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Hyperglycemia in hospital

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646357/management-of-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-in-the-emergency-department
#1
REVIEW
Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, Rajesh Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglycemia in the emergency department (ED) is being recognized as a public health problem and presents a clinical challenge. This review critically summarizes available evidence on the burden, etiology, diagnosis, and practical management strategies for hyperglycemia in the ED. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are hyperglycemic emergencies that commonly present to the ED. However, the most common form of hyperglycemia in ED is associated with non-hyperglycemic medical emergencies...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633556/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-newborns-born-to-mothers-with-hyperglycemia-%C3%A2-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
K Dulasi Durga, B Adhisivam, G Vidya, B Vishnu Bhat, Bobby Zachariahc, Chand Parkashd
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemic mothers have increased oxidative stress during pregnancy which can adversely affect the outcome in their neonates Objectives: To measure the oxidative stress and DNA damage in newborns born to mothers with hyperglycemia and correlate their immediate outcome with the amount of oxidative stress and DNA damage. METHODS: This prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 3 groups - newborns born to pregestational diabetic mothers (PGDM), gestational diabetic mothers (GDM) and euglycemic mothers with 24 newborns in each...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631762/-safety-and-tolerability-of-oral-hypoglycemic-therapies-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#3
Giuseppe Ambrosio, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Massimo Federici, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Oral hypoglycemic drugs for type 2 diabetes aim at preventing the metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular (CV) events. The evidence of the possible CV risk related to the prescription of some antidiabetic drugs prompted regulatory agencies to require safety studies. This review provides an updated analysis of CV safety profiles for antidiabetic drugs used for the treatment of patients with high CV risk.The most recent studies analyze different aspects of CV morbidity, such as ischemic events, heart failure and arrhythmia, and their interactions with hyperglycemia...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616421/cystic-fibrosis-prevalence-among-a-group-of-high-risk-children-in-the-main-referral-children-hospital-in-iran
#4
Mohammad Reza Modaresi, Jamal Faghinia, Mohsen Reisi, Majid Keivanfar, Shiva Navaie, Javad Seyyedi, Faride Baharzade
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF) in Iran is very limited. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CF among a group of high-risk children with suggestive clinical features in the main referral hospital in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study children consisted of 505 patients who had presented with one or more of the following symptoms: chronic or recurrent respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms as rectal prolapse, steatorrhea, hepatobiliary disease as prolonged jaundice, failure to thrive, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hypoprothrombinemia, anemia or edema, and positive family history of CF...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606345/empa-reg-outcome-the-cardiologist-s-point-of%C3%A2-view
#5
Son V Pham, Robert J Chilton
Cardiologists could view empagliflozin as a cardiovascular drug that also has a beneficial effect on reducing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of empagliflozin in lowering the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in T2DM patients with high cardiovascular risk during the recent Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial may be explained principally in terms of changes to cardiovascular physiology; namely, by the potential ability of empagliflozin to reduce cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen consumption by lowering blood pressure, improving aortic compliance, and improving ventricular arterial coupling...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592311/the-effects-of-green-cardamom-on-blood-glucose-indices-lipids-inflammatory-factors-paraxonase-1-sirtuin-1-and-irisin-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-obesity-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Milad Daneshi-Maskooni, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Siavash Mansouri, Mostafa Qorbani, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mahtab Badri-Fariman, Seyed Ali Jazayeri-Tehrani, Gity Sotoudeh
BACKGROUND: The relationship between dietary components and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) needs to be further investigated. The potential health benefits of cardamom have been found in some studies. Cardamom showed beneficial effect on hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia in animals. However, some adverse effects of cardamom have been reported in animals. No previous human study had been conducted on the effects of cardamom in NAFLD. This study aims to determine the effects of green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) supplementation on blood glucose indices, lipids, inflammatory profiles, and liver function, especially by examining irisin, paraxonase-1 (PON1) and sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) in obese patients with NAFLD...
June 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590305/management-of-diabetic-patients-hospitalized-for-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-prospective-multicenter-registry
#7
Marco Ferlini, Giuseppe Musumeci, Andrea Demarchi, Niccolò Grieco, Antonio Mafrici, Stefano De Servi, Roberta Rossini, Carlo Sponzilli, Paola Bognetti, Antonino Cardile, Silvia Frattini, Alfonso Ielasi, Alessandra Russo, Claudia Vecchiato, Corrado Lettieri, Luigi O Visconti
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) present an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. An Italian Consensus Document indicated 'three specific must' to obtain in this subgroup of patients: optimal oral antiplatelet therapy, early invasive approach and a tailored strategy of revascularization for unstable angina/non-ST-elevation-myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI); furthermore, glycemia at admission should be managed with dedicated protocols...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585180/efficacy-and-safety-of-insulin-degludec-for-hyperglycemia-management-in-noncritical-hospitalized-patients-with-diabetes-an-observational-study
#8
Natalino Simioni, Alessio Filippi, Marco Scardapane, Antonio Nicolucci, Maria Chiara Rossi, Vera Frison
INTRODUCTION: To assess the efficacy and safety of insulin degludec administered in a basal-bolus regimen according to the GesTIO protocol in noncritical hospitalized patients with T1DM and T2DM. METHODS: Mean blood glucose levels (BG) and their standard deviations (SD) at admission vs. discharge were compared in 52 subjects (48.1% ≥75 years) managed through a basal-bolus scheme including degludec. The percentages of patients with BG at target (140-180 mg/dl) or below at discharge and the incidence rate (and the 95% confidence interval for it) of hypoglycemia were assessed...
June 5, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584737/study-of-lipid-peroxidation-nitric-oxide-end-product-and-trace-element-status-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-and-without-complications
#9
Sanjukta Mishra, Bana Bihari Mishra
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has become a real entity in etiopathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It may result from steady flux of free radicals and lipid peroxides in vivo. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a stable end product of lipid peroxidation. Accumulative evidences suggest that hyperglycemia in Type 2 DM can produce major changes in nitric oxide (NO) production as well as in its action. Alteration in metabolism of trace elements is also observed in DM. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative stress, status of NO, and trace elements zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in type 2 DM and to correlate these parameters with disease process...
April 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553605/management-of-glycemia-in-acute-febrile-illness
#10
REVIEW
Sanjay Kalra, Sameer Aggarwal, Deepak Khandelwal, Deep Dutta
With increasing the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes across the globe, a large number of patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) are likely to have concomitant diabetes or stress hyperglycemia. Management of associated hyperglycemia in patients with AFI is of utmost importance for early recovery and to prevent complications. There is no published literature, detailing the strategies and targets for glycemic control in AFI specifically; however, guidelines do exist for the management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized or outpatients in general...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545542/recognition-and-treatment-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-an-important-component-of-chronic-disease-management
#11
REVIEW
Peter C Farrell, Glenn Richards
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition, and is associated with many debilitating chronic diseases. The role of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in arterial hypertension has been recognized in international guidelines. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with clinically-relevant reductions in blood pressure. In heart failure (HF), SDB is associated with worse prognosis and increased mortality. Major HF guidelines recommend that patients should be treated for sleep apnea to improve their HF status...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537512/do-patients-with-a-baseline-clinical-condition-warranting-the-cautious-use-of-parenteral-nutrition-develop-subsequent-metabolic-complications
#12
Diana M Solomon, James M Hollands, Laura A Siemianowski, Colleen E Smith, Richard J Song, Angela L Bingham
BACKGROUND: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum describes clinical conditions that warrant cautious use of parenteral nutrition (CCWCPN). The Core Curriculum authors acknowledge there is no evidence for specific criteria suggested for the clinical conditions. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a baseline CCWCPN on the development of subsequent metabolic complications in patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN)...
June 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535549/epidural-dexamethasone-influences-postoperative-analgesia-after-major-abdominal-surgery
#13
Jeong-Min Hong, Kyung-Hoon Kim, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Jae-Young Kwon, Hae-Kyu Kim, Hyae-Jin Kim, Ah-Reum Cho, Wang-Seok Do, Hyo Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Epidurally administered dexamethasone might reduce postoperative pain. However, the effect of epidural administration of dexamethasone on postoperative epidural analgesia in major abdominal surgery has been doubtful. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects and optimal dose of epidural dexamethasone on pain after major abdominal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomized, double-blind study. SETTING: University hospital...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526181/empa-reg-outcome-the-cardiologist-s-point-of%C3%A2-view
#14
Son V Pham, Robert Chilton
Cardiologists could view empagliflozin as a cardiovascular drug that also has a beneficial effect on reducing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of empagliflozin in lowering the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in T2DM patients with high cardiovascular risk during the recent Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial may be explained principally in terms of changes to cardiovascular physiology; namely, by the potential ability of empagliflozin to reduce cardiac workload and myocardial oxygen consumption by lowering blood pressure, improving aortic compliance, and improving ventricular arterial coupling...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513516/admission-hyperglycemia-an-independent-predictor-of-outcome-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-longitudinal-study-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#15
S K Marulaiah, M P Reddy, M Basavegowda, Pkh Ramaswamy, L S Adarsh
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the important causes of long-term disability-related deaths worldwide. Incidence and prevalence of stroke have been steadily increasing in India. Increasing interest has been focused on the role of admission hyperglycemia in the evolution of acute ischemic stroke. Very few studies were conducted in south India; hence, we intended to do this study. METHODS: A total of 198 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in a hospital-based longitudinal study to identify the independent factors (demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters) associated with poor outcome (functional impairment-mRS ≥ 3 and mortality at 90 days of follow-up...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512417/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-cushing-syndrome-presenting-as-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-nonketotic-syndrome
#16
Christina E Brzezniak, Nicole Vietor, Patricia E Hogan, Bryan Oronsky, Bennett Thilagar, Carolyn M Ray, Scott Caroen, Michelle Lybeck, Neil Oronsky, Corey A Carter
Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that mainly arise in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bronchi. Bronchopulmonary carcinoids have been associated with Cushing syndrome, which results from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. We report the case of a 65-year-old man, a colonel in the US Air Force, with metastatic bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors treated on a clinical trial who was hospitalized for complaints of increasing thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weakness, and visual changes...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511644/relationship-between-glycemic-levels-and-treatment-outcome-among-critically-ill-children-admitted-into-emergency-room-in-enugu
#17
Nwachinemere Davidson Uleanya, Elias Chikee Aniwada, Ikenna Chidiebele Nwokoye, Ikenna Kingsley Ndu, Christopher Bismarck Eke
BACKGROUND: Critically ill children are those in need of immediate attention on arrival to an emergency room. The importance of glycemic level measurement as well as maintaining the patency of the airway, effective breathing and circulation cannot be overemphasied. It has been highlighted that the peak hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia predict poor prognosis, longer lengths of hospital stay and higher mortality. The study aims to assess the relationship between glycemic level and treatment outcomes as well as length of hospital stay...
May 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504012/inpatient-glycemic-management-in-internal-medicine-an-observational-multicenter-study-in-nanjing-china
#18
Shujie Hao, Ning Zhang, Anne Folta Fish, Xiaodan Yuan, Lin Liu, Fan Li, Zhaohui Fang, Qingqing Lou
AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among inpatients in internal medicine, and specifically, to assess the glycemic management of inpatients in non-endocrinology departments in three large urban hospitals in China. METHODS: A multicenter observational study was conducted using electronic health records, and a survey of 1939 patients who were admitted to internal medicine units and followed until discharge. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, or impaired fasting glucose were included...
June 9, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502888/prospective-study-of-postoperative-glycemic-control-with-a-standardized-insulin-infusion-protocol-after-infrainguinal-bypass-and-open-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#19
Andrea M Steely, Lisa Smith, Peter W Callas, Muriel H Nathan, Julie E Lahiri, Andrew C Stanley, Georg Steinthorsson, Daniel J Bertges
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of moderate postoperative glycemic control in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass (INFRA) or open abdominal aortic aneurysm (OAAA) repair. METHODS: In a single center prospective study, we investigated postoperative glycemic control using a standardized insulin infusion protocol after elective INFRA (n=53, 62%) and OAAA (n=33, 38%) between January 2013 and March 2015. The primary endpoint was optimal glycemic control, defined as having ≥85% of blood glucose values within the 80-150mg/dL target range...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475740/synergistic-effect-of-hyperglycemia-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection-status-on-colorectal-adenoma-risk
#20
Kuang-Chun Hu, Ming-Shiang Wu, Cheng-Hsin Chu, Horng-Yuan Wang, Shee-Chan Lin, Sung-Chen Liu, Chuan-Chuan Liu, Tung-Hung Su, Chi-Ling Chen, Chun-Jen Liu, Shou-Chuan Shih
Context: Both Helicobacter pylori and type 2 diabetes mellitus are possible risk factors for colon adenoma. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the interaction between H. pylori and hyperglycemia status on the risk for colon adenoma. Design: Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study conducted at the MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. The study included 3943 subjects aged over 40 years undergoing bidirectional gastrointestinal endoscopy on the same day between July 2006 and June 2015...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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