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Rectal colon

Virginia Lope, Nerea Fernández de Larrea, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Vicente Martín, Victor Moreno, Laura Costas, Federico Longo, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Javier Llorca, Nieves Ascunce, Rosana Peiró-Pérez, Jone M Altzibar, Adonina Tardón, Juan Alguacil, Carmen Navarro, Ángeles Sierra, Ana Belén Vega, Amaya Villafañe, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Manolis Kogevinas, Marina Pollán, Nuria Aragonés
BACKGROUND: Sex hormones play a role in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer etiology, however, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of menstrual and reproductive factors over the risk of both tumors. METHODS: In this case-control study 128 women with gastric cancer and 1293 controls, as well as 562 female and colorectal cancer cases and 1605 controls were recruited in 9 and 11 Spanish provinces, respectively. Population controls were frequency matched to cases by age and province...
2016: PloS One
Bo Wang, Shannon J Walsh, Muhammad W Saif
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in solid tumors, including colon, gastric and breast cancers. The pharmacogenetic syndrome of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency leading to severe toxicity after administration of 5-flourouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine has been well-recognized. However, the data about the association of the target enzyme, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) with the toxicity of these agents is limited. A 50-year-old Caucasian woman with T2N2M0 Stage IIIB squamous cell rectal cancer after local surgical excision initiated 5-FU therapy with mitomycin-C and radiation therapy in the adjuvant setting...
September 21, 2016: Curēus
Jinke Xu, Mifong Tam, Sepideh Samadei, Sophie Lerouge, Jake Barralet, Mary M Stevenson, Marta Cerruti
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems stick to mucosal tissues and prolong the local retention time of drugs. Since the colon is covered by a mucosal layer, mucoadhesive rectal formulations may improve treatment of such diseases as hypertension or colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is commonly treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ), which is metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Valentina Rosato, Alessandra Tavani, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Elisabet Guinó, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Cristina M Villanueva, Manolis Kogevinas, Jerry Polesel, Diego Serraino, Federica E Pisa, Fabio Barbone, Victor Moreno, Carlo La Vecchia, Cristina Bosetti
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an excess risk of colorectal cancer, although the time-risk relationship is unclear, and there is limited information on the role of antidiabetic medications. AIM: We examined the association between type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic medications, and the risk of colorectal cancer, considering also duration of exposures. METHODS: We analyzed data derived from two companion case-control studies conducted in Italy and Spain between 2007 and 2013 on 1,147 histologically confirmed colorectal cancer cases and 1,594 corresponding controls...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
F L Nowrouzian, G Lina, E Hodille, E Lindberg, B Hesselmar, R Saalman, I Adlerberth, A E Wold
According to the hygiene hypothesis, insufficient immune activation by microbes increases the risk of allergy development. Staphylococcus aureus, which is part of the skin and gut microbiota of infants in Western countries, produces a variety of T-cell-activating enterotoxins, called superantigens. We investigated whether early (0-2 months of age) gut colonisation by S. aureus strains that carry specific superantigens and adhesins was related to subsequent development of atopic eczema in a Swedish birth-cohort...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Akitoshi Inoue, Shinichi Ohta, Norihisa Nitta, Masahiro Yoshimura, Tomoharu Shimizu, Masaji Tani, Ryoji Kushima, Kiyoshi Murata
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of assessing advanced T-stage (T3-T4) colorectal carcinomas by correlating MRI with histopathological findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 31 patients with 32 lesions (22 colon and 10 rectal carcinomas). The relationship between the tumor and bowel layers on T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T2WI, CE-T1WI), bowel wall deformity, and the linear architecture of subserosal fat on T2WI scans was independently assessed by two radiologists...
October 18, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Yuichiro Kizaki, Tomonori Nagai, Ken Ohara, Yosuke Gomi, Taichi Akahori, Yoshihisa Ono, Shigetaka Matsunaga, Yasushi Takai, Masahiro Saito, Kazunori Baba, Hiroyuki Seki
BACKGROUND: While ovarian mature cystic teratomas are benign ovarian germ-cell tumors and the most common type of all ovarian tumors, the formation of fistulas into surrounding organs such as the bladder and the intestinal tract is extremely rare. This report documents a case of ovarian mature cystic teratoma with a rectal fistula, thought to be caused by local inflammation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A pelvic mass was diagnosed as an ovarian mature cystic teratoma of approximately 10 cm in diameter on transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations...
2016: SpringerPlus
M A Rosales-Reynoso, A R Arredondo-Valdez, C I Juárez-Vázquez, L I Wence-Chavez, P Barros-Núñez, M P Gallegos-Arreola, S E Flores-Martínez, M C Morán-Moguel, J Sánchez-Corona
Accumulative evidence suggests that alterations due to mutations or genetic polymorphisms in the TCF7L2 and CCND1 genes, which are components of the Wnt signaling pathway, contributes to carcinogenesis. The present study was designated to clarify whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the transcription factor 7- like 2 (TCF7L2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk in Mexican patients. A case-control study including 197 colorectal cancer patients and 100 healthy subjects was conducted in a Mexican population...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Muhammad W Saif, Melissa Smith, Antonio Maloney
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of the chemotherapy regimens approved for treatment of many malignancies, especially colorectal cancer (CRC). The incidence of cardiotoxicity associated with 5-FU ranges between 1.5% to 18% and is most commonly manifested as anginal symptoms. Cardiomyopathy is very rarely reported with 5-FU and capecitabine. A 35-year-old Caucasian male with T3, N1, M0 rectal cancer after the initial neoadjuvant chemoradiation with 5FU/LV followed by surgical abdominoperineal resection (APR), began mFOLFOX6 in the adjuvant setting...
September 14, 2016: Curēus
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Mario Schootman, Samantha Hendren, Kendra Ratnapradipa, Lisa Stringer, Nick O Davidson
BACKGROUND: Debate exists regarding the role of robotic-assisted surgery in colorectal cancer. Robotic-assisted surgery has been promoted as a strategy to increase the availability of minimally invasive surgery, which is associated with improved short-term morbidity; however, robotic-assisted surgery is much more expensive than laparoscopic surgery. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand hospital and patient trends in the adoption of robotic-assisted surgery. DESIGN: The study used cross-sectional and longitudinal designs...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
David R Rosen, Grace S Hwang, Glenn T Ault, Adrian E Ortega, Kyle G Cologne
BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis has become a medically managed disease process; the indications and timing of surgical intervention have evolved. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent surgical intervention due to diverticular disease by the Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery from 2012 to 2014. RESULTS: Ninety-eight surgeries were performed. Indications included colovesicular fistula, multiple recurrences of diverticulitis, medically refractory diverticulitis, stricture, abscess, colocutaneous fistula, and colovaginal fistula...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Matthew Weiser, Jeremy M Simon, Bharati Kochar, Adelaide Tovar, Jennifer W Israel, Adam Robinson, Gregory R Gipson, Matthew S Schaner, Hans H Herfarth, R Balfour Sartor, Dermot P B McGovern, Reza Rahbar, Timothy S Sadiq, Mark J Koruda, Terrence S Furey, Shehzad Z Sheikh
OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentation and course of Crohn's disease (CD) is highly variable. We sought to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide this heterogeneity, and characterise the cellular processes associated with disease phenotypes. DESIGN: We examined both gene expression and gene regulation (chromatin accessibility) in non-inflamed colon tissue from a cohort of adult patients with CD and control patients. To support the generality of our findings, we analysed previously published expression data from a large cohort of treatment-naïve paediatric CD and control ileum...
October 14, 2016: Gut
Donna Arvans, Yong-Chul Jung, Dionysios Antonopoulos, Jason Koval, Ignacio Granja, Mohamed Bashir, Eltayeb Karrar, Jayanta Roy-Chowdhury, Mark Musch, John Asplin, Eugene Chang, Hatim Hassan
Hyperoxaluria is a major risk factor for kidney stones and has no specific therapy, although Oxalobacter formigenes colonization is associated with reduced stone risk. O. formigenes interacts with colonic epithelium and induces colonic oxalate secretion, thereby reducing urinary oxalate excretion, via an unknown secretagogue. The difficulties in sustaining O. formigenes colonization underscore the need to identify the derived factors inducing colonic oxalate secretion. We therefore evaluated the effects of O...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Ruoxu Dou, Reiko Nishihara, Yin Cao, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Kosuke Mima, Atsuhiro Masuda, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Annacarolina da Silva, Katsuhiko Nosho, Xuehong Zhang, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Edward L Giovannucci, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Zhi Rong Qian, Shuji Ogino
Experimental evidence suggests that the let-7 family of noncoding RNAs suppresses adaptive immune responses, contributing to immune evasion by the tumor. We hypothesized that the amount of let-7a and let-7b expression in colorectal carcinoma might be associated with limited T-lymphocyte infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment and worse clinical outcome. Utilizing the molecular pathological epidemiology resources of 795 rectal and colon cancers in two U.S.-nationwide prospective cohort studies, we measured tumor-associated let-7a and let-7b expression levels by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and CD3(+), CD8(+), CD45RO (PTPRC)(+), and FOXP3(+) cell densities by tumor tissue microarray immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted image analysis...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Chyke A Doubeni, Douglas A Corley, Virginia P Quinn, Christopher D Jensen, Ann G Zauber, Michael Goodman, Jill R Johnson, Shivan J Mehta, Tracy A Becerra, Wei K Zhao, Joanne Schottinger, V Paul Doria-Rose, Theodore R Levin, Noel S Weiss, Robert H Fletcher
OBJECTIVE: Screening colonoscopy's effectiveness in reducing colorectal cancer mortality risk in community populations is unclear, particularly for right-colon cancers, leading to recommendations against its use for screening in some countries. This study aimed to determine whether, among average-risk people, receipt of screening colonoscopy reduces the risk of dying from both right-colon and left-colon/rectal cancers. DESIGN: We conducted a nested case-control study with incidence-density matching in screening-eligible Kaiser Permanente members...
October 12, 2016: Gut
Marco E Allaix, Edgar J B Furnée, Massimiliano Mistrangelo, Alberto Arezzo, Mario Morino
Laparoscopic resection for colon and rectal cancer is associated with quicker return of bowel function, reduced postoperative morbidity rates and shorter length of hospital stay compared to open surgery, with no differences in long-term survival. Conversion to open surgery is reported in up to 30% of patients enrolled in randomized control trials comparing open and laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer. In this review, reasons for conversion are anatomical-related factors, disease-related-factors and surgeon-related factors...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
S Jolivet, M Fines-Guyon, B Nebbad, J C Merle, D Le Pluart, C Brun-Buisson, J-W Decousser, V Cattoir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus has rarely been associated with nosocomial infection and outbreaks. AIM: To report the successful control of a nosocomial outbreak of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus in a surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The investigation of the outbreak is reported with control measures taken. Molecular typing of vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus isolates was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Maurizio Zizzo, Carolina Castro Ruiz, Lara Ugoletti, Alessandro Giunta, Stefano Bonacini, Lorenzo Manzini, Fabrizio Aguzzoli, Alberto Colognesi, Claudio Pedrazzoli
Colonoscopy is one of the most widely used procedures in medical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of many benign and malignant diseases of the colorectal tract. Colonscopy has become the reference procedure for screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer. The overall rate of adverse events is estimated to be about 2.8 per 1,000 procedures, while complications requiring hospitalization are about 1.9 per 1,000 colonoscopies. Mortality from all causes and colonoscopy-specific mortality are estimated to be 0...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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