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Idebenone AND mitochondria

Dora Ravasz, Gergely Kacso, Viktoria Fodor, Kata Horvath, Vera Adam-Vizi, Christos Chinopoulos
Provision of NAD+ for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA by the ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is critical for maintained operation of succinyl-CoA ligase yielding high-energy phosphates, a process known as mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation (mSLP). We have shown previously that when NADH oxidation by complex I is inhibited by rotenone or anoxia, mitochondrial diaphorases yield NAD+ , provided that suitable quinones are present (Kiss G et al., FASEB J 2014, 28:1682)...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Agaath Hedina Manickam, Minu Jenifer Michael, Sivasamy Ramasamy
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a common inherited mitochondrial disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of the optic nerves, leading to vision loss. The major mutations in the mitochondrial genes ND1, ND4, and ND6 of LHON subjects are found to increase the oxidative stress experienced by the optic nerve cell, thereby leading to nerve cell damage. Accurate treatments are not available and drugs that are commercially available like Idebenone, EPI-743, and Bendavia with their antioxidant role help in reducing the oxidative stress experienced by the cell thereby preventing the progression of the disease...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
J Augustyniak, J Lenart, M Zychowicz, P P Stepien, L Buzanska
Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone depends on the stage of neural differentiation. When: neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and advanced neural progenitors (NP) have been studied a significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis was observed only at the eNP stage of development...
August 2017: Biogerontology
Eszter Dombi, Heather Mortiboys, Joanna Poulton
Mitochondrial diseases may result from mutations in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or from mutations in nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Their bi-genomic nature makes mitochondrial diseases a very heterogeneous group of disorders that can present at any age and can affect any type of tissue. The autophagic-lysosomal degradation pathway plays an important role in clearing dysfunctional and redundant mitochondria through a specific quality control mechanism termed mitophagy. Mitochondria could be targeted for autophagic degradation for a variety of reasons including basal turnover for recycling, starvation induced degradation, and degradation due to damage...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Manuela Graziani, Paolo Sarti, Marzia Arese, Maria Chiara Magnifico, Aldo Badiani, Luciano Saso
Cocaine abuse has long been known to cause morbidity and mortality due to its cardiovascular toxic effects. The pathogenesis of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine use has been largely reviewed, and the most recent data indicate a fundamental role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress. The comprehension of the mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction could help in selecting the most appropriate mitochondria injury biological marker, such as superoxide dismutase-2 activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Lucia Montenegro, Maria N Modica, Loredana Salerno, Anna Maria Panico, Lucia Crascì, Giovanni Puglisi, Giuseppe Romeo
Idebenone (IDE) has been proposed for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases involving mitochondria dysfunctions. Unfortunately, to date, IDE therapeutic treatments have not been as successful as expected. To improve IDE efficacy, in this work we describe a two-step approach: (1) synthesis of IDE ester derivatives by covalent linking IDE to other two antioxidants, trolox (IDETRL) and lipoic acid (IDELIP), to obtain a synergic effect; (2) loading of IDE, IDETRL, or IDELIP into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to improve IDE and its esters' water solubility while increasing and prolonging their antioxidant activity...
May 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sandra Elincx-Benizri, Amir Glik, Drorit Merkel, Michael Arad, Dov Freimark, Evgenia Kozlova, Ioav Cabantchik, Sharon Hassin-Baer
Friedreich ataxia is an inherited disorder characterized by degeneration of the peripheral and central nervous system and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Homozygous mutations in the frataxine (FXN) gene reduce expression of frataxin and cause accumulation of iron in the mitochondria. Deferiprone, an oral iron chelator, has been shown effective in cell and animal models of Friedreich ataxia. The results of a 6-month randomized, double blind placebo-controlled study suggested that deferiprone 20 mg/kg/day may reduce disease progression...
July 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Chao Xu, Ting Liu, Shu Yuan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yee-Ki Lee, Yee-Man Lau, Kwong-Man Ng, Wing-Hon Lai, Shu-Leong Ho, Hung-Fat Tse, Chung-Wah Siu, Philip Wing-Lok Ho
BACKGROUND: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a recessive neurodegenerative disorder commonly associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is caused by silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene encoding the mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. METHODS: Application of our previously established FRDA human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes model as a platform to assess the efficacy of treatment with either the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 analog, idebenone (IDE) or the iron chelator, deferiprone (DFP), which are both under clinical trial...
January 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Josef Finsterer, Anushree Mishra, Salma Wakil, Maria Pennuto, Gianni Soraru
There is increasing evidence that mitochondrial functions are secondarily disturbed in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA). This review focuses on the relation between BSMA and the effect of the expanded polyglutamine (poly-Q) androgen receptor (AR) on mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial functions in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (SBMA) are affected on the molecular, clinical, and therapeutic level. On the molecular level there is down-regulation of various nuclear-DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins by mutant androgen receptor (mAR), colocalization of the mAR with various mitochondrial proteins, association of mAR aggregates with mitochondria resulting in abnormal distribution of mitochondria, mtDNA depletion or multiple mtDNA deletions, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increase in reactive oxidative species, and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway...
2015: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Pengfei Lin, Junling Liu, Ming Ren, Kunqian Ji, Ling Li, Bin Zhang, Yaoqin Gong, Chuanzhu Yan
The early stages of the atherosclerotic process are initiated by accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and damage to the structure or function of the endothelium. Antioxidant supplementation may be a plausible strategy to prevent atherosclerotic disease by quenching excessive reactive oxidative species. In the present study, we demonstrated that idebenone at suitable concentrations significantly prevented oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms of idebenone included inhibition of oxidative damage, suppression of the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL...
September 25, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maria Raye Anne V Ng, Patrick J Antonelli, Jerin Joseph, Carolyn Ojano Dirain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of concurrent treatment with gentamicin and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone (MitoQ; which may prevent gentamicin ototoxicity) on change in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)), a precursor of apoptosis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and controlled. SETTING: Academic research laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: LLC-PK1 (Lilly Laboratories Culture-Pig Kidney Type 1) and HEI-OC1 (House Ear Institute Organ of Corti 1) cells-renal and auditory cell lines, respectively-were used in this study...
April 2015: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Armon Jadidian, Patrick J Antonelli, Carolyn P Ojano-Dirain
HYPOTHESIS: Mitoquinone (MitoQ) attenuates aminoglycoside (AG)-induced upregulation of the proapoptotic molecules Bak and harakiri (Hrk) and decreases the percentage of apoptotic House Ear Institute Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells. BACKGROUND: The primary mechanism of AG ototoxicity is the formation of reactive oxygen species, which leads to hair cell death via apoptotic and nonapoptotic pathways. Antioxidants have been shown to protect against AG ototoxicity. Mitoquinone is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the antioxidant ubiquinone...
March 2015: Otology & Neurotology
Pablo M Arce, Omar M Khdour, Ruth Goldschmidt, Jeffrey S Armstrong, Sidney M Hecht
An aza analogue (1) of the experimental neuroprotective drug idebenone has been prepared and evaluated. The compound quenches lipid peroxidation more effectively than α-tocopherol and potently suppresses reactive oxygen species in cells under oxidative stress. It is thought to do so via a catalytic cycle in which both forms of oxidative stress are suppressed simultaneously. Consequently, the compound effectively protects cultured CEM leukemia cells and Friedreich's ataxia fibroblasts from oxidative stress more effectively than idebenone or idebenol...
August 11, 2011: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jia Liu, Lu-ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative movement disorders mainly include Parkinson's disease (PD), atypical parkinsonisms, Huntington's disease (HD), and Friedreich's ataxia (FA). With mitochondrial dysfunction observed in these diseases, mitochondrial enhancement such as creatine, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and its analogues (idebenone and mitoquinone) has been regarded as a potential treatment. AIM: In this paper, we systematically analysed and summarized the efficacy of mitochondrial enhancement in improving motor and other symptoms in neurodegenerative movement disorders...
January 2014: CNS Drugs
Ying Wang, Siegfried Hekimi
Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ...
December 1, 2013: Human Molecular Genetics
Brígida R Pinho, Miguel M Santos, Anabela Fonseca-Silva, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Jorge M A Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone...
July 2013: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sirena Soriano, José V Llorens, Laura Blanco-Sobero, Lucía Gutiérrez, Pablo Calap-Quintana, M Puerto Morales, M Dolores Moltó, M José Martínez-Sebastián
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia, is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a reduction in the levels of the mitochondrial protein frataxin, the function of which remains a controversial matter. Several therapeutic approaches are being developed to increase frataxin expression and reduce the intramitochondrial iron aggregates and oxidative damage found in this disease. In this study, we tested separately the response of a Drosophila RNAi model of FRDA (Llorens et al., 2007) to treatment with the iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) and the antioxidant idebenone (IDE), which are both in clinical trials...
June 1, 2013: Gene
David M Fash, Omar M Khdour, Sunil J Sahdeo, Ruth Goldschmidt, Jennifer Jaruvangsanti, Sriloy Dey, Pablo M Arce, Valérie C Collin, Gino A Cortopassi, Sidney M Hecht
The effect of the alkyl side chain length of coenzyme Q10 on mitochondrial respiratory chain function has been investigated by the use of synthetic ubiquinone derivatives. Three analogues (3, 4 and 6) were identified that exhibited significantly improved effects on mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, and also conferred significant cytoprotection on cultured mammalian cells in which glutathione had been depleted by treatment with diethyl maleate. The analogues also exhibited lesser inhibition of the electron transport chain than idebenone...
April 15, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Douglas S Kerr
Over the last 15 years, some 16 open and controlled clinical trials for potential treatments of mitochondrial diseases have been reported or are in progress, and are summarized and reviewed herein. These include trials of administering dichloroacetate (an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), arginine or citrulline (precursors of nitric oxide), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10; part of the electron transport chain and an antioxidant), idebenone (a synthetic analogue of CoQ10), EPI-743 (a novel oral potent 2-electron redox cycling agent), creatine (a precursor of phosphocreatine), combined administration (of creatine, α-lipoate, and CoQ10), and exercise training (to increase muscle mitochondria)...
April 2013: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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