho, Monica L Andersen, João Quevedo
Studies have suggested the involvement of inflammatory processes in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Preclinical evidences have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act as mood-stabilizing agents and protect the brain in models of mania and depression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) and valproate (VPA) on behavioral changes, histone deacetylase activity, and the levels of cytokines in an animal model of mania induced by dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH)...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167456/antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-activity-of-sodium-selenite-after-acute-treatment-in-mice
#13
Ewa Kędzierska, Jarosław Dudka, Ewa Poleszak, Jolanta H Kotlińska
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, that is needed for a broad variety of physiological functions including thyroid hormone metabolism, protection against oxidative stress, and immunity associated functions. Human nutritional Se deficiencies are associated with neuropsychiatric diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, obsessive - compulsive disorder, stroke, epilepsy as well as depressive behaviours. In this study we examined antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of Se in the inorganic form of sodium selenite and investigated whether Se influence on the locomotor activity in mice...
November 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163113/the-estimation-of-the-traditionally-used-yarrow-achillea-millefolium-l-asteraceae-oil-extracts-with-anti-inflamatory-potential-in-topical-application
#14
Vanja Tadić, Ivana Arsić, Jelena Zvezdanović, Ana Zugić, Dragan Cvetković, Sava Pavkov
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Olive or sunflower oil yarrow extracts have been extensively used against inflammatory disorders and skin wound healing in traditional medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate oil yarrow extracts traditional use in treatment of topical/dermatological skin impairments, sodium lauryl sulfate test was applied, and in vivo measuring of the biophysical parameters (erythema index, skin capacitance and the pH of the skin) in the artificially irritated skin was performed...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161960/fluorescent-probe-study-of-aot-vesicle-membranes-and-their-alteration-upon-addition-of-aniline-or-the-aniline-dimer-p-aminodiphenylamine-padpa
#15
Fumihiko Iwasaki, Sandra Luginbühl, Keishi Suga, Peter Walde, Hiroshi Umakoshi
Artificial vesicles formed from sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) in aqueous solution are used successfully as additives for enzymatic oligomerizations or polymerizations of aniline or the aniline dimer p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA) under slightly acidic conditions (e.g., pH 4.3 with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide as oxidants). In these systems, the reactions occur membrane surface-confined. Therefore, (i) the physicochemical properties of the vesicle membrane and (ii) the interaction of aniline or PADPA with the AOT membrane play crucial roles in the progress and final outcome of the reactions...
February 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159898/nlrx1-regulates-effector-and-metabolic-functions-of-cd4-t-cells
#16
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Matthew Hulver, Ryan McMillan, Kristin Eden, Irving C Allen, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor X1 (NLRX1) has been implicated in viral response, cancer progression, and inflammatory disorders; however, its role as a dual modulator of CD4(+) T cell function and metabolism has not been defined. The loss of NLRX1 results in increased disease severity, populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, and inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17) in mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. To further characterize this phenotype, we used in vitro CD4(+) T cell-differentiation assays and show that NLRX1-deficient T cells have a greater ability to differentiate into an inflammatory phenotype and possess greater proliferation rates...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151682/molecular-simulation-of-the-ions-ultraconfined-in-the-nanometer-channel-of-calcium-silicate-hydrate-hydration-mechanism-dynamic-properties-and-influence-on-the-cohesive-strength
#17
Dongshuai Hou, Chuanlin Hu, Zongjin Li
Reactive force field molecular dynamics was utilized to investigate the structure, dynamics, and mechanical nature of different cations solvated in the nanometer-channel of highly disordered calcium silicate hydrate. The local structures of different cations bonded with hydroxyl groups are characterized by the long spatial correlation, bond angel distribution preference, and featured coordinated number, resembling those of the tetra-/penta-/octahedron for cation-oxygen structure in the defective region of the silicate glass...
February 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148645/nonlinear-effects-of-hyperpolarizing-shifts-in-activation-of-mutant-nav1-7-channels-on-resting-membrane-potential
#18
Mark Estacion, Stephen G Waxman
The Nav1.7 sodium channel is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Gain-of-function mutations that cause the painful disorder inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) shift channel activation in a hyperpolarizing direction. When expressed within DRG neurons, these mutations produce a depolarization of resting membrane potential (RMP). The biophysical basis for the depolarized RMP has to date not been established. To explore the effect on RMP of the shift in activation associated with a prototypical IEM mutation (L858H), we used dynamic clamp models that represent graded shifts that fractionate the effect of the mutation on activation voltage-dependence...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137877/camkii-modulates-sodium-current-in-neurons-from-epileptic-scn2a-mutant-mice
#19
Christopher H Thompson, Nicole A Hawkins, Jennifer A Kearney, Alfred L George
Monogenic epilepsies with wide-ranging clinical severity have been associated with mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel genes. In the Scn2a(Q54) mouse model of epilepsy, a focal epilepsy phenotype is caused by transgenic expression of an engineered NaV1.2 mutation displaying enhanced persistent sodium current. Seizure frequency and other phenotypic features in Scn2a(Q54) mice depend on genetic background. We investigated the neurophysiological and molecular correlates of strain-dependent epilepsy severity in this model...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134709/nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#20
D Bockenhauer, Daniel G Bichet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), the kidney is unable to concentrate urine despite elevated concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. In congenital NDI, polyuria and polydipsia are present from birth and should be immediately recognized to avoid severe episodes of dehydration. Unfortunately, NDI is still often recognized late after a 'diagnostic odyssey' involving false leads and dangerous treatments.Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be started...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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