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Shahid Banday, Zeenat Farooq, Romana Rashid, Ehsaan Abdullah, Mohammad Altaf
Heterochromatin in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is clustered at the nuclear periphery and interacts with a number of nuclear membrane proteins. However, the significance and the factors that sequester heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery are not fully known. Here, we report that an inner nuclear membrane protein complex Lem2-Nur1 is essential for heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing. We found that Lem2 is physically associated with another inner nuclear membrane protein, Nur1, and deletion of either lem2 or nur1 causes silencing defect at centromeres, telomeres, and rDNA loci...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ramón Ramos Barrales, Marta Forn, Paula Raluca Georgescu, Zsuzsa Sarkadi, Sigurd Braun
Transcriptionally silent chromatin localizes to the nuclear periphery, which provides a special microenvironment for gene repression. A variety of nuclear membrane proteins interact with repressed chromatin, yet the functional role of these interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we show that, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the nuclear membrane protein Lem2 associates with chromatin and mediates silencing and heterochromatin localization. Unexpectedly, we found that these functions can be separated and assigned to different structural domains within Lem2, excluding a simple tethering mechanism...
January 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Shulin Deng, Jun Xu, Jun Liu, Sang-Hee Kim, Suhua Shi, Nam-Hai Chua
Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences are ubiquitously present in eukaryotic genomes which are in general epigenetically silenced by DNA methylation and/or histone 3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me). RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is the major pathway that initiates de novo DNA methylation in Arabidopsis and sets up a self-reinforcing silencing loop between DNA methylation and H3K9me. However, a key issue is the requirement of a basal level transcript from the target loci to initiate the RNA-based silencing...
September 2015: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jennifer F Garcia, Bassem Al-Sady, Hiten D Madhani
Effective boundary mechanisms halt the spread of repressive histone methylation. In the fission yeast Schizosacchromyces pombe, two factors/elements required for boundary function have been described, the jmjC protein Epe1 and binding sites for the RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIC. Perplexingly, individual mutation of Epe1 or TFIIIC sites produces only mild boundary defects, and no other boundary factors have been identified. To approach these issues, we developed a synthetic reporter gene tool that uses a tethered Clr4 histone H3K9 methyltransferase and monitors the ability of a DNA element to block heterochromatin spread...
July 2015: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Pauline N C B Audergon, Sandra Catania, Alexander Kagansky, Pin Tong, Manu Shukla, Alison L Pidoux, Robin C Allshire
Posttranslational histone modifications are believed to allow the epigenetic transmission of distinct chromatin states, independently of associated DNA sequences. Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is essential for heterochromatin formation; however, a demonstration of its epigenetic heritability is lacking. Fission yeast has a single H3K9 methyltransferase, Clr4, that directs all H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin. Using releasable tethered Clr4 reveals that an active process rapidly erases H3K9 methylation from tethering sites in wild-type cells...
April 3, 2015: Science
Kaushik Ragunathan, Gloria Jih, Danesh Moazed
Changes in histone posttranslational modifications are associated with epigenetic states that define distinct patterns of gene expression. It remains unclear whether epigenetic information can be transmitted through histone modifications independently of specific DNA sequence, DNA methylation, or RNA interference. Here we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ectopically induced domains of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me), a conserved marker of heterochromatin, are inherited through several mitotic and meiotic cell divisions after removal of the sequence-specific initiator...
April 3, 2015: Science
Jiyong Wang, Bharat D Reddy, Songtao Jia
Heterochromatin, a highly compact chromatin state characterized by histone H3K9 methylation and HP1 protein binding, silences the underlying DNA and influences the expression of neighboring genes. However, the mechanisms that regulate heterochromatin spreading are not well understood. In this study, we show that the conserved Mst2 histone acetyltransferase complex in fission yeast regulates histone turnover at heterochromatin regions to control heterochromatin spreading and prevents ectopic heterochromatin assembly...
2015: ELife
Elizabeth H Bayne, Dominika A Bijos, Sharon A White, Flavia de Lima Alves, Juri Rappsilber, Robin C Allshire
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin plays important roles in the regulation and stability of eukaryotic genomes. Both heterochromatin components and pathways that promote heterochromatin assembly, including RNA interference, RNAi, are broadly conserved between the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and humans. As a result, fission yeast has emerged as an important model system for dissecting mechanisms governing heterochromatin integrity. Thus far, over 50 proteins have been found to contribute to heterochromatin assembly at fission yeast centromeres...
2014: Genome Biology
Jiyong Wang, Xavier Tadeo, Haitong Hou, Patricia G Tu, James Thompson, John R Yates, Songtao Jia
Heterochromatin spreading leads to the silencing of genes within its path, and boundary elements have evolved to constrain such spreading. In fission yeast, heterochromatin at centromeres I and III is flanked by inverted repeats termed IRCs, which are required for proper boundary functions. However, the mechanisms by which IRCs prevent heterochromatin spreading are unknown. Here, we identified Bdf2, which is homologous to the mammalian bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family double bromodomain proteins involved in diverse types of cancers, as a factor required for proper boundary function at IRCs...
September 1, 2013: Genes & Development
Ozan Aygün, Sameet Mehta, Shiv I S Grewal
Heterochromatin causes epigenetic repression that can be transmitted through multiple cell divisions. However, the mechanisms underlying silencing and stability of heterochromatin are not fully understood. We show that heterochromatin differs from euchromatin in histone turnover and identify histone deacetylase (HDAC) Clr3 as a factor required for inhibiting histone turnover across heterochromatin domains in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Loss of RNA-interference factors, Clr4 methyltransferase or HP1 proteins involved in HDAC localization causes increased histone turnover across pericentromeric domains...
May 2013: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Sanki Tashiro, Tomohiro Asano, Junko Kanoh, Fuyuki Ishikawa
Facultative heterochromatin is reversibly established and disrupted during differentiation, but its regulation remains mechanistically unclear. Here, we show that two meiotic gene loci in fission yeast, mei4 and ssm4, comprise facultative heterochromatin that is regulated in a developmental stage-dependent manner. This heterochromatin coordinates expression levels by associating with a chromodomain protein Chp1 and an antisilencing factor Epe1. It has been recently shown that an RNA surveillance machinery for eliminating meiotic gene transcripts, which involves a cis-element called the determinant of selective removal (DSR) and transacting factors, Mmi1 and Red1, also participates in heterochromatin formation at the meiotic genes, but the molecular mechanism underlying the process is largely unknown...
April 2013: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Martin Zofall, Soichiro Yamanaka, Francisca E Reyes-Turcu, Ke Zhang, Chanan Rubin, Shiv I S Grewal
Facultative heterochromatin that changes during cellular differentiation coordinates regulated gene expression, but its assembly is poorly understood. Here, we describe facultative heterochromatin islands in fission yeast and show that their formation at meiotic genes requires factors that eliminate meiotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during vegetative growth. Blocking production of meiotic mRNA or loss of RNA elimination factors, including Mmi1 and Red1 proteins, abolishes heterochromatin islands. RNA elimination machinery is enriched at meiotic loci and interacts with Clr4/SUV39h, a methyltransferase involved in heterochromatin assembly...
January 6, 2012: Science
Sigurd Braun, Jennifer F Garcia, Margot Rowley, Mathieu Rougemaille, Smita Shankar, Hiten D Madhani
Partitioning of chromosomes into euchromatic and heterochromatic domains requires mechanisms that specify boundaries. The S. pombe JmjC family protein Epe1 prevents the ectopic spread of heterochromatin and is itself concentrated at boundaries. Paradoxically, Epe1 is recruited to heterochromatin by HP1 silencing factors that are distributed throughout heterochromatin. We demonstrate here that the selective enrichment of Epe1 at boundaries requires its regulation by the conserved Cul4-Ddb1(Cdt)² ubiquitin ligase, which directly recognizes Epe1 and promotes its polyubiquitylation and degradation...
January 7, 2011: Cell
John R Horton, Anup K Upadhyay, Hideharu Hashimoto, Xing Zhang, Xiaodong Cheng
PHF2 belongs to a class of α-ketoglutarate-Fe(2)(+)-dependent dioxygenases. PHF2 harbors a plant homeodomain (PHD) and a Jumonji domain. PHF2, via its PHD, binds Lys4-trimethylated histone 3 in submicromolar affinity and has been reported to have the demethylase activity of monomethylated lysine 9 of histone 3 in vivo. However, we did not detect demethylase activity for PHF2 Jumonji domain (with and without its linked PHD) in the context of histone peptides. We determined the crystal structures of PHF2 Jumonji domain in the absence and presence of additional exogenous metal ions...
February 11, 2011: Journal of Molecular Biology
Atsushi Shimada, Kohei Dohke, Mahito Sadaie, Kaori Shinmyozu, Jun-Ichi Nakayama, Takeshi Urano, Yota Murakami
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) recruits various effectors to heterochromatin for multiple functions, but its regulation is unclear. In fission yeast, a HP1 homolog Swi6 recruits SHREC, Epe1, and cohesin, which are involved in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), transcriptional activation, and sister chromatid cohesion, respectively. We found that casein kinase II (CK2) phosphorylated Swi6. Loss of CK2-dependent Swi6 phosphorylation alleviated heterochromatic TGS without affecting heterochromatin structure...
January 1, 2009: Genes & Development
Mahito Sadaie, Rika Kawaguchi, Yasuko Ohtani, Fumio Arisaka, Katsunori Tanaka, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Jun-Ichi Nakayama
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a conserved chromosomal protein with important roles in chromatin packaging and gene silencing. In fission yeast, two HP1 family proteins, Swi6 and Chp2, are involved in transcriptional silencing at heterochromatic regions, but how they function and whether they act cooperatively or differentially in heterochromatin assembly remain elusive. Here, we show that both Swi6 and Chp2 are required for the assembly of fully repressive heterochromatin, in which they play distinct, nonoverlapping roles...
December 2008: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Sarah C Trewick, Elsa Minc, Richard Antonelli, Takeshi Urano, Robin C Allshire
Heterochromatin normally has prescribed chromosomal positions and must not encroach on adjacent regions. We demonstrate that the fission yeast protein Epe1 stabilises silent chromatin, preventing the oscillation of heterochromatin domains. Epe1 loss leads to two contrasting phenotypes: alleviation of silencing within heterochromatin and expansion of silent chromatin into neighbouring euchromatin. Thus, we propose that Epe1 regulates heterochromatin assembly and disassembly, thereby affecting heterochromatin integrity, centromere function and chromosome segregation fidelity...
November 14, 2007: EMBO Journal
Sara Isaac, Julian Walfridsson, Tal Zohar, David Lazar, Tamar Kahan, Karl Ekwall, Amikam Cohen
Epe1 is a JmjC domain protein that antagonizes heterochromatization in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Related JmjC domain proteins catalyze a histone demethylation reaction that depends on Fe(II) and alpha-ketoglutarate. However, no detectable demethylase activity is associated with Epe1, and its JmjC domain lacks conservation of Fe(II)-binding residues. We report that Swi6 recruits Epe1 to heterochromatin and that overexpression of epe1+, like mutations in silencing genes or overexpression of swi6+, upregulates expression of certain genes...
April 2007: Genetics
André Verdel
HP1 is well known as a key silencing protein. However, in the June 9 issue of Molecular Cell, report that Swi6/HP1 recruits an antisilencing protein, Epe1, to facilitate transcription, leading to a model in which Swi6/HP1 is used as a platform to recruit both silencing and antisilencing activities.
June 23, 2006: Molecular Cell
Martin Zofall, Shiv I S Grewal
Heterochromatin formation is generally thought to result in transcriptional repression of target loci. However, RNAi-mediated heterochromatin assembly requires RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription. The mechanism facilitating Pol II accessibility to heterochromatin is unknown. We show that the fission yeast Epe1, a JmjC domain-containing protein and a negative regulator of heterochromatin, is distributed across all major heterochromatic domains and at certain meiotic genes. Remarkably, Epe1 is recruited to heterochromatic loci by the heterochromatin protein Swi6/HP1...
June 9, 2006: Molecular Cell
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