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Idebenone AND mitochondria

Sandra Elincx-Benizri, Amir Glik, Drorit Merkel, Michael Arad, Dov Freimark, Evgenia Kozlova, Ioav Cabantchik, Sharon Hassin-Baer
Friedreich ataxia is an inherited disorder characterized by degeneration of the peripheral and central nervous system and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Homozygous mutations in the frataxine (FXN) gene reduce expression of frataxin and cause accumulation of iron in the mitochondria. Deferiprone, an oral iron chelator, has been shown effective in cell and animal models of Friedreich ataxia. The results of a 6-month randomized, double blind placebo-controlled study suggested that deferiprone 20 mg/kg/day may reduce disease progression...
July 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Chao Xu, Ting Liu, Shu Yuan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yee-Ki Lee, Yee-Man Lau, Kwong-Man Ng, Wing-Hon Lai, Shu-Leong Ho, Hung-Fat Tse, Chung-Wah Siu, Philip Wing-Lok Ho
BACKGROUND: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a recessive neurodegenerative disorder commonly associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is caused by silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene encoding the mitochondrial protein involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. METHODS: Application of our previously established FRDA human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived cardiomyocytes model as a platform to assess the efficacy of treatment with either the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 analog, idebenone (IDE) or the iron chelator, deferiprone (DFP), which are both under clinical trial...
January 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Josef Finsterer, Anushree Mishra, Salma Wakil, Maria Pennuto, Gianni Soraru
There is increasing evidence that mitochondrial functions are secondarily disturbed in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA). This review focuses on the relation between BSMA and the effect of the expanded polyglutamine (poly-Q) androgen receptor (AR) on mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial functions in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (SBMA) are affected on the molecular, clinical, and therapeutic level. On the molecular level there is down-regulation of various nuclear-DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins by mutant androgen receptor (mAR), colocalization of the mAR with various mitochondrial proteins, association of mAR aggregates with mitochondria resulting in abnormal distribution of mitochondria, mtDNA depletion or multiple mtDNA deletions, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increase in reactive oxidative species, and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway...
2015: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Pengfei Lin, Junling Liu, Ming Ren, Kunqian Ji, Ling Li, Bin Zhang, Yaoqin Gong, Chuanzhu Yan
The early stages of the atherosclerotic process are initiated by accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and damage to the structure or function of the endothelium. Antioxidant supplementation may be a plausible strategy to prevent atherosclerotic disease by quenching excessive reactive oxidative species. In the present study, we demonstrated that idebenone at suitable concentrations significantly prevented oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms of idebenone included inhibition of oxidative damage, suppression of the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL...
September 25, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maria Raye Anne V Ng, Patrick J Antonelli, Jerin Joseph, Carolyn Ojano Dirain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of concurrent treatment with gentamicin and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone (MitoQ; which may prevent gentamicin ototoxicity) on change in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)), a precursor of apoptosis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and controlled. SETTING: Academic research laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: LLC-PK1 (Lilly Laboratories Culture-Pig Kidney Type 1) and HEI-OC1 (House Ear Institute Organ of Corti 1) cells-renal and auditory cell lines, respectively-were used in this study...
April 2015: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Armon Jadidian, Patrick J Antonelli, Carolyn P Ojano-Dirain
HYPOTHESIS: Mitoquinone (MitoQ) attenuates aminoglycoside (AG)-induced upregulation of the proapoptotic molecules Bak and harakiri (Hrk) and decreases the percentage of apoptotic House Ear Institute Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells. BACKGROUND: The primary mechanism of AG ototoxicity is the formation of reactive oxygen species, which leads to hair cell death via apoptotic and nonapoptotic pathways. Antioxidants have been shown to protect against AG ototoxicity. Mitoquinone is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the antioxidant ubiquinone...
March 2015: Otology & Neurotology
Pablo M Arce, Omar M Khdour, Ruth Goldschmidt, Jeffrey S Armstrong, Sidney M Hecht
An aza analogue (1) of the experimental neuroprotective drug idebenone has been prepared and evaluated. The compound quenches lipid peroxidation more effectively than α-tocopherol and potently suppresses reactive oxygen species in cells under oxidative stress. It is thought to do so via a catalytic cycle in which both forms of oxidative stress are suppressed simultaneously. Consequently, the compound effectively protects cultured CEM leukemia cells and Friedreich's ataxia fibroblasts from oxidative stress more effectively than idebenone or idebenol...
August 11, 2011: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jia Liu, Lu-ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative movement disorders mainly include Parkinson's disease (PD), atypical parkinsonisms, Huntington's disease (HD), and Friedreich's ataxia (FA). With mitochondrial dysfunction observed in these diseases, mitochondrial enhancement such as creatine, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and its analogues (idebenone and mitoquinone) has been regarded as a potential treatment. AIM: In this paper, we systematically analysed and summarized the efficacy of mitochondrial enhancement in improving motor and other symptoms in neurodegenerative movement disorders...
January 2014: CNS Drugs
Ying Wang, Siegfried Hekimi
Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ...
December 1, 2013: Human Molecular Genetics
Brígida R Pinho, Miguel M Santos, Anabela Fonseca-Silva, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Jorge M A Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone...
July 2013: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sirena Soriano, José V Llorens, Laura Blanco-Sobero, Lucía Gutiérrez, Pablo Calap-Quintana, M Puerto Morales, M Dolores Moltó, M José Martínez-Sebastián
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia, is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a reduction in the levels of the mitochondrial protein frataxin, the function of which remains a controversial matter. Several therapeutic approaches are being developed to increase frataxin expression and reduce the intramitochondrial iron aggregates and oxidative damage found in this disease. In this study, we tested separately the response of a Drosophila RNAi model of FRDA (Llorens et al., 2007) to treatment with the iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) and the antioxidant idebenone (IDE), which are both in clinical trials...
June 1, 2013: Gene
David M Fash, Omar M Khdour, Sunil J Sahdeo, Ruth Goldschmidt, Jennifer Jaruvangsanti, Sriloy Dey, Pablo M Arce, Valérie C Collin, Gino A Cortopassi, Sidney M Hecht
The effect of the alkyl side chain length of coenzyme Q10 on mitochondrial respiratory chain function has been investigated by the use of synthetic ubiquinone derivatives. Three analogues (3, 4 and 6) were identified that exhibited significantly improved effects on mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, and also conferred significant cytoprotection on cultured mammalian cells in which glutathione had been depleted by treatment with diethyl maleate. The analogues also exhibited lesser inhibition of the electron transport chain than idebenone...
April 15, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Douglas S Kerr
Over the last 15 years, some 16 open and controlled clinical trials for potential treatments of mitochondrial diseases have been reported or are in progress, and are summarized and reviewed herein. These include trials of administering dichloroacetate (an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), arginine or citrulline (precursors of nitric oxide), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10; part of the electron transport chain and an antioxidant), idebenone (a synthetic analogue of CoQ10), EPI-743 (a novel oral potent 2-electron redox cycling agent), creatine (a precursor of phosphocreatine), combined administration (of creatine, α-lipoate, and CoQ10), and exercise training (to increase muscle mitochondria)...
April 2013: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Ruth Goldschmidt, Pablo M Arce, Omar M Khdour, Valérie C Collin, Sriloy Dey, Jennifer Jaruvangsanti, David M Fash, Sidney M Hecht
Two new aza analogues of the neuroprotective agent idebenone have been synthesized and characterized. Their antioxidant activity, and ability to augment ATP levels have been evaluated in several different cell lines having suboptimal mitochondrial function. Both compounds were found to be good ROS scavengers, and to protect the cells from oxidative stress induced by glutathione depletion. The compounds were more effective than idebenone in neurodegenerative disease cells. These novel pyrimidinol derivatives were also shown to augment ATP levels in coenzyme Q(10)-deficient human lymphocytes...
February 15, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Fabrice D Heitz, Michael Erb, Corinne Anklin, Dimitri Robay, Vincent Pernet, Nuri Gueven
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The disease is characterized by loss of central vision due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and optic nerve atrophy. Despite progress towards a better understanding of the disease, no therapeutic treatment is currently approved for this devastating disease. Idebenone, a short-chain benzoquinone, has shown promising evidence of efficacy in protecting vision loss and in accelerating recovery of visual acuity in patients with LHON...
2012: PloS One
Carolyn P Ojano-Dirain, Patrick J Antonelli
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Antioxidants have been shown to protect against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Mitoquinone (MitoQ) is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of the antioxidant ubiquinone. MitoQ is attached to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation, which enables its accumulation inside the mitochondria several hundred-fold over the untargeted antioxidant. The goals of this study were to determine if MitoQ attenuates gentamicin-induced activation of caspase-3/7 activity as a marker of apoptosis and to determine if MitoQ impacts aminoglycoside antimicrobial efficacy...
November 2012: Laryngoscope
Pablo M Arce, Ruth Goldschmidt, Omar M Khdour, Manikandadas M Madathil, Jennifer Jaruvangsanti, Sriloy Dey, David M Fash, Jeffrey S Armstrong, Sidney M Hecht
Selected pyridinol analogues of the experimental neuroprotective drug idebenone have been synthesized and evaluated as antioxidants capable of preserving mitochondrial function. The compounds, having a different redox core but the same side chain as idebenone, exhibited a range of potencies, reflecting differences in their structures. The results obtained provide guidance in the design of such analogues with improved properties. Analogues were identified that have significantly improved antioxidant activity compared with idebenone in cultured lymphocytes, and which exhibit lesser inhibition of the electron transport chain...
September 1, 2012: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
H Rauchová, M Vokurková, Z Drahota
Digitonin solubilizes mitochondrial membrane, breaks the integrity of the respiratory chain and releases two mobile redox-active components: coenzyme Q (CoQ) and cytochrome c (cyt c). In the present study we report the inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate- and succinate-dependent oxygen consumption rates by digitonin treatment. Our results show that the inhibition of oxygen consumption rates is recovered by the addition of exogenous synthetic analog of CoQ idebenone (hydroxydecyl-ubiquinone; IDB) and cyt c. Glycerol-3-phosphate oxidation rate is recovered to 148 % of control values, whereas succinate-dependent oxidation rate only to 68 %...
2012: Physiological Research
Valentina Giorgio, Valeria Petronilli, Anna Ghelli, Valerio Carelli, Michela Rugolo, Giorgio Lenaz, Paolo Bernardi
We have studied the effects of idebenone on mitochondrial function in cybrids derived from one normal donor (HQB17) and one patient harboring the G3460A/MT-ND1 mutation of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (RJ206); and in XTC.UC1 cells bearing a premature stop codon at amino acid 101 of MT-ND1 that hampers complex I assembly. Addition of idebenone to HQB17 cells caused mitochondrial depolarization and NADH depletion, which were inhibited by cyclosporin (Cs) A and decylubiquinone, suggesting an involvement of the permeability transition pore (PTP)...
February 2012: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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