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Activator method

T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Emilia Fisicaro, Carlotta Compari, Franco Bacciottini, Laura Contardi, Erika Pongiluppi, Nadia Barbero, Guido Viscardi, Pierluigi Quagliotto, Gaetano Donofrio, Marie Pierre Krafft
Biological and thermodynamic properties of a new homologous series of highly fluorinated bispyridinium cationic gemini surfactants, differing in the length of the spacer bridging the pyridinium polar heads in 1,1' position, are reported for the first time. Interestingly, gene delivery ability is closely associated with the spacer length due to a structural change of the molecule in solution. This conformation change is allowed when the spacer reaches the right length, and it is suggested by the trends of the apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs molality...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jowita Marszewska, Mietek Jaroniec
Highly-porous carbon spheres were prepared by modified Stöber method combined with silica templating and CO2 activation. Silica was delivered in the form of either colloids or tetraethyl orthosilicate and used to create porosity. Subsequently, CO2 activation was used to develop microporosity. CO2 activation was done either: (1) on carbon spheres, following silica etching or (2) on silica-carbon composites, before silica removal. Both methods delivered carbon materials with well-developed structures and, importantly, preserved spherical morphology...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Heba M Ismail, Athanasios Didangelos, Tonia L Vincent, Jeremy Saklatvala
Objectives Mechanical injury to cartilage predisposes to osteoarthritis (OA). Wounding the articular cartilage surface causes rapid activation of MAP kinases and NFκB mimicking the response to inflammatory cytokines. Here, we identify the upstream signalling mechanisms involved. Methods Cartilage was injured by dissecting it from the articular surface of porcine metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) or by avulsing murine proximal femoral epiphyses. Protein phosphorylation was assayed by Western blotting of cartilage lysates...
October 21, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Jiang Yue, James F Griffith, Fan Xiao, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Jiayun Shen, Priscilla Wong, Edmund K Li, Martin Li, Tena K Li, Tracy Y Zhu, Vivian W Hung, Ling Qin, Lai-Shan Tam
Objective To compare the bone healing effects of denosumab and alendronate in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Methods This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized-controlled trial (NCT01770106). 40 patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either subcutaneous denosumab (60mg) once or oral alendronate (70mg) weekly for 6 months. The size of individual bone erosions and the presence and extent of erosion-associated sclerosis (marginal osteosclerosis) were measured in the second metacarpal head of the non-dominant hand at baseline, 3 and 6 months...
October 21, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
A L Litvinenko, A E Moskalensky, N A Karmadonova, V M Nekrasov, D I Strokotov, A I Konokhova, M A Yurkin, E A Pokushalov, A V Chernyshev, V P Maltsev
Whereas commercially available hematological analyzers measure volume of individual platelets, angle-resolved light-scattering provides unique ability to additionally measure their shape index. We utilized the scanning flow cytometer to measure light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets taken from 16 healthy donors and the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem to retrieve the volume and shape index of each platelet. In normal conditions, the platelet shape index distribution (PSID) demonstrates three peaks, which relate to resting, partially activated, and fully activated platelets...
October 21, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Jialin Zhang, Wenxing Liu, Weiye Chen, Cuicui Li, Meimei Xie, Zhigao Bu
From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations...
2016: PloS One
Nitzan Krinsky, Maya Kaduri, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Mor Goldfeder, Eran Ivanir, Itai Benhar, Yuval Shoham, Avi Schroeder
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa)...
2016: PloS One
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Yoshikane Nonagase, Kimio Yonesaka, Hisato Kawakami, Satomi Watanabe, Koji Haratani, Takayuki Takahama, Naoki Takegawa, Hiroto Ueda, Junko Tanizaki, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Takeshi Yoshida, Masayuki Takeda, Yasutaka Chiba, Takao Tamura, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Junji Tsurutani
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of heregulin, a HER3 ligand, is one mechanism that confers resistance to the anti-HER2 agents trastuzumab and lapatinib. We investigated the impact of heregulin expression on the efficacy of HER2-targeted therapeutic agents, including trastuzumab, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and lapatinib, in vitro and in vivo and evaluated the heregulin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in specimens from patients with HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer. RESULTS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis assays demonstrated that heregulin conferred robust resistance to lapatinib and trastuzumab via HER3-Akt pathway activation followed by survivin overexpression; however, heregulin conferred minimal or no resistance to T-DM1 and paclitaxel...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
David Herzig, Moreno Testorelli, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Daniel Erlacher, Peter Achermann, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm
BACKGROUND/AIM: There is increasing popularity for athletes to use heart rate variability (HRV) to tailor training. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. The aim was to validate the selection of deep sleep segments identified by RR-intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. METHODS: In 11 world class alpine- skiers, RR-intervals were monitored during ten nights and simultaneous EEGs were recorded in 2-4 nights...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Damoon Sohrabi Baba Heidary, Clive A Randall
Both Li2CO3-coated nickel particles and fast firing technique were utilized in the manufacturing of MLCCs. They preserved the conductivity of Ni electrodes and provided the possibility of sintering the devices in oxidizing atmospheres. By using our method, the partial pressure of oxygen increase from 10-10 atm in conventional methods to 10-4 atm. The oxidizing atmosphere reduced the oxygen vacancy concentration as illustrated by the color change of the samples, and the results of EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elisabet Sundewall Thorén, Julie Hefting Pedersen, Nis Ove Jørnæs
Purpose: This paper describes the results from the iterative development and usability testing of an online audiological rehabilitation (OAR) program. The OAR was based on previous experience with Internet interventions and OAR. Method: The described OAR consisted of weekly learning modules, each of which had a specific topic and contained information and learning activities. A virtual coach, a trained audiologist, led the participants through the modules. The participants' feedback was collected using the "think-aloud" method in which the participants gave their feedback in a structured manner...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Kristin Bösch, Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Miroslav Vraneš, Jörg Kämper, Kerstin Schipper, Vera Göhre
Gene deletion plays an important role in the analysis of gene function. One of the most efficient methods to disrupt genes in a targeted manner is the replacement of the entire gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. During homologous recombination, exchange of DNA takes place between sequences with high similarity. Therefore, linear genomic sequences flanking a target gene can be used to specifically direct a selectable marker to the desired integration site. Blunt ends of the deletion construct activate the cell's DNA repair systems and thereby promote integration of the construct either via homologous recombination or by non-homologous-end-joining...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lisa A Sawicki, April M Kloxin
Click chemistries have been investigated for use in numerous biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell culture. In particular, light-mediated click reactions, such as photoinitiated thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, afford spatiotemporal control over material properties and allow the design of systems with a high degree of user-directed property control. Fabrication and modification of hydrogel-based biomaterials using the precision afforded by light and the versatility offered by these thiol-X photoclick chemistries are of growing interest, particularly for the culture of cells within well-defined, biomimetic microenvironments...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bhavisha Bakrania, Joey P Granger, Romain Harmancey
The mammalian heart is a major consumer of ATP and requires a constant supply of energy substrates for contraction. Not surprisingly, alterations of myocardial metabolism have been linked to the development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Therefore, unraveling the link between metabolism and contraction should shed light on some of the mechanisms governing cardiac adaptation or maladaptation in disease states. The isolated working rat heart preparation can be used to follow, simultaneously and in real time, cardiac contractile function and flux of energy providing substrates into oxidative metabolic pathways...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
James E Baily, William C W Chen, Nusrat Khan, Iain R Murray, Zaniah N González Galofre, Johnny Huard, Bruno Péault
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were conventionally isolated, through their plastic adherence, from primary tissue digests whilst their anatomical tissue location remained unclear. The recent discovery of defined perivascular and MSC cell marker expression by perivascular cells in multiple tissues by our group and other researchers has provided an opportunity to prospectively isolate and purify specific homogenous subpopulations of multipotent perivascular precursor cells. We have previously demonstrated the use of fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify microvascular CD146(+)CD34(-) pericytes and vascular CD34(+)CD146(-) adventitial cells from human skeletal muscle...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dong-Eog Kim, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Su-Kyoung Lee, Ju Hee Ryu, Ick Chan Kwon, Cheol-Hee Ahn, Kwangmeyung Kim, Dawid Schellingerhout
Direct thrombus imaging visualizes the root cause of thromboembolic infarction. Being able to image thrombus directly allows far better investigation of stroke than relying on indirect measurements, and will be a potent and robust vascular research tool. We use an optical imaging approach that labels thrombi with a molecular imaging thrombus marker - a Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe that is covalently linked to the fibrin strands of the thrombus by the fibrin-crosslinking enzymatic action of activated coagulation factor XIIIa during the process of clot maturation...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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