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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044351/surgical-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-an-incredibly-low-birth-weight-infant-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
A Zangari, C Noviello, S Nobili, G Cobellis, C Gulia, R Piergentili, S Gigli, V Carnielli
Survival of preterm infants have dramatically improved over the last decades. Nonetheless, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The severity of the disease and the mortality rate are directly correlated with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Despite surgical treatment mortality rate remains very high in extremely premature infants, especially in newborns at the lowest limit of viability. Survival of infants of birth weight (BW) below 750 g has been increasingly reported in recent years, however the overall mortality in extremely low "BW" infants (ELBW) requiring surgery for NEC has not decreased over the past years...
September 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035425/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#2
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review published in 2012. A related review "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates" has been updated as well. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants, despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or prevent BPD...
October 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030367/patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-paradoxically-have-increased-rates-of-autoimmune-disorders
#3
Ammu Thampi Susheela, Andrew Hale
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), characterised by disordered B cell function, is one of the most common primary immunodeficiency disorders. Patients with CVID are at lifelong risk of recurrent infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Paradoxically, given their immunocompromised state, patients with CVID are also at significantly increased risk of autoimmune disorders, which are seen in almost 25% of cases. The authors report a 24-year-old female patient with CVID, manifested as severe hypogammaglobulinaemia with recurrent sinopulmonary infections and enterocolitis, who presented with transaminitis, chronic diarrhoea and haematemesis...
October 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025732/rack1-maintains-intestinal-homeostasis-by-protecting-the-integrity-of-the-epithelial-barrier
#4
Zhuan-Fen Cheng, Christine A Cartwright
Previously we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to identify key functions for Rack1 in regulating growth of intestinal epithelia: suppressing crypt cell proliferation and regeneration, promoting differentiation and apoptosis, and repressing development of neoplasia. However, other than low body weight, we did not detect an overt phenotype in mice constitutively deleted of Rack1 in intestinal epithelia (vil-Cre:Rack1(fl/fl) mice), presumably because Rack1 was deleted in < 10% of the total surface area of the epithelia...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024758/pcr-ribotype-distribution-of-clostridium-difficile-in-irish-pigs
#5
Katharina Stein, Sarah Egan, Helen Lynch, Céline Harmanus, Lorraine Kyne, Celine Herra, Sinead McDermott, Ed Kuijper, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Susan FitzGerald, Lynda Fenelon, Denise Drudy
Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans causing infections in the healthcare environment and the community. Carriage of C. difficile and C. difficile-related enterocolitis has been reported in piglets worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of C. difficile isolation from pigs in Ireland. Faecal samples from piglet litters and sows were collected from six farms in 2015. The sows were non-diarrhoeal at the time of sampling. The diarrhoeal status of the piglets was unknown...
October 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022536/short-term-outcomes-of-inborn-v-outborn-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-1-500-g-in-the-neonatal-nursery-at-groote-schuur-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#6
L Gibbs, L Tooke, M C Harrison
BACKGROUND: The Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) neonatal nursery provides level 3 care for the Metro West Health District in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Worldwide, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates delivered in level 3 neonatal units have better outcomes than those transported from other facilities. OBJECTIVES: To identify the characteristics and outcomes of VLBW neonates at GSH, with emphasis on differences between inborns and outborns. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018960/influence-of-stress-factors-on-intestinal-epithelial-injury-and-regeneration
#7
Carol Lee, Adam Minich, Bo Li, Hiromu Miyake, Shogo Seo, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: Lgr5+ intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) crucial for intestinal epithelial regeneration are impaired during necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to investigate the influence of different stressors on intestinal epithelial injury and regeneration in vitro. METHODS: Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were exposed to stressors such as lipopolysaccharide, hydrogen peroxide, and serum. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay at 18 and 24 h...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016494/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-indicated-preterm-births-based-on-the-intended-mode-of-delivery
#8
Spencer G Kuper, Rachel A Sievert, Robin Steele, Joseph R Biggio, Alan T Tita, Lorie M Harper
OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in women who underwent induction of labor or planned cesarean delivery in indicated preterm births before 34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all indicated singleton preterm births (23-34 weeks of gestation) in a tertiary center from 2011 to 2014. The primary maternal outcome was a composite of early postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion, operative complications, postpartum complications, and clinical chorioamnionitis...
October 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988213/management-of-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-children-over-the-age-of-6-months-a-conservative-approach
#9
Leel Nellihela, Mohamed Mutalib, David Thompson, Kammermeier Jochen, Manasvi Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Although it can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic individuals, it can also be secondary to life-threatening bowel ischaemia and sepsis. In premature infants, it is a pathognomonic sign of necrotising enterocolitis. There is no consensus regarding management and long-term outcome of children with PI. AIM: Review of our experience of PI in children beyond the early infantile period...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985842/increased-population-of-immature-enteric-glial-cells-in-the-resected-proximal-ganglionic-bowel-of-hirschsprung-s-disease-patients
#10
Gakuto Tani, Christian Tomuschat, Anne Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Enteric glial cells are essential for normal gastrointestinal function. Abnormalities in glial structure, development, or function lead to disturbances in gastrointestinal physiology. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) is a marker of immature enteric glial cells, whereas S100 is expressed only by mature glial cells. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) often suffer from dysmotility and enterocolitis despite proper surgery. We designed this study to determine the distribution and expression of glial cells in patients with HSCR compared to normal controls...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985839/peritoneal-drainage-is-associated-with-higher-survival-rates-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#11
Jun Tashiro, Amy E Wagenaar, Eduardo A Perez, Juan E Sola
BACKGROUND: To evaluate peritoneal drainage (PD) and laparotomy ± resection/ostomy (LAP) as initial approaches to the surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: Kids' Inpatient Database (2003-2012) was searched for cases of NEC (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 777.5x) in premature (<37 weeks), extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) infants...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984754/late-presentation-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-associated-with-rotavirus-infection-in-a-term-infant-with-hyperinsulinism-on-octreotide-therapy-a-case-report
#12
Abdulaziz A Alsaedi, Ayman A Bakkar, Naglaa M Kamal, Jwaher M Althobiti
RATIONALE: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy that can cause permanent brain damage. Consequently, optimal management is extremely important. Current pharmacologic and surgical treatment were available that included diazoxide and octreotides. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 4 month old Saudi male patient diagnosed at our hospital as CHI, treated with near total pancreatectomy and octreotide therapy of 30 mcg/kg/day presented with severe abdominal distension, vomiting and bloody diarrhea...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983789/acute-kidney-injury-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-predicts-mortality
#13
Cory N Criss, David T Selewski, Bipin Sunkara, Joshua S Gish, Lily Hsieh, Jennifer S Mcleod, Jason O Robertson, Niki Matusko, Samir K Gadepalli
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a significant challenge. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been shown to worsen survival in critically ill neonates. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of AKI and its impact on outcomes in neonatal NEC. METHODS: We carried out a single-center retrospective chart review of all neonates treated for NEC between 2003 and 2015 (N = 181). AKI is defined as a rise in serum creatinine (SCr) from a previous trough according to neonatal modified KDIGO criteria (stage 1 = SCr rise 0...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983778/probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-hirschsprung-associated-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
H Nakamura, T Lim, P Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is a life-threatening complication of Hirschsprung's disease. HAEC is reported to occur in 6-50% of patients preoperatively and in 2-35% postoperatively. The exact cause of HAEC is not fully understood, but disturbances of intestinal microbiota have recently been reported in patients with HAEC. In recent years, the administration of probiotics has been proposed to reduce the incidence of HAEC. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of probiotics on postoperative HAEC...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983688/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
H Nakamura, T Lim, P Puri
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) continues to be an important cause of morbidity in patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). HAEC can occur at any time during the course of the disease. The reported incidence of HAEC before surgery ranges from 6 to 50%, and after surgery, it ranges from 2 to 35%. HAEC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have similar clinical presentation including diarrhea, hematochezia, and abdominal pain. In recent years, isolated cases of IBD have been reported in patients who had surgical treatment for HSCR...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979257/multiplexed-lateral-flow-test-for-detection-and-differentiation-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-serotypes-o1-and-o2
#16
Eva J Scharinger, Richard Dietrich, Tobias Wittwer, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kristina Schauer
The ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is responsible for severe meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants associated with ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF). The current ISO method for isolation and detection of Cronobacter spp. is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. In this study, a multiplexed lateral flow test strip was developed to rapidly detect and simultaneously serotype O1 and O2 C. sakazakii serotypes. The assay is based on two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that specifically bind to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of these pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972497/the-mechanisms-of-apoptosis-initiation-in-rats-with-chronic-enterocolitis-combined-with-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes
#17
M Marushchak, N Lisnianska, І Krynytska, I Chornomydz
Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disease, characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. A large number of experimental studies emphasizes the key role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes. A deeper understanding of the apoptosis mechanisms, identifying of the predictors that positively or negatively influence on the cell death initiation, the correlation between some indices will improve therapeutic strategies for patients with diabetes and comorbidities, which makes the actuality of this study...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970315/mode-of-delivery-and-outcomes-of-infants-with-gastroschisis-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#18
Dina W Kirollos, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
BACKGROUND: There is controversy among the literature for electing caesarean section (CS) delivery for infants with gastroschisis in an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis investigates whether there is enough evidence to support CS delivery over vaginal delivery. DATA SOURCES: We conducted our search in April 2017. We searched Cochrane, Medline, Premedline, Embase, CINAHL, GoogleScholar and Web of Science...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968486/protein-hydrolysate-versus-standard-formula-for-preterm-infants
#19
REVIEW
Derek Hang Cheong Ng, Joel Klassen, Nicholas D Embleton, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: When human milk is not available for feeding preterm infants, protein hydrolysate rather than standard cow's milk formulas (with intact proteins) are often used because they are perceived as being tolerated better and less likely to lead to complications. However, protein hydrolysate formulas are more expensive than standard formulas, and concern exists that their use in practice is not supported by high-quality evidence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of feeding preterm infants with hydrolysed formula (versus standard cow's milk formulas) on the risk of feed intolerance, necrotising enterocolitis, and other morbidity and mortality in preterm infants...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962146/expression-of-mypt1-cpi-17-and-mlc20-in-ileum-of-neonatal-mouse-nec-model-and-its-significance
#20
Yinyu Yin, Yiping Li, Jian Pan, Ruze Tang, Jie Zhu, Zhenfang Qin, Xiaobing Xu, Jian Wang
The present study determined the changes in the expression levels of MYPT1, CPI-17 and MLC20 in the ileum of mice with neonatal induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) to provide a basis for a pathogenesis model that includes smooth muscle changes during NEC. A group of 7-day-old BALB/c mice were fed with formula (40 µl/g, 5 times/day) and given hypoxia treatments (5% O2 and 95% N2 for 10 min, twice daily) for 4 days to induce NEC and establish a mouse model. A control group of 7-day-old BALB/c mice were left with their mother for the duration of the treatment...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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