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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#1
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922118/mining-visualizing-and-comparing-multidimensional-biomolecular-data-using-the-genomics-data-miner-gmine-web-server
#2
Carla Proietti, Martha Zakrzewski, Thomas S Watkins, Bernard Berger, Shihab Hasan, Champa N Ratnatunga, Marie-Jo Brion, Peter D Crompton, John J Miles, Denise L Doolan, Lutz Krause
Genomics Data Miner (GMine) is a user-friendly online software that allows non-experts to mine, cluster and compare multidimensional biomolecular datasets. Various powerful visualization techniques are provided, generating high quality figures that can be directly incorporated into scientific publications. Robust and comprehensive analyses are provided via a broad range of data-mining techniques, including univariate and multivariate statistical analysis, supervised learning, correlation networks, clustering and multivariable regression...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922092/photocatalytic-reduction-of-co2-by-zno-micro-nanomaterials-with-different-morphologies-and-ratios-of-0001-facets
#3
Xiaodi Liu, Liqun Ye, Shanshan Liu, Yinping Li, Xiaoxu Ji
ZnO microspheres, ZnO microflowers and ZnO nanorods are successfully synthesized via a convenient solvothermal method in distilled water-ethanol mixed medium. The as-prepared ZnO micro/nanomaterials are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, BET, and UV-Vis. The morphologies and exposed facets of the ZnO micro/nanomaterials can be controlled by simply changing the volume ratio of distilled water to ethanol, and their formation mechanisms are also proposed. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of the ZnO samples are investigated towards the photoreduction of CO2 to CO...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922057/antiproliferative-activities-of-amaryllidaceae-alkaloids-from-lycoris-radiata-targeting-dna-topoisomerase-i
#4
Gui-Lin Chen, Yong-Qiang Tian, Jian-Lin Wu, Na Li, Ming-Quan Guo
Crude Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs) extracted from Lycoris radiata are reported to exhibit significant anti-cancer activity. However, the specific alkaloids responsible for the pharmacodynamic activity and their targets still remain elusive. In this context, we strived to combine affinity ultrafiltration with topoisomerase I (Top I) as a target enzyme aiming to fish out specific bioactive AAs from Lycoris radiata. 11 AAs from Lycoris radiata were thus screened out, among which hippeastrine (peak 5) with the highest Enrichment factor (EF) against Top I exhibited good dose-dependent inhibition with IC50 at 7...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922047/new-arylated-benzo-h-quinolines-induce-anti-cancer-activity-by-oxidative-stress-mediated-dna-damage
#5
Dharmendra K Yadav, Reeta Rai, Naresh Kumar, Surjeet Singh, Sanjeev Misra, Praveen Sharma, Priyanka Shaw, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo L Mancera, Eun Ha Choi, Mi-Hyun Kim, Ramendra Pratap
The anti-cancer activity of the benzo[h]quinolines was evaluated on cultured human skin cancer (G361), lung cancer (H460), breast cancer (MCF7) and colon cancer (HCT116) cell lines. The inhibitory effect of these compounds on the cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. The compounds 3e, 3f, 3h and 3j showed potential cytotoxicity against these human cancer cell lines. Effect of active compounds on DNA oxidation and expression of apoptosis related gene was studied. We also developed a quantitative method to measure the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases-2 (CDK2) by western blotting in the presence of active compound...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922033/profilometry-of-thin-films-on-rough-substrates-by-raman-spectroscopy
#6
Martin Ledinský, Bertrand Paviet-Salomon, Aliaksei Vetushka, Jonas Geissbühler, Andrea Tomasi, Matthieu Despeisse, Stefaan De Wolf, Christophe Ballif, Antonín Fejfar
Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922009/pet-imaging-guided-chemogenetic-silencing-reveals-a-critical-role-of-primate-rostromedial-caudate-in-reward-evaluation
#7
Yuji Nagai, Erika Kikuchi, Walter Lerchner, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Bin Ji, Mark A G Eldridge, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Yasuyuki Kimura, Arata Oh-Nishi, Yukiko Hori, Yoko Kato, Toshiyuki Hirabayashi, Atsushi Fujimoto, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Masahiko Takada, Barry J Richmond, Takafumi Minamimoto
The rostromedial caudate (rmCD) of primates is thought to contribute to reward value processing, but a causal relationship has not been established. Here we use an inhibitory DREADD (Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug) to repeatedly and non-invasively inactivate rmCD of macaque monkeys. We inject an adeno-associated viral vector expressing the inhibitory DREADD, hM4Di, into the rmCD bilaterally. To visualize DREADD expression in vivo, we develop a non-invasive imaging method using positron emission tomography (PET)...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921399/antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-properties-of-tartary-buckwheat-rice-flavonoids-after-in-vitro-digestion
#8
Tao Bao, Ye Wang, Yu-Ting Li, Vemana Gowd, Xin-He Niu, Hai-Ying Yang, Li-Shui Chen, Wei Chen, Chong-de Sun
Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921344/uhplc-ms-based-hdac-assay-applied-to-bio-guided-microfractionation-of-fungal-extracts
#9
Vincent Zwick, Pierre-Marie Allard, Lucie Ory, Claudia A Simões-Pires, Laurence Marcourt, Katia Gindro, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Muriel Cuendet
INTRODUCTION: Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are considered as promising targets for cancer treatment. Today, four HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat, romidepsin, belinostat, and panobinostat, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cancer treatment, while others are in clinical trials. Among them, several are naturally occurring fungal metabolites. OBJECTIVE: To develop and optimise an enzyme assay for bio-guided identification of HDAC inhibitors in fungal strains...
December 5, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921150/bone-mineral-density-is-decreased-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Sikarin Upala, Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo
Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects...
December 5, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921116/-the-pressure-equalizing-function-of-the-eustachian-tube-evaluation-in-a%C3%A2-hypo-hyperbaric-pressure-chamber
#11
S Jansen, M F Meyer, K-B Hüttenbrink, D Beutner
BACKGROUND: The Eustachian tube connects the tympanic cavity (cavum tympani) and the nasopharynx, and enables pressure equalization between the middle ear and ambient pressure. Functional pressure compensation is very important for flying and diving in particular, due to non-physiologically large pressure differences. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the pressure-equalizing function of the Eustachian tube is still a clinical challenge. This review article evaluates the existing data...
December 5, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921093/evaluation-of-a-novel-semi-automated-ultrasound-system-for-the-detection-of-synovitis-a-prospective-study-involving-45-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
M Witt, J Frielinghausen, R Mueller, F Mueller, F Proft, H Schulze-Koops, M Grunke, D-A Clevert
Background: Arthrosonography has proven to be more sensitive and reliable for the detection of synovitis than clinical examination, but a comprehensive examination of small joints is time-consuming. The automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) has been developed to allow automatic and reproducible series of consecutive B-mode pictures of the female breast. Objectives: To analyze the comparability of ABVS and conventional manual ultrasonography (mUS) for the detection of synovitis in hands and feet of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
November 2016: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921033/new-tools-to-study-contact-activation
#13
Steffen Rosén
The recent availability of a sensitive chromogenic method approach for determination of FXIa activity has been explored for designing sensitive methods for FXIIa and kallikrein, both using FXa formation as the read-out. For both enzymes the assay range 1-10 nmol/L provides a resolution of about 0.8 absorbance units with a total assay time of about 20 min. For studies on activation kinetics, subsampling and extensive dilution can be performed in MES-bovine serum albumin (BSA) buffer pH 5.7 for quenching of enzyme activity and with ensuing determination of FXa generation in a chromogenic FXIa method...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920947/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-poha-berry-physalis-peruviana-with-potential-anti-inflammatory-and-cancer-prevention-activities
#14
Leng Chee Chang, Mayuramas Sang-Ngern, John M Pezzuto, Carolyn Ma
The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920903/toward-clean-suspended-cvd-graphene
#15
Alexander Yulaev, Guangjun Cheng, Angela R Hight Walker, Ivan V Vlassiouk, Alline Myers, Marina S Leite, Andrei Kolmakov
The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using Pt catalyst and activated carbon...
2016: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920900/polyelectrolyte-coating-on-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-interface-between-magnetic-core-and-biorelevant-media
#16
Etelka Tombácz, Katalin Farkas, Imre Földesi, Márta Szekeres, Erzsébet Illés, Ildikó Y Tóth, Daniel Nesztor, Tamás Szabó
Nanoparticles do not exist in thermodynamical equilibrium because of high surface free energy, thus they have only kinetic stability. Spontaneous changes can be delayed by designed surface coating. In biomedical applications, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) require an optimized coating in order to fulfil the expectation of medicine regulatory agencies and ultimately that of biocompatibility. In this work, we show the high surface reactivity of naked SPIONs due to ≡Fe-OH sites, which can react with H(+)/OH(-) to form pH- and ionic strength-dependent charges...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920884/novel-combinations-of-synthesized-zno-nps-and-ceftazidime-evaluation-of-their-activity-against-standards-and-new-clinically-isolated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Elham Isaei, Shahla Mansouri, Fereshteh Mohammadi, Sadegh Taheritarigh, Zohreh Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacteria can be considered as a main problem in infection management. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), individually or in combination with antibiotics, can be considered as good candidates for struggling against drug resistant bacteria. METHODS: In this study, Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel method in low temperature as a cost effective procedure and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920813/densitometric-evaluation-of-bone-prosthetic-counterface-in-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-with-modern-implants
#18
Andrea Cozzi Lepri, Marco Giorgini, Carla Signorini, Christian Carulli, Roberto Civinini, Maria Luisa Brandi, Massimo Innocenti
INTRODUCTION: Recent acquisitions of the complex mechanisms of osseointegration between implants and host bone have gained attention, accordingly to the methods of evaluation of these interactions. DEXA analysis is considered an useful tool to assess such phenomena, in order to analyse in a quantitative manner the local metabolic activity of the bone, and to evaluate over the time the integration between host bone and prosthetic components. The purpose of the present study is to report about a preliminary experience in the analysis of osseointegration processes of patients undergoing a primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) or a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (rTKA)...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920726/hrvanalysis-a-free-software-for-analyzing-cardiac-autonomic-activity
#19
Vincent Pichot, Frédéric Roche, Sébastien Celle, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Florian Chouchou
Since the pioneering studies of the 1960s, heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly used non-invasive tool for examining cardiac autonomic functions and dysfunctions in various populations and conditions. Many calculation methods have been developed to address these issues, each with their strengths and weaknesses. Although, its interpretation may remain difficult, this technique provides, from a non-invasive approach, reliable physiological information that was previously inaccessible, in many fields including death and health prediction, training and overtraining, cardiac and respiratory rehabilitation, sleep-disordered breathing, large cohort follow-ups, children's autonomic status, anesthesia, or neurophysiological studies...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920722/a-new-structure-activity-relationship-sar-model-for-predicting-drug-induced-liver-injury-based-on-statistical-and-expert-based-structural-alerts
#20
Fabiola Pizzo, Anna Lombardo, Alberto Manganaro, Emilio Benfenati
The prompt identification of chemical molecules with potential effects on liver may help in drug discovery and in raising the levels of protection for human health. Besides in vitro approaches, computational methods in toxicology are drawing attention. We built a structure-activity relationship (SAR) model for evaluating hepatotoxicity. After compiling a data set of 950 compounds using data from the literature, we randomly split it into training (80%) and test sets (20%). We also compiled an external validation set (101 compounds) for evaluating the performance of the model...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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