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Shyamalima Gogoi, Arun K Yadav
BACKGROUND: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. have been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to treat the intestinal helminthic infections in traditional medicine of India. AIM: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult worms of S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Purobi Nath, Arun K Yadav
BACKGROUND: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fabio Macchioni, Higinio Segundo, Valentina Totino, Simona Gabrielli, Patricia Rojas, Mimmo Roselli, Grover Adolfo Paredes, Mario Masana, Alessandro Bartoloni, Gabriella Cancrini
INTRODUCTION: In 2013 a coproparasitological survey was carried out in two rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and to investigate on possible infection drivers through a questionnaire interview. METHODOLOGY: Faecal samples were examined by microscopy. Samples positive for Entamoeba histolytica complex and Blastocystis were molecularly examined to identify the species/subtypes involved. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 86%, identical in both communities and mostly due to protozoa...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Miguel M Cabada, Maria Luisa Morales, Martha Lopez, Spencer T Reynolds, Elizabeth C Vilchez, Andres G Lescano, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Hector Hugo Garcia, Clinton A White
Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
José L Reyes, Fernando Lopes, Gabriella Leung, Nicole L Mancini, Chelsea E Matisz, Arthur Wang, Emma A Thomson, Nicholas Graves, John Gilleard, Derek M McKay
Awareness of the immunological underpinnings of host-parasite interactions may reveal immune signaling pathways that could be used to treat inflammatory disease in humans. Previously we showed that infection with the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, used as a model helminth, or systemic delivery of worm antigen (HdAg) significantly reduced the severity of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Extending these analyses, intraperitoneal injection of HdAg dose-dependently suppressed dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis and this was paralleled by reduced IFNγ, IL-17 and TNFα and increased IL-10 production from mitogen-activated splenocytes...
September 26, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Christophe Diagne, Alexis Ribas, Nathalie Charbonnel, Ambroise Dalecky, Caroline Tatard, Philippe Gauthier, Voitto Haukisalmi, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Sylvain Piry, Mbacké Sembène, Carine Brouat
Understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. Among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. Moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spillover") and/or by an increased transmission risk of native parasites due to their amplification by invaders ("parasite spillback")...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
E P Hoberg, A A Makarikov, V V Tkach, S Meagher, T N Nims, R P Eckerlin, K E Galbreath
Synoptic data and an understanding of helminth parasite diversity among diverse rodent assemblages across temperate latitudes of North America remain remarkably incomplete. Renewed attention to comprehensive survey and inventory to establish the structure of biodiverse faunas is essential in providing indicators and proxies for identifying the outcomes of accelerating change linked to climate warming and anthropogenic forcing. Subsequent to the description of Hymenolepis folkertsi in the oldfield mouse, Peromyscus polionotus, additional specimens of hymenolepidids were collected or discovered in archived museum repositories from multiple species of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, Peromyscus leucopus), the golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli), chipmunks (Tamias striatus, Tamias amoenus), the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), and tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, Sciurus niger) from disjunct localities in the USA spanning southern Georgia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Wisconsin, and central Idaho...
September 14, 2016: Parasitology Research
Vijaya, Arun K Yadav
A large number of medicinal plants are used as herbal remedy for the treatment of helminthic diseases in the developing countries, however, far too little attention has been paid to assess the anthelmintic potentials of chemical compounds that are present in these plants. This study was carried out to assess the in vitro anthelmintic effects of biochanin A, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and beta-sitosterol which are the major phytochemicals of Trifolium repens, Houttuynia cordata and Lasia spinosa, the traditionally used anthelmintic plants of Northeast India...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Badreddine Ben Slimane
Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Aijiang Guo
BACKGROUND: The cloacal tapeworm Cloacotaenia megalops (Hymenolepididae) is one of the most common cestode parasites of domestic and wild ducks worldwide. However, limited information is available regarding its epidemiology, biology, genetics and systematics. This study provides characterisation of the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of C. megalops. METHODS: The complete mt genome of C. megalops was obtained by long PCR, sequenced and annotated. RESULTS: The length of the entire mt genome of C...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Aijiang Guo
BACKGROUND: Tapeworms Cladotaenia spp. are among the most important wildlife pathogens in birds of prey. The genus Cladotaenia is placed in the family Paruterinidae based on morphological characteristics and hosts. However, limited molecular information is available for studying the phylogenetic position of this genus in relation to other cestodes. METHODS: In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cladotaenia vulturi was amplified using "Long-PCR" and then sequenced by primer walking...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Maria C Spriggs, Lisa L Kaloustian, Richard W Gerhold
The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Samira M Al-Eryani, Reyadh Saif-Ali, Mohammed A K Mahdy
Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
B Horáková, Z Čadková, J Száková, I Jankovská
The rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta can bioconcentrate several elements to conspicuously higher concentrations than tissues of their definitive host. The main aim of this study was to locate parts of the tapeworm into which lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, manganese and iron are accumulated. Male Wistar rats were experimentally infected with H. diminuta and worms were exposed to two different forms of lead for 6 weeks through the oral exposure of their rat hosts. After the exposure period, the element levels were determined in the posterior and anterior proglottids of the tapeworm...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Sunil Sharma, Damanbha Lyngdoh, Bishnupada Roy, Veena Tandon
Given the widespread distribution and medical implication of members of the genus Hymenolepis, specific identification of the aetiological agent becomes imperative. For precise diagnosis of the species, molecular techniques such as PCR and RFLP of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA-ITS2) gene marker were carried out. The results showed distinct restriction patterns for both Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta when digested with either of the enzymes RsaI, HaeIII or HhaI. The annotated rDNA-ITS2 sequences from the two species revealed differences in the length; the folded secondary structure also depicted clear demarcation between the two species with variations in length of the helices, pyrimidine-pyrimidine mismatches and sites where motifs occur...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
D I Kosik-Bogacka, I Baranowska-Bosiacka, A Kolasa-Wołosiuk, N Lanocha-Arendarczyk, I Gutowska, J Korbecki, H Namięta, I Rotter
The aim of this study was to determine whether Hymenolepis diminuta may affect the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), resulting in the altered levels of their main products - prostaglandins (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). The study used the same experimental model as in our previous studies in which we had observed changes in the transepithelial ion transport, tight junctions and in the indicators of oxidative stress, in both small and large intestines of rats infected with H...
October 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Pratibha Mane, Jyoti Sangwan
Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India.
January 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Edvânia Beatriz Dos Santos Pereira, Sâmara Lauren Cunha Rodrigues, Gustavo Henrique Bahia-DE-Oliveira, Suedali Villas Bôas Coelho, Ricardo Andrade Barata
Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2...
July 11, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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