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pediatric clinical pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785077/mediterranean-diet-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Caterina Anania, Francesco Massimo Perla, Francesca Olivero, Lucia Pacifico, Claudio Chiesa
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver disease, and is characterized by a wide spectrum of fat-liver disorders that can result in severe liver disease and cirrhosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the major risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Currently, there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet for quality and quantity, are considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780690/an-update-on-the-treatment-of-pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#2
Cory Stingl, Kathleen Cardinale, Heather Van Mater
Purpose of review: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an increasingly recognized etiology for neuropsychiatric deficits that are highly responsive to immunotherapy. As a result, rheumatologists are often called upon to help with the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pharmacologic treatment of AE. Recent findings: To date, there are no prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials to guide treatment recommendations for AE...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779924/management-of-nocturnal-enuresis-in-taiwan-consensus-statements-of-the-taiwan-enuresis-expert-committee
#3
REVIEW
Ta-Min Wang, Stephen Shei-Dei Yang, Jeng-Daw Tsai, Mei-Ching Yu, Yee-Hsuan Chiou, Kuo-Liang Chen, Hong-Lin Cheng, Jesun Lin, Hsiao-Wen Chen, Hann-Chorng Kuo, Shyh-Chyan Chen
Nocturnal enuresis causes significant psychological distress to affected children and their family and requires appropriate management. A 12-member expert committee of pediatric urologists and pediatric nephrologists in Taiwan with extensive experience in treating enuresis was established to develop consensus statements and a recommended treatment algorithm for the management of patients with nocturnal enuresis in Taiwan after careful consideration of current evidence, existing guidelines, and expert opinion as well as local practice and culture...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778756/nurses-knowledge-attitudes-and-clinical-practice-in-pediatric-postoperative-pain-management
#4
Anja Hetland Smeland, Alison Twycross, Stefan Lundeberg, Tone Rustøen
Despite readily available evidence to guide practice, children continue to experience moderate to severe pain in hospital postoperatively. Reasons for this may include attitudes of nurses toward pain management and their lack of knowledge in key areas. To identify nurses' knowledge and clinical practice of pediatric postoperative pain management and whether there is a link between knowledge and practice. A descriptive cross-sectional study including a questionnaire and observations was conducted in postanesthesia care (recovery) units in six university hospitals in Norway...
May 16, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735115/tremors-essential-tremor-and-beyond
#5
Chandrabhaga Miskin, Karen S Carvalho
Tremor is a fairly common movement disorder presenting to an outpatient pediatric neurology practice. Tremors can be primary or secondary to underlying neurologic or systemic diseases. When assessing a child with tremor, it is paramount to evaluate the phenomenology of the tremor, determine the presence or absence of other neurologic signs and symptoms, and the possible modifying influence of medications. Proper classification is essential for specific diagnosis and prompt adequate management. Treatment considerations should take into account objective assessment of tremor severity and the degree of disability or impairment experienced by the child...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728296/efficacy-of-non-pharmacological-methods-of-pain-management-in-children-undergoing-venipuncture-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-clinic-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-audiovisual-distraction-and-external-cold-and-vibration
#6
Piera Bergomi, Luigia Scudeller, Serena Pintaldi, Alberto Dal Molin
PURPOSE: Venipuncture generates anxiety and pain in children. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate two non-pharmacological techniques, vibration combined with cryotherapeutic topical analgesia by means of the Buzzy® device and animated cartoons, in terms of pain and anxiety relief during venipuncture in children. DESIGNS AND METHODS: 150 children undergoing venipuncture were randomized into four groups: the 'no method' group, the Buzzy® device group, the animated cartoon group and the combination of Buzzy® and an animated cartoon group...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721487/executive-function-deficits-in-seriously-ill-children-emerging-challenges-and-possibilities-for-clinical-care
#7
Annet Bluschke, Maja von der Hagen, Barbara Novotna, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
The past years have seen an incredible increase in the quality and success rates of treatments in pediatric medicine. One of the resulting major challenges refers to the management of primary or secondary residual executive function deficits in affected children. These deficits lead to problems in the ability to acquire, understand, and apply abstract and complex knowledge and to plan, direct, and control actions. Executive functions deficits are important to consider because they are highly predictive of functioning in social and academic aspects of daily life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708207/ssri-associated-bruxism-a-systematic-review-of-published-case-reports
#8
REVIEW
Andrew R Garrett, Jason S Hawley
Purpose of review: Antidepressant-associated movement disorders are a well-described phenomenon. However, antidepressant-associated bruxism, jaw pain, or jaw spasm, while reported in dental literature, is less commonly recognized among neurologists. We summarize the clinical features and treatment of antidepressant-associated bruxism and associated jaw pain through a systematic review of case reports. Recent findings: Antidepressant-associated bruxism may occur in pediatric and adult patients, most commonly among female patients...
April 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703801/successful-management-of-chylothorax-with-etilefrine-case-report-in-2-pediatric-patients
#9
Gysella Muniz, Jennifer Hidalgo-Campos, Maria Del Carmen Valdivia-Tapia, Nader Shaikh, Nilton Yhuri Carreazo
Chylothorax is defined as the accumulation of chyle within the pleural space. Originally described in 1917 by Pisek, it is the most common cause of pleural effusion in the neonatal period. The leading cause of chylothorax is laceration of the thoracic duct during surgery, which occurs in 0.85% to 6.6% of children undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Few authors of reports in the literature have looked at etilefrine, a relatively unknown sympathomimetic, as an option for the medical treatment of chylothorax. In this case report, we review the clinical course of 2 infants with type III esophageal atresia who developed chylothorax after thoracic surgery and were successfully treated with intravenous etilefrine after failing initial dietary and pharmacological management...
April 27, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683873/eltrombopag-induced-acute-liver-failure-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacogenetic-analysis
#10
M Marano, J Serafinelli, S Cairoli, D Martinelli, M Pisani, G Palumbo, M G Cefalo, C Cecchetti, M Di Nardo, F S Falvella, B M Goffredo
Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist (TPO-RA) approved for the treatment of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), who are more than one year old, and show poor response to first-line therapy. ITP is a hematological disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia in the absence of secondary causes or disorders. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated in the pediatric population, therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is not usually performed in clinical practice...
April 20, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675639/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-in-pediatric-drug-development-and-the-importance-of-standardized-scaling-of-clearance
#11
REVIEW
Eva Germovsek, Charlotte I S Barker, Mike Sharland, Joseph F Standing
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling is important in the design and conduct of clinical pharmacology research in children. During drug development, PKPD modeling and simulation should underpin rational trial design and facilitate extrapolation to investigate efficacy and safety. The application of PKPD modeling to optimize dosing recommendations and therapeutic drug monitoring is also increasing, and PKPD model-based dose individualization will become a core feature of personalized medicine. Following extensive progress on pediatric PK modeling, a greater emphasis now needs to be placed on PD modeling to understand age-related changes in drug effects...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668479/mobile-application-neurogame-for-assessment-the-attention-focus-and-concentration
#12
Mario Loleski, Sofija Loleska, Nada Pop-Jordanova
Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is still unknown what physiological functions can be monitored at clinical quality. In medicine their use is cited in many fields (cardiology, pulmology, endocrinology, rheumatology, pediatrics as well as in the field of mental health). The aim of this paper is to explain how the use of mobile application can help clients to improve the index of their focus, concentration and motor skills. Our original developed application on Android operating system, named "neurogame" is based on an open source platform to enable assessment and therapeutic stimulation, focus and concentration with the ability to monitor the progress of the results obtained in a larger number of participants (normal subjects as well as patients with different disorders) over a period of time...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664505/pain-in-children-and-adolescents-hospitalized-in-a-center-of-reference
#13
C Zunino, M Notejane, M Bernadá, L Rodríguez, N Vanoli, M Rojas, L Benech, I Mimbacas
INTRODUCTION: The evaluation and treatment of pain in hospitalized is still an important health pro blem. OBJECTIVE: To know the prevalence, characteristics and approaches to pain management in children and adolescents hospitalized in the Pediatric Hospital of the Pereira Rossell Center (HP-CH- PR), a pediatric reference center in Uruguay. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Cross-sectional study, through survey and review of clinical records on 09/13/16...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651656/using-lithium-in-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-efficacy-tolerability-and-practical-considerations
#14
REVIEW
B Grant, J A Salpekar
Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels...
April 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610167/-hla-a-31-01-and-oxcarbazepine-induced-dress-in-a-patient-with-seizures-and-complete-dcx-deletion
#15
Hyun Kim, Laura Chadwick, Yasir Alzaidi, Jonathan Picker, Annapurna Poduri, Shannon Manzi
Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug (AED) commonly used as a first-line treatment option for focal epilepsy. Several AEDs, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin are associated with various delayed-hypersensitivity reactions such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. The Food and Drug Administration-approved label for oxcarbazepine currently presents information regarding a pharmacogenomic association with the HLA antigen allele HLA-B*15:02 and hypersensitivity reactions in certain ancestry groups with a high incidence of this allele...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609717/sleep-disorders-and-their-management-in-children-with-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-referred-to-sleep-clinics
#16
Keren Armoni Domany, Sumalee Hantragool, David F Smith, Yuanfang Xu, Monir Hossain, Narong Simakajornboon
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The nature of sleep disorders in children with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is unknown. We aimed to describe the type, the management, and the short-term outcome of sleep disorders in children with EDS referred to sleep clinics. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of medical records and polysomnography tests of children with EDS younger than 18 years who were referred to the sleep clinic. Demographic information and medical history were collected, and polysomnography tests were reviewed...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605191/a-quality-improvement-intervention-to-reduce-emergency-department-radiography-for-bronchiolitis
#17
Joel Reiter, Adin Breuer, Oded Breuer, Saar Hashavya, David Rekhtman, Eitan Kerem, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that a chest X-ray (CXR) should not be routinely obtained in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis, as studies have shown that they do not affect clinical outcomes, but rather lead to overuse of pharmacological agents and a longer length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether active institution of bronchiolitis practice guidelines as part of a quality improvement project decreased the use of CXRs in the Pediatric Emergency Department (ED)...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598957/pharmacovigilance-in-pediatrics
#18
Émilie Bouquet, Kristina Star, Annie Pierre Jonville-Béra, Geneviève Durrieu
The characteristics of pharmacology and drug evaluation in the pediatric age group highlight the necessity for the pharmacovigilance community to adjust to the specific features of children. At the time of marketing a medicinal product intended for children, the product's safety profile is sometimes less well known than for adults due to fewer or small sample clinical trials. Furthermore, the frequent off-labeled drug use, the use of unsuitable dosage forms and the need for continuous dose adjustments increase the risk of medication errors and thus lead to avoidable adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
February 16, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594463/traumatic-brain-injury-in-indian-children
#19
REVIEW
Krishna Chaitanya, Archana Addanki, Rajendra Karambelkar, Rakesh Ranjan
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents is a community-based medical and educational challenge world-over due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In India, children between 1 to 15 years constitute significant proportion of the total population, who are vulnerable for TBI. In developed countries, pediatric trauma mortality still represents more than half of all childhood fatalities, which is 18 times more common than brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of TBI in children at a tertiary care center in Pune, Maharashtra...
March 29, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588613/buprenorphine-and-pain-treatment-in-pediatric-patients-an-update
#20
Erendira Vicencio-Rosas, María Gabriela Pérez-Guillé, Carmen Flores-Pérez, Janett Flores-Pérez, Francisca Trujillo-Jiménez, Juan Luis Chávez-Pacheco
Introduction: The usual management of moderate to severe pain is based on the use of opioids. Buprenorphine (BPN) is an opioid with an analgesic potency 50 times greater than that of morphine. It is widely used in various pain models and has demonstrated efficacy and safety in adult patients; however, there are insufficient clinical trials in pediatric populations. Purpose: The aim of this study was to perform an updated meta-analysis on the implementation of BPN in the treatment of pain in the pediatric population...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
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