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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198702/epigenetic-clock-analysis-of-diet-exercise-education-and-lifestyle-factors
#1
Austin Quach, Morgan E Levine, Toshiko Tanaka, Ake T Lu, Brian H Chen, Luigi Ferrucci, Beate Ritz, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian L Neuhouser, Jeannette M Beasley, Linda Snetselaar, Robert B Wallace, Philip S Tsao, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, James D Stewart, Yun Li, Lifang Hou, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Steve Horvath
Behavioral and lifestyle factors have been shown to relate to a number of health-related outcomes, yet there is a need for studies that examine their relationship to molecular aging rates. Toward this end, we use recent epigenetic biomarkers of age that have previously been shown to predict all-cause mortality, chronic conditions, and age-related functional decline. We analyze cross-sectional data from 4,173 postmenopausal female participants from the Women's Health Initiative, as well as 402 male and female participants from the Italian cohort study, Invecchiare nel Chianti...
February 14, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191913/treatment-with-the-glucagon-receptor-antagonist-ly2409021-increases-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Christof M Kazda, Juan Frias, Irene Foga, Xuewei Cui, Cristina B Guzman, Parag Garhyan, Cory Heilmann, Jihui Anne Yang, Thomas A Hardy
AIMS: To assess the effect of LY2409021 on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 6-week, randomized, crossover study evaluated the effects of once-daily administration of LY2409021 20 mg vs those of placebo on SBP, diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in 270 subjects treated with diet/exercise ± metformin. Other measures included changes in glycemic control, serum lipids, and hepatic safety markers...
February 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188972/effect-of-exercise-combined-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-on-cardiac-function-a-randomised-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Peter G Jørgensen, Magnus T Jensen, Pernille Mensberg, Heidi Storgaard, Signe Nyby, Jan S Jensen, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
In patients with type 2 diabetes, both supervised exercise and treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide may improve cardiac function. We evaluated cardiac function before and after 16 weeks of treatment with the GLP-1RA liraglutide or placebo combined with supervised exercise in 33 dysregulated patients with type 2 diabetes on diet and/or metformin. Early diastolic myocardial tissue velocity was improved by exercise in the placebo group (-7.1 ± 1.6 cm/s (mean ± standard deviation) to -7...
February 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185715/effects-of-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-on-changes-in-the-liver-to-spleen-ratio-on-computed-tomography-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Koichi Yabiku, Akiko Mutoh, Kazufumi Miyagi, Nobuyuki Takasu
PURPOSE: Oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) such as pioglitazone and metformin have beneficial effects in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We prospectively assessed the effects of OADs on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 886 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in a murine model of NAFLD. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive pioglitazone, metformin, sitagliptin, or a non-OAD (control) for 6 months. All the patients received dietary and exercise guidance once a month during this study...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155616/crosstalk-between-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-arterial-stiffness
#5
Ioana Mozos, Constantin Tudor Luca
Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075066/efficacy-and-safety-of-fixed-dose-combination-therapy-alogliptin-plus-metformin-in-asian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-phase-3-trial
#6
Linong Ji, Ling Li, Jian Kuang, Tao Yang, Dong-Jun Kim, Azidah Abdul Kadir, Chien-Ning Huang, Douglas Lee
This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 26 weeks of twice-daily (BID) alogliptin + metformin fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients aged 18 - 75 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.5 - 10.0% after ≥2 months of diet and exercise and a 4-week placebo run-in were enrolled. Eligible patients were randomized (1:1:1:1) to placebo, alogliptin 12.5 mg BID, metformin 500 mg BID, or alogliptin 12.5 mg plus metformin 500 mg FDC BID. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to end of treatment (Week 26)...
January 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074493/ampk-does-not-play-a-requisite-role-in-regulation-of-ppargc1a-gene-expression-via-the-alternative-promoter-in-endurance-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
Daniil V Popov, Evgeny A Lysenko, Alexey D Butkov, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Dmitriy V Perfilov, Olga L Vinogradova
In human skeletal muscle, PGC-1α is constitutively expressed via the canonical promoter. By contrast, the expression of PGC-1α mRNA via the alternative promoter was found to be highly dependent on the intensity of exercise and to contribute largely to the post-exercise increase of total PGC-1α mRNA. This study investigated the role of AMPK in regulating PGC-1α gene expression via the alternative promoter through a cAMP responsive element-binding protein-1 (CREB1)-dependent mechanism in human skeletal muscle...
January 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039605/pharmacokinetic-characteristics-and-clinical-efficacy-of-an-sglt2-inhibitor-plus-dpp-4-inhibitor-combination-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) generally requires a combination of several pharmacological approaches to control hyperglycaemia. Combining a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor (SGLT2I, also known as gliflozin) and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I, also known as gliptin) appears to be an attractive strategy because of complementary modes of action. This narrative review analyzes the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of different combined therapies with an SGLT2I (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, ertugliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin, tofogliflozin) and DPP-4I (linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, teneligliptin)...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#9
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832452/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antihyperglycemic-medications-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Kelly L Matson, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Meghan Kelly, Asieh Karimani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents has been rising. This condition is associated with obesity, and it's prevalence is higher among minority or female youth. Lifestyle modification including diet and exercise is only successful in a small proportion of patients; therefore, pharmacotherapy approaches are needed to treat T2DM among youth. Currently, in the USA, only metformin and insulin are approved for the treatment of T2DM in children. However, several antihyperglycemic agents including exenatide, glimepiride, glyburide, liraglutide, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone are also used off-label in this population...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806559/investigation-the-effects-of-metformin-versus-insulin-on-neonatal-and-maternal-outcomes-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-clinical-trail
#11
Mahin Najafian, Mojgan Barati, Sara Masihi, Ailin Fardipor
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of metformin versus insulin in the glycemic control and to investigate the maternal and neonatal outcomes in in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes were randomized to either receive metformin (n=70) or insulin (n=70). Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy, following healthy diet and performing exercise for at least one week without satisfactory blood glucose level, no risk factor contributing to lactic acidosis, and no anatomic and/or chromosome anomalies...
September 28, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758711/loss-of-eyebrows-and-eyelashes-during-concomitant-treatment-with-sitagliptin-and-metformin
#12
Elena Succurro, Caterina Palleria, Maria Francesca Ruffo, Raffaele Serra, Franco Arturi, Luca Gallelli
: The fixed dose combination of sitagliptin 50 mg and metformin 850 mg (Janumet ®), is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in addition to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients treated with metformin alone. METHODS: We report a 69-year-old man with type 2 diabetes that developed sudden loss of eyebrows and eyelashes about 4 months after the beginning of Janumet ®. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic or skin diseases able to induce these manifestations, while the Naranjo probability scale documented a possible association between the drug and the adverse drug reaction...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757005/novel-treatments-target-type-2-diabetes
#13
Chris Fellner
Patients with type-2 diabetes can control their blood glucose levels through diet and exercise, by losing excess weight, and by taking medications, such as first-line metformin. We examine several promising drugs in the type-2 diabetes pipeline.
October 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749986/insulin-secretagogues-for-prevention-or-delay-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-associated-complications-in-persons-at-increased-risk-for-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687080/natural-selection-the-evolution-of-diagnostic-criteria-for-gestational-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating gestational diabetes improves maternal and fetal outcomes and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with gestational diabetes. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 h ≥5...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669277/the-use-of-exenatide-in-managing-markers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Omorogieva Ojo
OBJECTIVE: This review examines the use of exenatide twice daily in managing changes in markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive metabolic disorder, which results from defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action leading to chronic hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular complications. Despite the use of diet, exercise, oral antihyperglycaemic agents and insulin, the progressive nature of the condition means that the levels of the preventive and treatment measures would have to be increased and/or new therapies have to be developed in order to address the long term impact of type 2 diabetes...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574456/teneligliptin-in-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
Surendra Kumar Sharma, A Panneerselvam, K P Singh, Girish Parmar, Pradeep Gadge, Onkar C Swami
Teneligliptin is a recently developed oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults along with diet and exercise. Teneligliptin has been recently available in Japan (Teneria(®)), Argentina (Teneglucon(®)), and India (Tenepure; Teneza) at relatively affordable price. This is a positive step toward the management of T2DM in developing countries, where the cost of medicine is out-of-pocket expenditure and is a limiting factor for health care. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in the management of T2DM...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541294/sglt2-inhibitors-benefit-risk-balance
#18
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions...
October 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537577/the-effect-of-alogliptin-on-pulmonary-function-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-by-metformin-monotherapy
#19
He Tai, Ming-Yue Wang, Yue-Ping Zhao, Ling-Bing Li, Qian-Yan Dong, Xin-Guang Liu, Jin-Song Kuang
BACKGROUND: To observe the effect of alogliptin combined with metformin on pulmonary function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy (500 mg, bid po, for at least 3 months), and evaluate its efficacy and safety. METHODS: After a 2-week screening period, adult patients (aged 36-72 years) entered a 4-week run-in/stabilization period. Then, patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 55) or the control group (n = 50) for 26 weeks...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496573/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials-of-treatments-for-clozapine-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Jorge Zimbron, Golam M Khandaker, Chiara Toschi, Peter B Jones, Emilio Fernandez-Egea
Metabolic complications are commonly found in people treated with clozapine. Reviews on the management of this problem have generally drawn conclusions by grouping different types of studies involving patients treated with various different antipsychotics. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome. Two researchers independently searched PubMed and Embase for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for clozapine-induced obesity or metabolic syndrome...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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