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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689748/probiotic-lactococcus-lactis-decreases-incidence-and-severity-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-a-preterm-animal-model
#1
L A Gurien, K Stallings-Archer, S D Smith
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) persists as the most common and serious gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. Lactococcus lactis (LL), a lactic acid producing bacteria commonly found in buttermilk and cheese products, has several unique properties making it an ideal probiotic for neonates. We evaluated if the probiotic LL prevents development of NEC in a preterm rabbit model with Cronobacter sakazakii (CS). METHODS: Two-day preterm New Zealand white rabbit pups were randomly assigned to three diets: control (no additives), CS, and CS+LL...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686534/the-neurodevelopmental-perspective-of-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis
#2
REVIEW
Chariton Moschopoulos, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Bhairav V Shah, Anja Mowes, Vineet Bhandari
This state-of-the-art review article aims to highlight the most recent evidence about the therapeutic options of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, focusing on the molecular basis of the gut-brain axis in relevance to the neurodevelopmental outcomes of primary peritoneal drainage and primary laparotomy. Current evidence favors primary laparotomy over primary peritoneal drainage as regards neurodevelopment in the surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis. The added exposure to inhalational anesthesia in infants undergoing primary laparotomy is an additional confounding variable but requires further study...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682507/bacterial-microbiome-dynamics-in-post-pull-through-hirschsprung-associated-enterocolitis-haec-an-experimental-study-employing-the-endothelin-receptor-b-null-mouse-model
#3
Zhi Cheng, Lifu Zhao, Deepti Dhall, Paul M Ruegger, James Borneman, Philip K Frykman
Purpose: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is the most frequent potentially life-threatening complication in children with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) even after definitive corrective surgery. Mounting evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota likely contribute to the etiology of enterocolitis, so the aim of this study was to use a mouse model of post pull-through HAEC to compare the fecal bacterial communities of animals which developed HAEC to those free of enterocolitis...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681101/a-patient-with-peripheral-demyelinating-neuropathy-central-dysmyelinating-leukodystrophy-waardenburg-syndrome-and-severe-hypoganglionosis-associated-with-a-novel-sox10-mutation
#4
Yuko Akutsu, Kentaro Shirai, Akira Takei, Yudai Goto, Tomohiro Aoyama, Akimitu Watanabe, Masatoshi Imamura, Takashi Enokizono, Tatsuyuki Ohto, Tetsuo Hori, Keiko Suzuki, Masaharu Hayashi, Kouji Masumoto, Ken Inoue
In this report, we present the case of a female infant with peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH) associated with a novel frameshift mutation (c.842dupT) in exon 5, the last exon of SOX10. She had severe hypoganglionosis in the small intestine and entire colon, and suffered from frequent enterocolitis. The persistence of ganglion cells made both the diagnosis and treatment difficult in the neonatal period. She also showed hypopigmentation of the irises, hair and skin, bilateral sensorineural deafness with hypoplastic inner year, severe demyelinating neuropathy with hypotonia, and diffuse brain hypomyelination...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680746/monocyte-activation-and-inflammation-can-exacerbate-treg-th17-imbalance-in-infants-with-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
Yin Pang, Xiaoya Du, Xueli Xu, Mengjie Wang, Zhichang Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a potentially fatal disease that develops in the intestinal tract of newborn infants. An overactive immune system in the intestinal tract of NEC patients not only propagates inflammation and mediates tissue damage, but may also radiate the disease systemically and impose injury to distant organs. We previously identified impairment in the Treg compartment in NEC patients. Here, we hypothesized that monocytes, which could promote iTreg differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, were dysregulated in NEC infants...
April 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679047/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-reduce-necrotizing-enterocolitis-across-hospital-systems
#6
Amy T Nathan, Laura Ward, Kurt Schibler, Laurel Moyer, Andrew South, Heather C Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in premature infants. Local rates of NEC were unacceptably high. We hypothesized that utilizing quality improvement methodology to standardize care and apply evidence-based practices would reduce our rate of NEC. STUDY DESIGN: A multidisciplinary team used the model for improvement to prioritize interventions. Three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) developed a standardized feeding protocol for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and employed strategies to increase the use of human milk, maximize intestinal perfusion, and promote a healthy microbiome...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679046/impact-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-preterm-neonates-based-on-maternal-body-mass-index
#7
Maheer Faden, Sarah D McDonald, Prakeshkumar S Shah, Amit Mukerji
OBJECTIVE: Impact of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) in context of maternal body mass index (BMI) as it relates to neonatal outcomes remains unclear. We sought to evaluate effects of ACS on clinical outcomes of preterm infants based on maternal BMI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study among neonates 23-33 weeks' GA at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2015. Outcomes of neonates exposed to any ACS and pre-pregnancy maternal BMI ≥ 25 (N = 491) were compared with maternal BMI < 25 (N = 484)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675758/the-prognostic-impact-of-abdominal-surgery-in-cancer-patients-with-neutropenic-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-behalf-the-groupe-de-recherche-en-r%C3%A3-animation-respiratoire-du-patient-d-onco-h%C3%A3-matologie-grrr-oh
#8
REVIEW
Colombe Saillard, Lara Zafrani, Michael Darmon, Magali Bisbal, Laurent Chow-Chine, Antoine Sannini, Jean-Paul Brun, Jacques Ewald, Olivier Turrini, Marion Faucher, Elie Azoulay, Djamel Mokart
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge associated with high mortality rates, with controversial opinions on its optimal management. Physicians are usually reluctant to select surgery as the first-choice treatment, concerns being raised regarding the potential risks associated with abdominal surgery during neutropenia. Nevertheless, no published studies comforted this idea, literature is scarce and surgery has never been compared to medical treatment. This review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prognostic impact of abdominal surgery on outcome of neutropenic cancer patients presenting with NE, versus medical conservative treatment...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669357/oxygenation-of-the-immature-infant-a-commentary-and-recommendations-for-oxygen-saturation-targets-and-alarm-limits
#9
Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: For 70 years, there has been a search for the optimal oxygenation of premature infants. In spite of the lack of evidence, guidelines have successively reduced oxygenation targets during these years. OBJECTIVES: (1) To present a summary of previously published meta-analyses of 5 randomized studies (NeOProM) which tested a low (85-89%) versus a high (91-95%) oxygen saturation target the first weeks after birth on outcome of immature newborn infants. (2) To present international recommendations for oxygenation the first weeks after birth...
April 18, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666764/evaluation-of-a-therapy-for-idiopathic-chronic-enterocolitis-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-linked-microbial-community-correlates
#10
Joshua M Taylor, Erik L Clarke, Kate Baker, Abigail Lauder, Dorothy Kim, Aubrey Bailey, Gary D Wu, Ronald G Collman, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Frederic D Bushman, Rudolf Bohm
Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661576/treatment-of-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-with-stem-cell-derived-exosomes
#11
Christopher J McCulloh, Jacob K Olson, Yijie Wang, Yu Zhou, Natalie Huibregtse Tengberg, Shivani Deshpande, Gail E Besner
PURPOSE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a devastating disease in premature infants. We previously showed that four stem cell (SC) types equivalently improve experimental NEC. Exosomes are intercellular nanovesicles containing RNA, miRNA, DNA, and protein. Because SC therapy faces challenges, our aim was to determine if the beneficial effects of SC are achievable with cell-free exosomes. METHODS: Exosomes from four SC types were compared: (1) amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal SC (AF-MSC); (2) bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC); (3) amniotic fluid-derived neural SC (AF-NSC); and (4) neonatal enteric NSC (E-NSC)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658462/-research-advances-in-immune-tolerance-of-allogeneic-cell-transplantation-in-preterm-infants
#12
Can Lyu, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
Preterm infants are a special group, and related severe neurological, respiratory, and digestive disorders have high disability/fatality rates. Allogeneic cell transplantation may be an effective method for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. At present, animal studies have been conducted for allogeneic cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The main difficulty of this technique is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR), and successful induction of immune tolerance needs to be achieved in order to solve this problem...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657735/necrotizing-enterocolitis-associated-with-clostridium-butyricum-in-a-japanese-man
#13
Yukio Sato, Dai Kujirai, Katsura Emoto, Toshiaki Yagami, Taketo Yamada, Manabu Izumi, Masaki Ano, Kenichi Kase, Kenji Kobayashi
Case: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) caused by Clostridium butyricum is common in neonates; however, a case of NEC in adults has not been previously reported. An 84-year-old Japanese man developed C. butyricum -related NEC during hospitalization for treatment of stab wounds to the left side of the neck and lower abdomen, without organ damage, and concomitant pneumonia. Outcome: The patient developed acute onset of emesis accompanied by shock during his admission; partial resection of the small intestine was carried out due to necrosis...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652728/intestinal-microbiota-in-hirschsprung-disease
#14
Malla I Neuvonen, Katri Korpela, Kristiina Kyrklund, Risto J Rintala, Mikko P Pakarinen
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiota profiles of patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD), and to evaluate this in relation to postoperative bowel function and the incidence of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). METHODS: All patients operated on for HD at our center between 1987-2011 were invited to answer questionnaires on bowel function and to participate in a clinical follow-up for laboratory investigations, including fecal DNA extraction, fecal calprotectin (FC), and brush border lactase (LCT) genotyping...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648878/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-against-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-2
#15
Thomas K Hoang, Baokun He, Ting Wang, Dat Q Tran, Jon Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Treatment groups were administered formula supplemented with LR 17938 or placebo (MRS media)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648506/systemic-equid-alphaherpesvirus-9-in-a-grant-s-zebra
#16
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, Arlena Pipkin, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B R Balasuriya
A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644455/neonatal-independent-predictors-of-severe-nec
#17
Miriam Duci, Francesco Fascetti-Leon, Marta Erculiani, Elena Priante, Maria Elena Cavicchiolo, Giovanna Verlato, Piergiorgio Gamba
PURPOSE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe neonatal disease. The present study aimed to identify factors predisposing the development of severe forms of NEC. METHODS: This retrospective study examined NEC patients in a single centre between 2002 and 2015. Data concerning clinical characteristics, therapeutic management as well as short-term outcomes were collected. We compared the patients receiving successful medical treatment and those requiring surgical intervention...
April 11, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628968/clinical-manifestation-of-campylobacter-enteritis-in-children
#18
Joon Yeol Bae, Dong Hyuk Lee, Kyung Ok Ko, Jae Woo Lim, Eun Jeong Cheon, Young Hwa Song, Jung Min Yoon
Purpose: Timely antibiotic therapy in selected cases of diarrhea associated with bacterial infections can reduce the duration and severity of illness and prevent complications. The availability of a predictive index before identification of causative bacteria would aid in the choice of a therapeutic agent. Methods: The study included patients admitted to the pediatrics unit at Konyang University Hospital for acute inflammatory diarrhea from August 1, 2015 to July 31, 2016 who underwent multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628209/outcomes-in-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome-after-autologous-intestinal-reconstruction-does-etiology-matter
#19
Federica Pederiva, Alberto Sgrò, Riccardo Coletta, Basem Khalil, Antonino Morabito
BACKGROUND: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the most common cause of intestinal failure in children. Many factors have been investigated in an attempt to define which parameters influence most survival and ability to wean off parenteral nutrition (PN). The aim of this study was to investigate if aetiology of SBS affects the outcomes in paediatric patients treated with autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive surgery. METHODS: All children with SBS who underwent autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive surgery between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and outcome measures were recorded...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628208/complex-gastroschisis-clinical-spectrum-and-neonatal-outcomes-at-a-referral-center
#20
Pablo Laje, Maria V Fraga, William H Peranteau, Holly L Hedrick, Nahla Khalek, Juliana S Gebb, Julie S Moldenhauer, Mark P Johnson, Alan W Flake, N Scott Adzick
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the outcomes of neonates with complex gastroschisis (GC), and correlate outcomes with each type of complication. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with complex GC owing to prenatal and/or postnatal abdominal complications; 2008-2016. Primary outcomes: time to discontinue parenteral nutrition (off-PN), length of stay (LOS) and neonatal survival. MAIN RESULTS: We treated 58 patients with complex gastroschisis owing to abdominal complications, which were: intestinal necrosis at birth (n=9), intestinal atresia (n=16), medical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (n=15), surgical NEC (n=1), in utero volvulus (n=1), vanishing gastroschisis (n=2), severe intestinal dysmotility (n=1), delayed abdominal closure (n=3), abdominal compartment syndrome (n=2) and hiatal hernia/severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; n=11)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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