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Polymyxin B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782237/effect-of-porins-and-bla-kpc-expression-on-activity-of-imipenem-with-relebactam-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-can-antibiotic-combinations-overcome-resistance
#1
Gregory Balabanian, Michael Rose, Nyla Manning, David Landman, John Quale
Imipenem with relebactam is a novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor that has activity against most KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Using 10 isolates of KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae, we assessed the relationship between imipenem-relebactam minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mechanisms known to contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The effect of adding a second agent was assessed by time-kill experiments. Mutations affecting the genes encoding porins ompK35 and ompK36 and identification of β-lactamases were assessed by PCR...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774093/distribution-of-virulence-associated-genes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-clinical-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates
#2
Chao Liu, Yaowen Chang, Ying Xu, Yun Luo, Linrong Wu, Zhanjun Mei, Shigang Li, Rui Wang, Xu Jia
Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most clinically significant pathogens. The multidrug resistance and virulence potential of A. baumannii are responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections. Unlike numerous investigations on the drug-resistant epidemiology of A. baumanni , virulence molecular epidemiology is less studied. Here, we collected 88 A. baumannii clinical isolates, tested their antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 commonly used antibiotics and analyzed the distribution of 9 selected virulence-associated genes, aims to investigate the primary characteristics of the virulence-associated genes that exist in clinically multidrug resistant (MDR) and non-MDR isolates of A...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760690/two-new-lytic-bacteriophages-of-the-myoviridae-family-against-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#3
Weilong Zhou, Yu Feng, Zhiyong Zong
Two lytic bacteriophages, WCHABP1 and WCHABP12, were recovered from hospital sewage and were able to infect 9 and 12 out of 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, which belonged to different clones. Electron microscopy scan showed that both bacteriophages had the similar morphology as those of the Myoviridae family. Whole genomic sequencing revealed 45.4- or 45.8-kb genome with a 37.6% GC content for WCHABP1 and WCHABP12, both of which showed significant DNA sequence similarity with bacteriophages of the Ap22virus genus within the Myoviridae family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760144/personalizing-polymyxin-b-dosing-using-an-adaptive-feedback-control-algorithm
#4
Elizabeth A Lakota, Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Keith S Kaye, Gauri G Rao, Alan Forrest
Polymyxin B is used as an antibiotic of last resort for patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections; however, it carries a significant risk of nephrotoxicity. Herein we present a polymyxin B therapeutic window based on target area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values and an adaptive feedback control algorithm (algorithm) which allows for the personalization of polymyxin B dosing. The upper bound of this therapeutic window was determined through a pharmacometric meta-analysis of polymyxin B nephrotoxicity data, and the lower bound was derived from murine thigh-infection pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755727/antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-e-coli-isolated-from-raw-cow-milk-and-fresh-fruit-juice-in-mekelle-tigray-ethiopia
#5
Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Netsenet Berhe Gidey, Kidane Workelule, Hagos Hailu, Seyfe Gidey, Abrha Bsrat, Habtamu Taddele
Aim: Foodborne illnesses represent a public health problem in developed and developing countries. They cause great suffering and are transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans and circulate in the global environment . E. coli are among them, causing a major public health problem. The aim of this study was therefore to study the antimicrobial resistance profile of E. coli from raw cow milk and fruit juice. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2016 to June 2017 on 258 samples collected from milk shops ( n = 86), dairy farms ( n = 86), and fruit juice ( n = 86) in different subcities of Mekelle...
2018: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739882/gene-expression-kinetics-governs-stimulus-specific-decoration-of-the-salmonella-outer-membrane
#6
Xinyu Hong, H Deborah Chen, Eduardo A Groisman
Lipid A is the innermost component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that occupy the outer leaflet of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid A is recognized by the host immune system and targeted by cationic antimicrobial compounds. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the phosphates of lipid A are chemically modified by enzymes encoded by targets of the transcriptional regulator PmrA. These modifications increase resistance to the cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B by reducing the negative charge of the LPS...
May 8, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713282/synergistic-killing-of-polymyxin-b-in-combination-with-the-antineoplastic-drug-mitotane-against-polymyxin-susceptible-and-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-metabolomic-study
#7
Thien B Tran, Phillip J Bergen, Darren J Creek, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Polymyxins are currently used as the last-resort antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . As resistance to polymyxins emerges in A. baumannii with monotherapy, combination therapy is often the only remaining treatment option. A novel approach is to employ the combination of polymyxin B with non-antibiotic drugs. In the present study, we employed metabolomics to investigate the synergistic mechanism of polymyxin B in combination with the antineoplastic drug mitotane against polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706941/novel-polymyxin-combination-with-antineoplastic-mitotane-improved-the-bacterial-killing-against-polymyxin-resistant-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#8
Thien B Tran, Jiping Wang, Yohei Doi, Tony Velkov, Phillip J Bergen, Jian Li
Due to limited new antibiotics, polymyxins are increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, in particular carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Unfortunately, polymyxin monotherapy has led to the emergence of resistance. Polymyxin combination therapy has been demonstrated to improve bacterial killing and prevent the emergence of resistance. From a preliminary screening of an FDA drug library, we identified antineoplastic mitotane as a potential candidate for combination therapy with polymyxin B against polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701307/exogenous-fatty-acids-alter-phospholipid-composition-membrane-permeability-capacity-for-biofilm-formation-and-antimicrobial-peptide-susceptibility-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#9
Chelsea R Hobby, Joshua L Herndon, Colton A Morrow, Rachel E Peters, Steven J K Symes, David K Giles
Klebsiella pneumoniae represents a major threat to human health due to a combination of its nosocomial emergence and a propensity for acquiring antibiotic resistance. Dissemination of the bacteria from its native intestinal location creates severe, complicated infections that are particularly problematic in healthcare settings. Thus, there is an urgency for identifying novel treatment regimens as the incidence of highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria rises. Recent findings have highlighted the ability of some Gram-negative bacteria to utilize exogenous fatty acids in ways that modify membrane phospholipids and influence virulence phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance...
April 27, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700569/enzyme-oxidation-of-plant-galactomannans-yielding-biomaterials-with-novel-properties-and-applications-including-as-delivery-systems
#10
REVIEW
Yves M Galante, Luca Merlini, Tiziana Silvetti, Paola Campia, Bianca Rossi, Fiorenza Viani, Milena Brasca
New biomaterials from renewable sources and the development of "functionalized biopolymers" are fields of growing industrial interest. Plant polysaccharides represent a valid alternative to traditional synthetic polymers, which are obtained from monomers of fossil, non-renewable origin. Several polysaccharides, either in their natural or chemically/biochemically modified forms, are currently employed in the biomedical, food and feed, and industrial fields, including packaging. Sustainable biochemical reactions, such as enzyme modifications of polysaccharides, open further possibilities for new product and process innovation...
April 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686157/antimicrobial-activity-of-murepavadin-tested-against-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-the-united-states-europe-and-china
#11
Helio S Sader, Glenn E Dale, Paul R Rhomberg, Robert K Flamm
Murepavadin (formerly POL7080), a 14-amino-acid cyclic peptide, and comparators were tested by broth microdilution method against 1,219 isolates from 112 medical centers. Murepavadin (MIC50/90 , 0.12/0.12 mg/L) was 4- to 8-fold more active than colistin (MIC50/90 , 1/1 mg/L) and polymyxin B (MIC50/90 , 0.5/1 mg/L) and inhibited 99.1% of isolates at ≤0.5 mg/L. Only 4 isolates (0.3%) exhibited murepavadin MIC >2 mg/L. Murepavadin was equally active against isolates from Europe, the United States, and China...
April 23, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677669/toxicological-interaction-of-multi-component-mixtures-to-vibrio-qinghaiensis-sp-q67-induced-by-at-least-three-components
#12
Ya-Qian Xu, Shu-Shen Liu, Ye Fan, Kai Li
It has been stated by researchers that the antibiotic polymyxin B sulfate (POL) is a key component inducing time-dependent antagonism in freshwater luminescent bacteria, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67, exposed in the ternary mixture system of the ionic liquids, pesticide and antibiotics. However, the previous statement is limited to ternary and quaternary mixtures without considering situations such as the binary system. In order to prove the direct inducing of antagonism by POL in a more complete and systematic way, two categories of experiments (adding POL in non-antagonistic ternary system and decomposing antagonistic ternary system with POL into the binary system) have been conducted in this paper...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674848/biofilm-infections-between-scylla-and-charybdis-interplay-of-host-antimicrobial-peptides-and-antibiotics
#13
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674129/polymyxin-b-etest%C3%A2-compared-to-gold-standard-broth-microdilution-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-exhibiting-a-wide-range-of-polymyxin-b-mics
#14
Brandon Kulengowski, Julie A Ribes, David S Burgess
OBJECTIVES: Polymyxins have been revitalized to combat carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). However, evaluating the activity of these agents by traditional broth dilution methods is not practical for busy clinical laboratories. We compared polymyxin B (PMB) activity utilizing two quantitative susceptibility testing methods, Etest® and broth microdilution (BMD), against CRE isolates from patients at an academic medical center. METHODS: PMB activity against 70 CRE clinical isolates was determined by EtestP® P according to manufacturer and by BMD according to CLSI guidelines...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672307/extended-sessions-of-polymyxin-b-immobilized-fiber-column-hemoperfusion-ameliorate-renal-outcome-and-mortality-in-septic-shock-with-acute-kidney-injury
#15
Hiroshi Maekawa, Kousuke Negishi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polymyxin-B (PMX) treatment has been reported to decrease mortality in patients with septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether extended sessions of PMX (Ext-PMX) immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion ameliorate clinical outcomes in patients complicated with septic shock and AKI without surgical control. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with nonsurgical septic shock and AKI who received PMX were included...
April 19, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623443/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations-of-antibiotics-of-last-resort-in-treating-gram-negative-infections-in-adult-critically-ill-patients
#16
REVIEW
Mojdeh S Heavner, Kimberly C Claeys, Anne M Masich, Jeffrey P Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of antimicrobials that are considered last resort for the treatment of resistant gram-negative infections in adult critically ill patients. The role in therapy, pharmacodynamic (PD) goals, and pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in critical illness for aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered PK in septic patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is observed with many of our agents of last resort...
April 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577795/regional-citrate-calcium-anticoagulation-during-polymyxin-b-hemoperfusion-a-case-series
#17
Francesco Forfori, Etrusca Brogi, Anna Sidoti, Martina Giraudini, Gianpaola Monti, Nadia Zarrillo, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Claudio Ronco
INTRODUCTION: So far, only heparin-based anticoagulation has been proposed during polymyxin-B hemoperfusion. However, postsurgical septic patients can be at high risk of bleeding due to either surgical complications or septic coagulation derangement. Consequently, heparin should not represent in some cases the anticoagulation regimen of choice in this type of patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a case series of four postsurgical septic patients treated with polymyxin-B hemoperfusion using regional citrate anticoagulation...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575185/identification-of-vim-2-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-dogs-with-pyoderma-and-otitis-in-korea
#18
Jae-Eun Hyun, Tae-Ho Chung, Cheol-Yong Hwang
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen cultured from cases of acute and chronic canine otitis and sometimes in cases of deep pyoderma. The spread of antimicrobial resistance, especially carbapenem resistance, is a serious therapeutic challenge worldwide. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the identification and characterization of resistant P. aeruginosa clinical canine isolates. MATERIALS: Clinical isolates (n = 80) were collected from dogs with pyoderma (n = 18) and otitis (n = 62) in Korea...
March 25, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571295/comparison-of-nephrotoxicity-of-colistin-with-polymyxin-b-administered-in-currently-recommended-doses-a-prospective-study
#19
Ritesh Aggarwal, Arun Dewan
BACKGROUND: The most important concern with polymyxins (Colistin and Polymyxin B) use is nephrotoxicity. There is no prospective data comparing nephrotoxicity of these two drugs, when administered in high doses and as per current recommendations. We conducted a prospective study to compare their trend of nephrotoxicity in our patient population. METHODS: Our study included adult ICU patients who received more than 48 h of Colistin or Polymyxin B and had no confounding factors for nephrotoxicity...
March 23, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566734/acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-lessons-learned-from-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Marchioni, Roberto Tonelli, Lorenzo Ball, Riccardo Fantini, Ivana Castaniere, Stefania Cerri, Fabrizio Luppi, Mario Malerba, Paolo Pelosi, Enrico Clini
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrotic lung disease characterized by progressive loss of lung function and poor prognosis. The so-called acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) may lead to severe hypoxemia requiring mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). AE-IPF shares several pathophysiological features with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a very severe condition commonly treated in this setting.A review of the literature has been conducted to underline similarities and differences in the management of patients with AE-IPF and ARDS...
March 23, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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