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Clement Isaac, Benjamin Igho Igbinosa, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Catherine Eki Osimen
Some small mammals occur as household pests and harbour a number of parasites that could be of public health importance. This study profiled the helminth and protozoan parasites in trapped small mammals within and around human dwelling places (houses) located across 4 major towns (Auchi, Benin, Ekpoma, and Uromi) and environs in Edo state, Nigeria. Six genera ( Apodemus sp., Crocidura sp., Mastomys natalensis , Mus musculus , Rattus sp., and Sorex sp.) were identified from 502 trapped small mammals. Overall, M...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Shimeles Adugna, Tadesse Kebede, Zeleke Mekonnen, Abraham Degarege, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
Background: In this cross-sectional study, we compared the performance of Mini Parasep® solvent-free (SF) faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections among children in Wosha Soyama Primary School, Ethiopia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 381 children and examined for intestinal parasitic infections using Mini Parasep® SF faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dejene Teklemariam, Mengistu Legesse, Abraham Degarege, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
OBJECTIVE: To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. RESULTS: Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35...
February 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Tamio Ohno, Takuya Kai, Yuki Miyasaka, Haruhiko Maruyama, Akira Ishih, Hideto Kino
Hymenolepis diminuta is a parasitic tapeworm of the rat small intestine and is recognized as a useful model for the analysis of cestode-host interactions. In this study, we analyzed factors affecting the biomass of the tapeworm through use of rat strains carrying genetic mutations, namely X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (xscid; T, B and NK cells deficiency), nude (rnu; T cell deficiency), and mast cell deficient rats. The worm biomass of F344-xscid rats after infection with 5 cysticercoids was much larger than control F344 rats from 3 to 8 weeks...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology International
Kumar Saurabh, Shilpi Ranjan
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and sociodemographic profile of fasciolopsiasis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A chart review of 56 children presenting with the passage of adult Fasciolopsis buski per stool from February 2015 to January 2016 was done for their clinical profile and risk factors for acquiring fasciolopsiasis in the Paediatric Unit of a medical college of Northern India. RESULTS: The mean age of presentation was 8.2 years (2-14 years age group)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Suraj Dhakal, Sebastian Micki Buss, Elizabeth Jane Cassidy, Nicolai Vitt Meyling, Brian Lund Fredensborg
Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta-flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model-has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host-parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere...
February 3, 2018: Insects
Juergen Hench, Gieri Cathomas, Matthias S Dettmer
RATIONALE: There is evidence that parasitic helminths can ameliorate colitis in animal models and humans. Although infections with Hymenolepis sp. are clinically benign, the immunomodulatory interactions between host and parasite are largely unknown. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study we examined the intestinal mucosa of an adult asymptomatic patient harboring adult and larval dwarf tapeworms (Hymenolepis nana) who underwent surgery for an unrelated reason. INTERVENTIONS: Routine histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize the host's response to the parasite...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wali Khan, Jahangir Khan, Azizur Rahman, Hamid Ullah, Mohammad Salim, Mudassar Iqbal, Israr Khan, Muhammad Salman, Bakht Munir
Hymenolepiasis is a helminthic and occasionally fatal disease of human imposing heavy economic losses to human society. Present study was aimed to diagnose the school children for the prevalence and control of Hymenolepiasis. A school based cross-sectional analysis of stool samples collected from 188 children aged 06-15 years was carried out (February to June 2016). Two stool samples were collected from each student before diagnosing and after treatment. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and observed under the light microscope using the methods of direct smear in Lugol's solution, normal saline and flotation techniques...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
R Binkienė, A Miliūtė, V Stunžėnas
The cestode Hymenolepis erinacei is regarded as a widely distributed parasite in European hedgehogs of the genus Erinaceus, although the taxonomic position of this hymenolepidid has been debated for a considerable period of time. We present the first molecular data for this cestode, including partial DNA sequences of mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis clusters H. erinacei in one clade together with representatives of the genus Hymenolepis from rodents. Characteristic morphological features, including the oval embryophore without filaments and shape of the embryonic hooks of H...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Ibrahim Hamad, Rita Abou Abdallah, Isabelle Ravaux, Saadia Mokhtari, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Caroline Michelle, Andreas Stein, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar
Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples...
2018: PloS One
Toshio Arai, Fernando Lopes, Adam Shute, Arthur Wang, Derek M McKay
Infection with helminth parasites reduces the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease in adult mice. There is an alarming increase of IBD in children. It is important to determine if helminth therapy would be of value in pediatric IBD, and if triggering immunological memory to the worm would be anti-colitic. Three-week (young) and eight-week (adult) old Balb/c mice were infected with H. diminuta, and infectivity and T helper (TH)-2 immunity assessed. Other mice received H. diminuta {plus minus} a crude worm extract (HdE) 28-42 days post-infection (dpi) {plus minus} dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS; 1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mehrgan Heydari-Hengami, Yaghoob Hamedi, Majid Najafi-Asl, Khojasteh Sharifi-Sarasiabi
Background: Food handlers play a significant role in the dissemination and transmission of enteropathogenic microorganisms, including intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in food handlers of Bandar Abbas, southern Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 800 stool samples were randomly collected in a period of 6 months from Jun to Nov 2015. The diagnosis was made on direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Trichrome stained slides...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Mohammad Javad Ranjbar, Bahador Sarkari, Gholam Reza Mowlavi, Zeinab Seifollahi, Abdolali Moshfe, Samaneh Abdolahi Khabisi, Iraj Mobedi
Background: Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasite...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Hirotomo Yamanashi, Sinsuke Kanbara, Kunihiko Murase, Takahiro Maeda
Strongyloides stercoralis infection is a common and neglected public health problem in many areas of the world. Here we report the case of a 21-year-old woman who emigrated from Cambodia to Japan and presented with swelling of the right supraclavicular region of 2 months' duration. She had no other symptoms. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was diagnosed based on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the right supraclavicular lymph node. The laboratory examination revealed mild eosinophilia (eosinophils 1348/µL).S. stercoralis and Hymenolepis nana were detected serologically and in faeces examination...
January 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Tegegne Eshetu, Getinet Sibhatu, Mohammed Megiso, Abrham Abere, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Belete Biadgo, Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke
Background: Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Ivana Jankovská, Vladislav Sloup, Jiřina Száková, Jan Magdálek, Stanislava Nechybová, Pavla Peřinková, Iva Langrová
This study evaluated the effects of a hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri), containing surplus of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and being an admixture to the rat feed, on concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) in the tissues of experimental rats infected/uninfected with the tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta). Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (00, P0, and PT); the P0 and PT animals were fed a standard mixture for rats (ST-1) supplemented with the plant A. halleri at a weekly Zn and Cd dosage of 123 and 1 mg, respectively...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anna Sulima, Justyna Bień, Kirsi Savijoki, Anu Näreaho, Rusłan Sałamatin, David Bruce Conn, Daniel Młocicki
BACKGROUND: A wide range of molecules are used by tapeworm metacestodes to establish successful infection in the hostile environment of the host. Reports indicating the proteins in the cestode-host interactions are limited predominantly to taeniids, with no previous data available for non-taeniid species. A non-taeniid, Hymenolepis diminuta, represents one of the most important model species in cestode biology and exhibits an exceptional developmental plasticity in its life-cycle, which involves two phylogenetically distant hosts, arthropod and vertebrate...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Romina Rivero, Carlos De Angelo, Pablo Nuñez, Martín Salas, Carlos E Motta, Alicia Chiaretta, Oscar D Salomón, Song Liang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitoses are a major concern for public health, especially in children from middle and low-income populations of tropical and subtropical areas. We examined the presence and co-infection of parasites in humans as well as parasitic environmental contamination in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We explored the environmental and socio-demographic characteristics of the persistence of parasites in children and their environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-section survey was conducted among children population comprised into the area of the public health care centers of Iguazú during June 2013 to May 2016...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Graciela Terán, Washington Cuna, Froilán Brañez, Kristina E M Persson, Martín E Rottenberg, Susanne Nylén, Celeste Rodriguez
Children in the Bolivian Andes are exposed to endemic infections and meager nourishment, and live under poor hygienic conditions. The prevention of children malnutrition is a priority in many countries including Bolivia. In this study, the health status of schoolchildren in Taraco, a Puna district, at 4,000 meters above sea level (masl) and in Caranavi, at 650 masl in the wealthier subtropical valleys, was compared. The weight, height, and hematological and biochemical parameters in blood, parasites in stool, and clinical information in 120 children from rural Taraco and in 96 from semi-urban Caranavi, both predominantly of Aymara ethnicity, were registered...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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