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Sodium disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168586/regional-oligodendrocytopathy-and-astrocytopathy-precede-myelin-loss-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-a-murine-model-of-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome
#1
Joanna Bouchat, Bruno Couturier, Catherine Marneffe, Fabrice Gankam-Kengne, Benoît Balau, Kathleen De Swert, Jean-Pierre Brion, Luc Poncelet, Jacques Gilloteaux, Charles Nicaise
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a non-primary inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system myelin that is often associated with a precipitous rise of serum sodium concentration. To investigate the physiopathology of ODS in vivo, we generated a novel murine model based on the abrupt correction of chronic hyponatremia. Accordingly, ODS mice developed impairments in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and in grip strength. At 24 hr post-correction, oligodendrocyte markers (APC and Cx47) were downregulated, prior to any detectable demyelination...
November 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167741/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-from-a-tissue-energy-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Roshni A Desai, Kenneth J Smith
Increasing evidence suggests a key role for tissue energy failure in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model of MS, have been instrumental in illuminating the mechanisms that may be involved in compromising energy production. In this article, we review recent advances in EAE research focussing on factors that conspire to impair tissue energy metabolism, such as tissue hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction, production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, and sodium dysregulation, which are directly affected by energy insufficiency, and promote cellular damage...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166709/-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-myocardium-of-rats-with-severe-burn-at-early-stage
#3
D Wang, P L Yang, X Zhang, Y Liu
Objective: To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on myocardium of rats at early stage after severe burn. Methods: Twenty specific pathogen free male SD rats were immersed in 90 ℃ hot water for 20 s, causing 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness scald (hereafter referred to as burn) on the back. And then they were divided into burn resuscitation group (BR) and burn resuscitation+ dexmedetomidine group (BRD) according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. Sodium lactate Ringer's solution (2 mL·kg(-1)·%TBSA(-1)) were intraperitoneally injected into rats of both groups after burn...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153319/thermodynamic-coupling-function-analysis-of-allosteric-mechanisms-in-the-human-dopamine-transporter
#4
Michael V LeVine, Michel A Cuendet, Asghar M Razavi, George Khelashvili, Harel Weinstein
Allostery plays a crucial role in the mechanism of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters, such as the human dopamine transporter. To investigate the molecular mechanism that couples the transport-associated inward release of the Na(+) ion from the Na2 site to intracellular gating, we applied a combination of the thermodynamic coupling function (TCF) formalism and Markov state model analysis to a 50-μs data set of molecular dynamics trajectories of the human dopamine transporter, in which multiple spontaneous Na(+) release events were observed...
November 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141492/a-case-report-of-hyponatremia-after-surgery-for-conn-s-adenoma
#5
Giulia Furlanis, Stella Bernardi, Monica Cavressi, Lorenzo Zandonà, Renzo Carretta, Bruno Fabris, Moreno Bardelli
Primary aldosteronism (PA), also known as Conn's syndrome, is a frequent cause of secondary hypertension. If PA is due to a documented unilateral adrenal adenoma, adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice. Endocrine Society guidelines suggest monitoring potassium after adrenalectomy, while there is no mention of sodium disorders after surgery. Here we report the case of a patient with Conn's syndrome who developed hyponatremia after surgery. This was an unexpected event in the course of the treatment, which sheds light on the fact that low levels of aldosterone strongly influence sodium concentration, and advises clinicians to monitor sodium after adrenalectomy...
October 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138928/mechanisms-of-drug-binding-to-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#6
M E O'Leary, M Chahine
Voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels are expressed in virtually all electrically excitable tissues and are essential for muscle contraction and the conduction of impulses within the peripheral and central nervous systems. Genetic disorders that disrupt the function of these channels produce an array of Na(+) channelopathies resulting in neuronal impairment, chronic pain, neuromuscular pathologies, and cardiac arrhythmias. Because of their importance to the conduction of electrical signals, Na(+) channels are the target of a wide variety of local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant drugs...
November 15, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132796/old-drug-new-indication-olsalazine-sodium-reduced-serum-uric-acid-levels-in-mice-via-inhibiting-xanthine-oxidoreductase-activity
#7
Yanfen Niu, Hongjian Li, Lihui Gao, Hua Lin, Hsiangfu Kung, Marie Chia-Mi Lin, Kwong-Sak Leung, Man-Hon Wong, Wenyong Xiong, Ling Li
Hyperuricemia, a long-term purine metabolic disorder, is a well-known risk factor for gout, hypertension and diabetes. In maintaining normal whole-body purine levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a key enzyme in the purine metabolic pathway, as it catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and finally to uric acid. Here we used the protein-ligand docking software idock to virtually screen potential XOD inhibitors from 3167 approved small compounds/drugs. The inhibitory activities of the ten compounds with the highest scores were tested on XOD in vitro...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132091/effect-of-anti-diabetic-drugs-on-bone-metabolism-evidence-from-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#8
REVIEW
Mohammad Adil, Rashid Ali Khan, Abul Kalam, Shiva Kumar Venkata, Amit Dattatraya Kandhare, Pinaki Ghosh, Manju Sharma
Diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal bone health and an increased risk of fracture even though patients have normal or higher BMD. The mechanisms behind diabetes mellitus- induced various skeletal disorders remain unclear. Anti-diabetic drugs may have negative or positive impact on bone metabolism. For instance, thiazolidinediones increases the bone loss and risk of fracture possibly through PPARγ activation in bone marrow cells and hamper osteoblastogenesis via decreasing Runx2 transcription factor, IGF-1 and Wnt signalling pathways...
May 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128679/early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-de-novo-scn8a-mutation
#9
Yangyang Xiao, Jie Xiong, Ding'an Mao, Lingjuan Liu, Jian Li, Xingfang Li, Haiyan Luo, Liqun Liu
Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by intractable seizures and unremitting interictal paroxysmal epileptiform activity. Consequently, these syndromes impair neurodevelopment during the first year of life. Currently, the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown. In this study, Childhood-Onset Epilepsy Gene Panel Testing (containing 511 epilepsy-related genes) was performed in a parent-offspring trio. In this family, the son had refractory seizures, intellectual disability, and motor abnormalities, and he was diagnosed with EOEE...
October 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127952/diabetes-mellitus-in-a-patient-with-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-a-case-report
#10
Aviva Cohn, Anupam Ohri
BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type Ia is a genetic disorder that is associated with persistent fasting hypoglycemia and the inability to produce endogenous glucose. The development of diabetes with glycogen storage disease is exceedingly rare. The underlying pathogenesis for developing diabetes in these patients is unclear, and there are no guidelines for treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 34-year-old woman of South Asian descent with glycogen storage disease type Ia, who developed uncontrolled diabetes mellitus as a young adult...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#11
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125635/a-review-of-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-periodic-paralysis
#12
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Statland, Bertrand Fontaine, Michael G Hanna, Nicholas Johnson, John T Kissel, Valeria A Sansone, Perry B Shieh, Rabi N Tawil, Jaya Trivedi, Stephen C Cannon, Robert C Griggs
Periodic paralyses (PP) are rare neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in skeletal muscle sodium, calcium, and potassium channel genes. PP include hypokalemic paralysis, hyperkalemic paralysis, and Andersen-Tawil Syndrome. Common features of PP include autosomal dominant inheritance, onset typically in the first or second decades, episodic attacks of flaccid weakness, which are often triggered by diet or rest after exercise. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinic presentation then confirmed by genetic testing...
November 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123241/toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoite-extract-acts-as-a-potent-immunomodulator-against-allergic-sensitization-and-airway-inflammation
#13
Mirjana Drinić, Angelika Wagner, Priya Sarate, Christian Zwicker, Elke Korb, Gerhard Loupal, Roman Peschke, Anja Joachim, Ursula Wiedermann, Irma Schabussova
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown an inverse relationship between infections with certain parasites and a reduced incidence of allergic diseases. We and others have shown that infection with Toxoplasma gondii prevents the development of allergy in mice. To establish whether this beneficial effect could be recapitulated by soluble products of this parasite, we tested an extract derived from T. gondii tachyzoites. Immunization of BALB/c mice with tachyzoites lysate antigen (TLA) elicited mixed Th1/Th2 responses...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121712/epidemiologic-incidence-of-rhabdomyolysis-in-opioid-overdose-in-icu-of-poisoning-center-in-iran-2014
#14
Babak Khoshideh, Mohammad Arefi, Mazaher Ghorbani, Samaneh Akbarpour, Fatemeh Taghizadeh
Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical, demographical characteristics and some laboratory findings of hospitalized patients with acute opioid toxicity and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 354 hospitalized patients were investigated at Baharloo Educational Hospital in Tehran, with acute illicit drug toxicity in 2014. Data was collected by an investigator-made check lists. The collected data and variations (such as mortality rate, demographic data, and renal function tests as well as serum biochemical elements) were analyzed by descriptive statistics and x-square test...
November 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120249/alcohol-addiction-the-safety-of-available-approved-treatment-options
#15
Mariangela Antonelli, Anna Ferrulli, Luisa Sestito, Gabriele A Vassallo, Claudia Tarli, Carolina Mosoni, Maria M Rando, Antonio Mirijello, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Addolorato
Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. At present disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are approved for the treatment of AUD in U.S. and Europe. Nalmefene is approved in Europe and sodium oxybate is approved in Italy and Austria only. Baclofen received a "temporary recommendation for use" in France. Areas covered. The safety of the medications mentioned above on liver, digestive system, kidney function, nervous system, pregnancy and lactation and their possible side effects are described and discussed...
November 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115393/neuroprotective-effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-sodium-azide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-pc12-cells
#16
Cheng Gao, Pan Chang, Lijun Yang, Yi Wang, Shaohua Zhu, Haiyan Shan, Mingyang Zhang, Luyang Tao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, responsible for >50% of all dementia cases. Sodium azide (NaN3) inhibits cytochrome oxidase by irreversibly binding to the heme cofactor and selectively reducing the complex IV activity, which is present in post‑mortem AD brains. Previous data demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third endogenous gaseous mediator, exerted protective effects against neuronal damage. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H2S may be able to scavenge excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby protecting against oxidative stress and cell death...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114733/sodium-oxybate-for-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-and-sleep-disturbance-in-parkinson-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Fabian Büchele, Marc Hackius, Sebastian R Schreglmann, Wolfgang Omlor, Esther Werth, Angelina Maric, Lukas L Imbach, Stefan Hägele-Link, Daniel Waldvogel, Christian R Baumann
Importance: Sleep-wake disorders are a common and debilitating nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson disease (PD), but treatment options are scarce. Objective: To determine whether nocturnal administration of sodium oxybate, a first-line treatment in narcolepsy, is effective and safe for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and disturbed nighttime sleep in patients with PD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2a study carried out between January 9, 2015, and February 24, 2017...
November 6, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114374/prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-children-with-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Fatemeh Ghane Sharbaf, Hamid Farhangi, Farahnak Assadi
Children with cancer treated with cytotoxic drugs are frequently at risk of developing renal dysfunction. The cytotoxic drugs that are widely used for cancer treatment in children are cisplatin (CPL), ifosfamide (IFO), carboplatin, and methotrexate (MTX). Mechanisms of anticancer drug-induced renal disorders are different and include acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease, vascular damage, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and intrarenal obstruction. CPL nephrotoxicity is dose-related and is often demonstrated with hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and impaired renal function with rising serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112894/study-the-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-injection-in-mouse-model-of-acute-colitis
#19
Sedigheh Pouya, Maryam Heidari, Kaveh Baghaei, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Afshin Moradi, Saeed Namaki, Mohammad Reza Zali, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune-inflammatory disorder that results in inflammatory responses in individuals who are genetically susceptible. Uncontrolled inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis (UC) affects the patient quality of life. Current therapies are not completely effective while cell therapy, especially the treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) absorb lots of attention due to its immunomodulatory properties. So, we examined the effects of mesenchymal stem cells-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) in the experimental model of acute colitis...
November 4, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112785/associated-conditions-in-small-fiber-neuropathy-a-large-cohort-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Bianca T A de Greef, Janneke G J Hoeijmakers, Carla M L Gorissen-Brouwers, Margot Geerts, Catharina G Faber, Ingemar S J Merkies
BACKGROUND: Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a common disorder, leading to neuropathic pain and autonomic symptoms. The objective of this study was to investigate associated conditions in a large cohort of SFN patients and compare the prevalence to healthy individuals. METHODS: A total of 921 patients with pure SFN were screened according to a standardized comprehensive diagnostic algorithm and compared with literature findings. RESULTS: In 53% of the patients, no associated condition could be found...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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