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cancer hepatitis

Mariana Verdelho Machado, Anna Mae Diehl
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of obesity-associated liver diseases and it has become the major cause of cirrhosis in the Western world. The high prevalence of NAFLD-associated advanced liver disease reflects both the high prevalence of obesity-related fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) and the lack of specific treatments to prevent hepatic steatosis from progressing to more serious forms of liver damage, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
F Gebauer, A I Damanakis, C Bruns
BACKGROUND: Several case series reported results of surgical resection in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a metastasized stage. AIM: A summarized overview of the current state of knowledge and a summary of the results of currently available studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE and PubMed with respect to metastasized pancreatic cancer and surgical resection. RESULTS: The evidence level for surgical resection in the metastasized stage is weak and so far no prospective trials are available...
March 20, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Ping Luo, Xiaobo Feng, Wei Jing, Man Zhu, Nandi Li, Hu Zhou, Paul F Worley, Hongyan Chai, Jiancheng Tu
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor worldwide. Attributed to the lack of early diagnosis index, most patients are diagnosed in their late stage. Homer1, as a member of scaffold protein family, is made up of two different isoforms: Homer1a and Homer1b/c. More and more evidences show that Homer1 is dysregulated in cancers. Here, in this study, we investigated the expression profile, clinical, diagnostic and prognostic significance of Homer1 in hepatitis B virus-induced HCC (HBV-HCC)...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Fengyan Deng, Nancy Magee, Yuxia Zhang
Cell-to-cell communication is a fascinating process that is essential for maintaining tissue and whole-body homeostasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound nanoparticles that are a means of communication between cells. Accumulating evidence indicates that EVs can render either beneficial or harmful outcomes, depending on the specific cargos (e.g. proteins, lipids, RNAs) transferred between cells. EVs also have great value as diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease because they are present in a variety of biological fluids and carry bioactive molecules from their cells or tissues of origin...
September 2017: Liver Research
Sheng-Li Yang, Cui Zeng, Xiefan Fang, Qian-Jin He, Li-Ping Liu, Shi-Yun Bao, Xiaoli Pan, Zhi-Fan Xiong
Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is a newly identified diagnostic and prognostic marker for liver cancer. GP73 is highly expressed in liver cancer tissues, however, the mechanism of its overexpression in tumors remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on GP73 expression was investigated in HepG2 cells, which are negative for HBV, and in HepG2.2.12 cells, which are integrated with HBV, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, the cells were transfected with plasmid constructs overexpressing hepatitis B virus protein X (HBx), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, or HIF-2α in order to examine their roles in GP73 expression...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Chaojie Liang, Yingchen Xu, Hua Ge, Guangming Li, Jixiang Wu
Background and aim: Constitutive activation of STAT3 through its phosphorylation (p-STAT3) plays a key role in the development and progression of various cancers. However, the relationship between p-STAT3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognostic value in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the role of p-STAT3 in HCC. Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese CNKI, and Chinese Wanfang databases were searched using the appropriate terms to find the relevant studies on p-STAT3 and HCC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Haksier Ehedego, Antje Mohs, Bettina Jansen, Kanishka Hiththetiya, Piotr Sicinski, Christian Liedtke, Christian Trautwein
Chronic liver injury triggers liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cyclin E1 (CcnE1, formerly designated Cyclin E) is a regulatory subunit of the Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). It is overexpressed in approximately 70% of human HCCs correlating with poor prognosis, while the relevance of its orthologue Cyclin E2 (CcnE2) is unclear. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of NF-kappa-B essential modulator (NEMOΔhepa ) leads to chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and HCC as well as CcnE upregulation...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Chunmei Piao, Wen-Mei Zhang, Tao-Tao Li, Cong-Cong Zhang, Shulan Qiu, Yan Liu, Sa Liu, Ming Jin, Li-Xin Jia, Wen-Chao Song, Jie Du
Inflammatory cells such as macrophages can play a pro-tumorigenic role in the tumor stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) generally display an M2 phenotype with tumor-promoting activity; however, the mechanisms regulating the TAM phenotype remain unclear. Complement 5a (C5a) is a cytokine-like polypeptide that is generated during complement system activation and is known to promote tumor growth. Herein, we investigated the role of C5a on macrophage polarization in colon cancer metastasis in mice. We found that deficiency of the C5a receptor (C5aR) severely impairs the metastatic ability of implanted colon cancer cells...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Takashi Mizuno, Jordan M Cloyd, Diego Vicente, Kiyohiko Omichi, Yun Shin Chun, Scott E Kopetz, Dipen Maru, Claudius Conrad, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Steven H Wei, Thomas A Aloia, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey
INTRODUCTION: Dorsophilia protein, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) is a key mediator in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway and SMAD4 gene mutations are thought to play a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, little is known about its influence on survival in patients undergoing resection for colorectal liver metastases (CLM). METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, all patients with known SMAD4 mutation status who underwent resection of CLM were identified...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Meng-Jun Qiu, Yao-Bing Chen, Sheng-Li Yang, Xiao-Xiao He, Zhi-Fan Xiong
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon type of cancers, also known as APUD (amine precursor uptake decarboxylation) tumors, which are becoming increasingly prevalent. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a poor prognosis factor in a number of hepatic diseases. However, its distribution and prognostic value in primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are still not clear. In this study, our aim is to investigate the correlations between ALP and clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of PHNETs...
March 13, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Weiping Ding, Sen Liu, Shibo Li, Duobiao Ge, Fenfen Li, Dayong Gao
The liver is one of the common metastatic sites for many cancers. The obstruction of sinusoids by circulating tumor cells changes liver microenvironments and is thus considered a source of hepatic metastases. To date, few studies provide detailed information, either experimentally or theoretically, concerning the changes in blood and oxygen distributions induced by the obstruction of sinusoids. In this study, we utilized a 3D porous medium-vascular tree geometric structure to mimic the hepatic lobule and studied theoretical blood flow and oxygen transport in the lobule...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Peng Liu, Teng-Fei Zhou, Bao-An Qiu, Ying-Xiang Yang, Yong-Jian Zhu, Yang An, Wen-Chao Zhao, Yin-Tao Wu, Peng-Fei Ma, Jing-Bo Li, Nian-Xin Xia
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most common hepatic and biliary malignancies, accounting for about 3% of all gastrointestinal tumors. GATA5 is a transcription factor capable of suppressing the development of various human cancer types. Transcriptional inactivation and CpG island (CGI) methylation of GATA3 and GATA5, two members of the GATA family of transcription factors, have been observed in some human cancers. But whether high-density CGI methylation of GATA5 is associated with the clinical course of CCA patients has not been clarified...
March 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
Ryota Matsuki, Masanori Sugiyama, Shinya Yoshiike, Junji Shibahara, Masaharu Kogure, Masaaki Yokoyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Nobutsugu Abe, Tadahiko Masaki, Toshiyuki Mori
A 72-year-old woman with advanced ascending colon cancer and an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreatic head was treated by right hemicolectomy (RHC) and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PpPD). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered. Multimodal examinations at 5 months after surgery detected a solitary metastatic liver tumor derived from cancer of the ascending colon. Liver resection proceeded at 7 months after the first surgery. A pathological study of a surgical specimen of the liver identified a necrotic nodule that did not contain viable tumor cells...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Yong Cui, Xiaoting Li, Shunyu Gao, Zhongwu Li, Yanling Li, Ming Lu, Yingshi Sun
Objective: To determine the capability of dynamic enhanced computed tomography (CT) to differentiate liver metastases (LMs) of well-differentiated from poorly-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Methods: Patients with LMs of GEP-NENs who underwent dynamic enhanced CT examination in Peking University Cancer Hospital from January 2009 to October 2015 were included and data were retrospectively analyzed. We assessed the qualitative and quantitative CT features to identify the significant differentiating CT features of LMs of poorly-differentiated GEP-NENs from those of well-differentiated GEP-NENs using univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Marwa M Abu-Serie
Liver cancer is mainly originated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Due to difference in pH between normal and tumor cell microenvironments, targeting hepatic CSCs exploiting pH-dependent charge switchable nanoparticles (NPs) is extremely required to limit nonselective toxicity to normal hepatocytes (NHCs) and to completely eliminate the root of cancer origin. In this study, NPs were prepared from cationic chitosan and then coated with anionic albumin namely uncoated and coated NPs, respectively. Both NPs were loaded with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) which is an inhibitor of the critical enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1, for CSCs survival...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Helena S Gouveia, Sílvia O Lopes, Ana Luísa Faria
Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare oncological emergency in solid tumours. Because it is associated with bad short-term prognosis, early recognition and treatment are mandatory. This case refers to a middle-aged woman who presented with stage IV colon cancer, with massive hepatic involvement. After three cycles of first-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin), she developed acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia that did not respond to standard measures. High suspicion of TLS prompted further corroborating investigations and early intensive care unit admission...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jacquelyn O Russell, Sungjin Ko, Harvinder S Saggi, Sucha Singh, Minakshi Poddar, Donghun Shin, Satdarshan P Monga
Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins recruit key components of basic transcriptional machinery to promote gene expression. Aberrant expression and mutations in BET genes have been identified in many malignancies. Small molecule inhibitors of BET proteins like JQ1 have shown efficacy in preclinical cancer models including affecting growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. BET proteins also regulate cell proliferation in nontumor settings. We recently showed that BET proteins regulate cholangiocyte-driven liver regeneration...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yu Wu, Ze-Yang Ding, Guan-Nan Jin, Yi-Xiao Xiong, Bin Yu, Yi-Min Sun, Wei Wang, Hui-Fang Liang, Bixiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a subpopulation of cells which was usually expanded in chronic liver injury and are contributed to liver regeneration through differentiating into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a dynamic process which is important for the progression of liver fibrosis and cancer initiation. This study demonstrated that LE/6 and WB-F344 cells, both of which were HPC derived cell lines, were undergoing partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition states, which was indicated by the co-expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and zona occludin 1), and mesenchymal markers (vimentin, fibronectin, collagen 1and α-SMA)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimie
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