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Polymyxin B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919164/differences-in-allergic-inflammatory-responses-in-murine-lungs-comparison-of-pm2-5-and-coarse-pm-collected-during-the-hazy-events-in-a-chinese-city
#1
Miao He, Takamichi Ichinose, Seiichi Yoshida, Fumiko Shiba, Keiichi Arashidani, Hirohisa Takano, Guifan Sun, Takayuki Shibamoto
Urban particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increase in asthma. PM2.5 (<PM2.5 μm) and coarse PM (CPM: PM2.5-PM10 μm) were collected from the air in a Chinese city during haze events. The amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in PM2.5 than in CPM. Conversely, microbial elements LPS and β-glucan were much higher in CPM than in PM2.5. Concentrations of Si, Al, Fe, and Ti in CPM were greater than in PM2.5, while Pb, Cu and As concentrations were lower than in PM2.5. When RAW264...
December 5, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914450/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-injury-of-renal-tubular-cells-in-a-cellular-model-of-pyelonephritis
#2
M A Morosanova, E Y Plotnikov, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, V A Popkov, D N Silachev, S S Jankauskas, V A Babenko, D B Zorov
Previously, we have assembled a cellular model of pyelonephritis which contains a primary culture of renal tubular epithelial cells, mononuclear leukocytes, and bacterial lysate or lipopolysaccharide. After cocultivation of renal cells with leukocytes and bacterial lysate, proinflammatory changes were observed in the renal cells, followed by nitrosative and oxidative stress and cell death. The interaction of bacterial antigens not only with leukocytes, but also with epithelial cells of the renal tubules, was partially mediated by signaling pathways involving Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4)...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902404/ultrastructural-changes-caused-by-polymyxin-b-and-meropenem-in-multiresistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carrying-blakpc-2-gene
#3
Alexsandra Scavuzzi, Luiz Carlos Alves, Dyana Leal Veras, Fábio André Brayner, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes
The ultrastructural alterations caused by polymyxin B, meropenem and by the association between polymyxin B and meropenem were investigated in 2 multiresistant isolates of K. pneumoniae (K3-A2 and K12-A2) carriers of blaKPC-2, coming from infection and colonization in patients of a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. The ultrastructural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy and scanning. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was tested by the disk diffusion method and microdilution in broth...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896620/antimicrobial-activity-of-topical-agents-against-propionibacterium-acnes-an-in-vitro-study-of-clinical-isolates-from-a-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#4
Ying Ma, Nanxue Zhang, Shi Wu, Haihui Huang, Yanpei Cao
This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial activities of topical agents against Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients admitted to a hospital in Shanghai, China. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the cultured P. acnes were determined in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibilities to clindamycin and erythromycin were compared in terms of gender, age, disease duration, previous treatment, and disease severity. A total of 69 P. acnes strains were isolated from 98 patients (70...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886433/the-burkholderia-cenocepacia-peptidoglycan-associated-lipoprotein-is-involved-in-epithelial-cell-attachment-and-elicitation-of-inflammation
#5
Ruth Dennehy, Maria Romano, Alessia Ruggiero, Yasmine F Mohamed, Simon L Dignam, Cristóbal Mujica Troncoso, Máire Callaghan, Miguel A Valvano, Rita Berisio, Siobhán McClean
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens causing infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc is highly antibiotic resistant, making conventional antibiotic treatment problematic. The identification of novel targets for anti-virulence therapies should improve therapeutic options for infected CF patients. We previously identified that the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal) was immunogenic in Bcc infected CF patients; however, its role in Bcc pathogenesis is unknown...
November 7, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886280/starvation-and-antibiotics-induced-formation-of-persister-cells-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Patrik Mlynarcik, Milan Kolar
BACKGROUND: Planktonic stationary and exponential cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are highly resistant to killing by bactericidal antimicrobials because of the presence of persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and play a key role in the recalcitrance of biofilm infections. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the formation of persister cells in P. aeruginosa stationary vs. exponential cultures using different class antimicrobials. METHODS: The susceptibilities of P...
November 23, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885285/emergence-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-due-to-arma-methylase-in-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-nepal
#7
S Shrestha, T Tada, B Shrestha, T Kirikae, H Ohara, B P Rijal, B M Pokhrel, J B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with hospital-acquired infections has been increasingly reported worldwide. 16S rRNA methylase producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides from hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the emergence of armA in A.baumannii species associated with nosocomial infection in a university hospital in Nepal...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880838/detection-of-endotoxin-contamination-of-graphene-based-materials-using-the-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-test-and-guidelines-for-endotoxin-free-graphene-oxide-production
#8
Sourav P Mukherjee, Neus Lozano, Melanie Kucki, Antonio E Del Rio-Castillo, Leon Newman, Ester Vázquez, Kostas Kostarelos, Peter Wick, Bengt Fadeel
Nanomaterials may be contaminated with bacterial endotoxin during production and handling, which may confound toxicological testing of these materials, not least when assessing for immunotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluated the conventional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for endotoxin detection in graphene based material (GBM) samples, including graphene oxide (GO) and few-layered graphene (FLG). Our results showed that some GO samples interfered with various formats of the LAL assay. To overcome this problem, we developed a TNF-α expression test (TET) using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages incubated in the presence or absence of the endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B sulfate, and found that this assay, performed with non-cytotoxic doses of the GBM samples, enabled unequivocal detection of endotoxin with a sensitivity that is comparable to the LAL assay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876274/are-there-any-ways-around-the-exposure-limiting-nephrotoxicity-of-the-polymyxins
#9
Jason M Pogue, Jessica K Ortwine, Keith S Kaye
The polymyxins (colistin and polymyxin B) have emerged over the past 20 years as essential antibacterial agents that often are the only remaining active class against troublesome multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli such as carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. The utility of this class is limited by its dose-dependent nephrotoxicity, which can occur in more than one-half of patients receiving therapy with either agent. Strategies are urgently needed to optimise the use of this class of agents to ensure optimal activity while minimising the treatment-limiting nephrotoxicity...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872122/polymyxin-b-immobilised-haemoperfusion-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis-septic-shock-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Tomoko Fujii, Riki Ganeko, Yuki Kataoka, Robin Featherstone, Sean M Bagshaw, Toshi A Furukawa
INTRODUCTION: Polymyxin-B immobilised haemoperfusion (PMX-HP) is a promising adjuvant strategy for the treatment of sepsis and septic shock. PMX-HP therapy works by clearing circulating endotoxin through binding to polymyxin-immobilised fibres during haemoperfusion. Small clinical trials have shown that PMX-HP therapy is associated with improved haemodynamic profile, oxygenation and survival. However, clear inferences have been largely inconclusive due to limitations in study design (eg, small, unblinded) and generalisability...
November 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872078/polymyxin-b-in-combination-with-rifampin-and-meropenem-against-polymyxin-b-resistant-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#11
John Diep, David M Jacobs, Rajnikant Sharma, Jenna Covelli, Dana R Bowers, Thomas A Russo, Gauri G Rao
Safe and effective therapies are urgently needed to treat polymyxin-resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and suppress the emergence of resistance. We investigated the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B, rifampin, and meropenem alone and as polymyxin B-based double and triple combinations against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae The rate and extent of killing with polymyxin B (1-128mg/L), rifampin (2-16mg/L), and meropenem (10-120mg/L) were evaluated against polymyxin B-susceptible (PB(S)) and -resistant (PB(R)) clinical isolates using 48h static time-kills...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872073/exploring-the-role-of-the-%C3%AE-loop-in-the-evolution-of-ceftazidime-resistance-in-the-pena-%C3%AE-lactamase-from-burkholderia-multivorans-an-important-cystic-fibrosis-pathogen
#12
Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Scott A Becka, Magdalena A Taracila, Elise T Zeiser, Julian A Gatta, John J LiPuma, Robert A Bonomo
The unwelcome evolution of resistance to the advanced generation cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftazidime is hindering the effective therapy of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections. Regrettably, Bcc are highly resistant to most antibiotics, including polymyxins; ceftazidime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are the most effective treatment options. Unfortunately, resistance to ceftazidime is increasing and posing a health threat to populations susceptible to Bcc infection. We found that up to 36% of 146 tested Bcc clinical isolates were non-susceptible to ceftazidime...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869206/endotoxin-free-hyaluronan-and-hyaluronan-fragments-do-not-stimulate-tnf-%C3%AE-interleukin-12-or-upregulate-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#13
Yifei Dong, Arif Arif, Mia Olsson, Valbona Cali, Blair Hardman, Manisha Dosanjh, Mark Lauer, Ronald J Midura, Vincent C Hascall, Kelly L Brown, Pauline Johnson
The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has been described as a regulator of tissue inflammation, with hyaluronan fragments reported to stimulate innate immune cells. High molecular mass hyaluronan is normally present in tissues, but upon inflammation lower molecular mass fragments are generated. It is unclear if these hyaluronan fragments induce an inflammatory response or are a consequence of inflammation. In this study, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated with various sizes of hyaluronan from different sources, fragmented hyaluronan, hyaluronidases and heavy chain modified-hyaluronan (HA-HC)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869062/is-the-polymyxin-b-resistance-among-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-except-for-the-carbapenemase-producing-ones-a-myth-or-a-matter
#14
Leandro Reus Rodrigues Perez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865626/synergistic-combinations-of-polymyxins
#15
Justin R Lenhard, Roger L Nation, Brian T Tsuji
The proliferation of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has necessitated the therapeutic use of colistin and polymyxin B. However, treatment failures with polymyxin monotherapies and the emergence of polymyxin resistance have catalysed the search for polymyxin combinations that synergistically kill polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant organisms. This mini-review examines recent (2011-2016) in vitro and in vivo studies that have attempted to identify synergistic polymyxin combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850352/714-safety-of-continuous-infusion-of-polymyxin-b-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients
#16
Yarelis Alvarado, Raquel Cruz, Julia Gonzalez, Yeiry Perez, William Wolowich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833719/antibiotic-resistance-properties-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-cases-of-superficial-infections-at-the-emergency-unit
#17
Koorosh Ahmadi, Amir Masoud Hashemian, Seyyed Mohsen Pouryaghobi, Reza Akhavan, Sara Rozmina, Ehsan Bolvardi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, is one of the main causative agents of human superficial infections. Infections due to these bacteria are difficult to heal and cause serious economic issues. OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa isolated from cases of superficial infections referred to the emergency health care units of Iranian Hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred swab samples were collected from patients with superficial infections...
January 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826444/efficacy-of-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-for-the-treatment-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-single-arm-non-randomized-prospective-clinical-trial
#18
Sho Hayakawa, Yasuo Matsuzawa, Tamako Irie, Hagino Rikitake, Noriaki Okada, Yasuo Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Coagulation abnormalities are involved in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). The administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM), which has both anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activities, improves outcomes and respiratory function in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, we conducted a prospective clinical study to examine the effects of rhTM on respiratory function, coagulation markers, and outcomes for patients with AE-IPF...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825605/antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae-in-brazil-focus-on-%C3%AE-lactams-and-polymyxins
#19
REVIEW
Jorge Luiz Mello Sampaio, Ana Cristina Gales
During the last 30 years there has been a dissemination of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are widely disseminated in the hospital setting and are detected in a lower frequency in the community setting. Cefotaximases are the most frequently detected ESBL type and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant species among ESBL producers. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae became widely disseminated in Brazil during the last decade and KPC production is currently the most frequent resistance mechanism (96...
October 25, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819748/topical-antibiotics-for-preventing-surgical-site-infection-in-wounds-healing-by-primary-intention
#20
REVIEW
Clare F Heal, Jennifer L Banks, Phoebe D Lepper, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) can delay wound healing, impair cosmetic outcome and increase healthcare costs. Topical antibiotics are sometimes used to reduce microbial contaminant exposure following surgical procedures, with the aim of reducing SSIs. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine whether the application of topical antibiotics to surgical wounds that are healing by primary intention reduces the incidence of SSI and whether it increases the incidence of adverse outcomes (allergic contact dermatitis, infections with patterns of antibiotic resistance and anaphylaxis)...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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