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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641164/protective-effects-of-flavonoids-against-alzheimer-s-disease-related-neural-dysfunctions
#1
REVIEW
Mahsa Bakhtiari, Yunes Panahi, Javad Ameli, Behrad Darvishi
Senile ages of human life is mostly associated with developmental of several neurological complicated conditions including decreased cognition and reasoning, increased memory loss and impaired language performance. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neural disorder associated with dementia, consisting of about 70% of dementia reported cases. Failure of currently approved chemical anti-AD therapeutic agents has once again brought up the idea of administering naturally occurring compounds as effective alternative and/or complementary regimens in AD treatment...
June 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641077/inhibition-of-early-growth-response-1-in-the-hippocampus-alleviates-neuropathology-and-improves-cognition-in-an-alzheimer-model-with-plaques-and-tangles
#2
Xike Qin, Yunling Wang, Hemant K Paudel
A sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia share many risk factors, and their pathogenic mechanisms are suggested to be related. Transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1) regulates various vascular pathologies and is up-regulated in both AD brains and AD mouse models; however, its role in AD pathogenesis is unclear. Herein, we report that silencing of Egr-1 in the hippocampus by shRNA reduces tau phosphorylation, amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, and improves cognition in the 3xTg-AD mouse model...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640657/retinal-findings-on-oct-in-systemic-conditions
#3
Preeti Patil Chhablani, Vikas Ambiya, Akshay G Nair, Sailaja Bondalapati, Jay Chhablani
PURPOSE: Imaging technology has advanced by leaps and bounds in the recent past and has resulted in a much greater understanding of ocular diseases. The aim of this review article is to summarize optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of various systemic conditions. METHOD: A systematic literature search of the Medline/PubMed database was performed. English articles up to April 2015 were included. Terms used for search included: Alzheimer's Disease; Multiple Sclerosis; Parkinson's Disease; Behçet's Disease; Schizophrenia; Migraine; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome; Neurofibromatosis; Sickle Cell Disease; Renal diseases; Lupus Retinopathy; Valsalva Retinopathy; Whiplash Retinopathy; Shaken-Baby Syndrome; Choroidal metastases; Intracranial Hypertension; Drug toxicity; Deferoxamine; Sildenafil; Tamoxifen; Hydroxychloroquine; Chloroquine; Ethambutol; Lead; Sickle Cell Disease; and Thalassemia along with OCT...
June 22, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637048/use-of-light-therapy-by-office-based-physicians
#4
Edda Winkler-Pjrek, Marie Spies, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Lisa Perkmann, Siegfried Kasper, Dietmar Winkler
BACKGROUND: Light therapy (LT) is a non-pharmacological biological treatment that has been used in psychiatry since the 1980s. Previous research has investigated the usage of LT in hospitals. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of use of LT by office-based physicians. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent by mail to 400 randomly selected doctors in Austria. We made sure that the sample was equally representative of general practitioners (GPs) and psychiatrists, public health service doctors and private doctors, physicians in cities and in the country as well as male and female doctors...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635544/heparin-new-life-for-an-old-drug
#5
Carlos Raúl Aláez-Versón, Elena Lantero, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets
Heparin is one of the oldest drugs, which nevertheless remains in widespread clinical use as an inhibitor of blood coagulation. The history of its identification a century ago unfolded amid one of the most fascinating scientific controversies turning around the distribution of credit for its discovery. The composition, purification and structure-function relationship of this naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan regarding its classical role as anticoagulant will be dealt with before proceeding to discuss its therapeutic potential in, among other, inflammatory and infectious disease, cancer treatment, cystic fibrosis and Alzheimer's disease...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635355/aberrant-wnt-signaling-a-special-focus-in-cns-diseases
#6
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas Tintó
Wnt signals regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain. Abnormal Wnt signaling is central to a number of brain pathologies. We review here, the significance of this pathway focused in the contribution of the most frequent alterations in receptors, secretable modulators and downstream targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Glioblastoma (GBM). β-catenin and GSK3 levels are pivotal in the neurodegeneration associated to AD contributing to memory deficits, tau phosphorylation, increased β-amyloid production and modulation of Apolipoprotein E in the brain...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635142/protective-effects-induced-by-microwave-assisted-aqueous-harpagophytum-extract-on-rat-cortex-synaptosomes-challenged-with-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#7
Claudio Ferrante, Lucia Recinella, Marcello Locatelli, Paolo Guglielmi, Daniela Secci, Lidia Leporini, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Sara Martinotti, Luigi Brunetti, Michele Vacca, Luigi Menghini, Giustino Orlando
Harpagophytum procumbens is a plant species that displays anti-inflammatory properties in multiple tissues. The iridoid glycosides arpagoside, harpagide, and procumbide appear to be the most therapeutically important constituents. In addition, harpagoside treatment exerted neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Considering these findings, the aim of the present work is to explore the possible protective role of the previously described microwave-assisted aqueous extract of H. procumbens on rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells, and in rat cortex challenged with amyloid β-peptide (1-40)...
June 21, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634902/therapeutic-potential-of-baicalein-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Yanwei Li, Jinying Zhao, Christian Hölscher
Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are the two most common, progressive central neurodegenerative diseases affecting the population over the age of 60 years. Apart from treatments that temporarily improve symptoms, there is no medicine currently available to inhibit or reverse the progression of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In traditional Chinese medicine, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a classic compatible component in the decoction of herbal medicine used for treating central nervous system diseases...
June 20, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634653/assessing-the-combined-toxicity-of-bmaa-and-its-isomers-2-4-dab-and-aeg-in-vitro-using-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#9
Brendan J Main, Kenneth J Rodgers
The non-protein amino acid (NPAA) ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is produced by a diverse range of cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, and is present in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems globally. Exposure to BMAA has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). BMAA is often found in nature along with its structural isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB) and aminoethylglycine (AEG); however, the toxicity of these NPAAs in combination has not been examined...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634550/sortilin-related-receptor-expression-in-human-neural-stem-cells-derived-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-carrying-the-apoe-epsilon-4-allele
#10
Alen Zollo, Zoe Allen, Helle F Rasmussen, Filomena Iannuzzi, Yichen Shi, Agnete Larsen, Thorsten J Maier, Carmela Matrone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; important risk factors are old age and inheritance of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele. Changes in amyloid precursor protein (APP) binding, trafficking, and sorting may be important AD causative factors. Secretase-mediated APP cleavage produces neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, which form lethal deposits in the brain. In vivo and in vitro studies have implicated sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) as an important factor in APP trafficking and processing...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#11
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634213/omega-3-fatty-acids-increase-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-improve-amyloid-%C3%AE-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Henry M Olivera-Perez, Larry Lam, Johnny Dang, Weilan Jiang, Fabian Rodriguez, Elizabeth Rigali, Sarah Weitzman, Verna Porter, Liudmilla Rubi, Marco Morselli, Matteo Pellegrini, Milan Fiala
Mϕs of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are defective in amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ) phagocytosis and have low resistance to apoptosis by Aβ. ω-3 in vitro and in vivo and the ω-3 mediator, resolvin D1, in vitro increase Aβ phagocytosis by Mϕs of patients with MCI. We have investigated the unfolded protein response (UPR) to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Mϕs in a longitudinal study of fish-derived, ω-3-supplemented patients with MCI. Patients in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)e3/e3 subgroup over time exhibited an increase of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) expression, Aβ phagocytosis, intermediate M1-M2 Mϕ type, and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) rate of change of +1...
June 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633346/tetramethylpyrazine-reverses-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficits-by-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE
#13
Fen Lu, Xu Li, Wei Li, Ke Wei, Yong Yao, Qianlin Zhang, Xinliang Liang, Jiewen Zhang
Brain dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment, is one of the main complications in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which threatens the health of 46.8 million people worldwide. At present, the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is only partially understood, and effective therapies for memory loss in AD remain elusive. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major bioactive compounds purified from Chuanxiong, a Chinese herb used for the treatment of neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The neuroprotective properties of TMP are evident in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease...
June 15, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632966/characterizing-alzheimer-s-disease-through-metabolomics-and-investigating-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-effects-of-natural-products
#14
REVIEW
Lunzhao Yi, Wenbin Liu, Zhe Wang, Dabing Ren, Weijun Peng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people and is among the greatest healthcare challenges of the 21st century. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of AD remain poorly understood, and no curative treatments are available to slow down or stop the degenerative effects of AD. As a high-throughput approach, metabolomics is gaining significant attention in AD research, because it has a powerful potential to discover novel biomarkers, unravel new therapeutic targets for AD, and identify perturbed metabolic pathways involved in AD progression...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632947/pimozide-reduces-toxic-forms-of-tau-in-tauc3-mice-via-ampk-mediated-autophagy
#15
YoungDoo Kim, Eun Il Jeong, Jihoon Nah, Seung-Min Yoo, WonJae Lee, Youbin Kim, Seowon Moon, Se-Hoon Hong, Yong-Keun Jung
In neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), tau is hyperphosphorylated and forms aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles in affected neurons. Autophagy is critical to clear the aggregates of disease-associated proteins and is often altered in patients and animal models of AD. Because mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) negatively regulates autophagy and is hyperactive in the brains of patients with AD, mTOR is an attractive therapeutic target for AD. However, pharmacological strategies to increase autophagy by targeting mTOR inhibition cause various side effects...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632451/prolyl-oligopeptidase-and-its-role-in-the-organism-attention-to-the-most-promising-and-clinically-relevant-inhibitors
#16
Katerina Babkova, Jan Korabecny, Ondrej Soukup, Eugenie Nepovimova, Daniel Jun, Kamil Kuca
Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), also called prolyl endopeptidase, is a cytosolic enzyme investigated by several research groups. It has been proposed to play an important role in physiological processes such as modulation of the levels of several neuronal peptides and hormones containing a proline residue. Due to its proteolytic activity and physiological role in cell signaling pathways, inhibition of POP offers an emerging approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases as well as other diseases related to cognitive impairment...
June 20, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632203/combined-assessment-of-dyrk1a-bdnf-and-homocysteine-levels-as-diagnostic-marker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
N Janel, P Alexopoulos, A Badel, F Lamari, A C Camproux, J Lagarde, S Simon, C Feraudet-Tarisse, P Lamourette, M Arbones, J L Paul, B Dubois, M C Potier, M Sarazin, J M Delabar
Early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors would aid development of interventions to delay the onset of dementia, but current biomarkers are invasive and/or costly to assess. Validated plasma biomarkers would circumvent these challenges. We previously identified the kinase DYRK1A in plasma. To validate DYRK1A as a biomarker for AD diagnosis, we assessed the levels of DYRK1A and the related markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and homocysteine in two unrelated AD patient cohorts with age-matched controls...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#18
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632076/association-of-oprd1-gene-variants-with-opioid-dependence-in-addicted-male-individuals-undergoing-methadone-treatment-in-the-north-of-iran
#19
Alireza Sharafshah, Hedyeh Fazel, Ali Albonaim, Vahid Omarmeli, Sajjad Rezaei, Ebrahim Mirzajani, Farzam Ajamian, Parvaneh Keshavarz
Genetic association of rs678849 along with neuroimaging and biomarker phenotypes, parallel with the known involvements of the OPRD1 in drug abuse, provided additional support for targeting these receptors as potential therapeutic targets in both neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiactric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Samples were selected among 202 opium-addicted participants undergoing methadone treatment and 202 healthy controls. Genomic DNA of all subjects was extracted from whole blood samples through a Salting Out procedure...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631100/co-modulation-of-an-allosteric-modulator-of-nicotinic-receptor-cholinesterase-inhibitor-galantamine-and-a-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-rs-67333-effect-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficit-in-the-mouse
#20
Thomas Freret, Véronique Lelong-Boulouard, Pierre Lecouflet, Katia Hamidouche, François Dauphin, Michel Boulouard
AIM: It is widely assumed that the upcoming therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease will require to act on more than one target to be effective. We investigated here whether a combination of the nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator/cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine can act synergistically with the type 4 serotonin receptor (5-HT4R) partial agonist, RS-67333, to counterbalance deficits in short- and long-term memory. To select sub-efficacious doses of both drugs, dose-response studies were first performed on the scopolamine-induced deficits of spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze task and of acquisition and retrieval processes in a passive avoidance task...
June 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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