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pediatric clinical pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910751/recent-advances-in-pharmacotherapeutic-paradigm-of-mild-to-recalcitrant-atopic-dermatitis
#1
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901408/four-steps-to-eliminate-or-reduce-pain-in-children-caused-by-needles-part-1
#2
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
Dr Stefan Friedrichsdorf* speaks to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, MD, is medical director of the Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine at Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, USA, home to one of the largest and most comprehensive programs of its kind in the country. The interdisciplinary pain team is devoted to prevent and treat acute, procedural, neuropathic, psycho-social-spiritual, visceral, and chronic/complex pain for all inpatients and outpatients in close collaboration with all pediatric subspecialties at Children's Minnesota...
November 30, 2016: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901353/can-new-chemical-therapies-improve-the-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-children
#3
Emanuele D'Amico, Aurora Zanghì, Francesco Patti
Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) may represent up to 10% of all MS cases. Establishing the diagnosis of MS in a child is complicated by the limited diagnostic criteria and the possibility of significant overlap with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Areas covered: This review puts in perspective the potential possibilities given by new pharmacological agents in pediatric MS; focusing on the unmet needs in terms of research development in this field. Expert Opinion: The treatment landscape of MS has dramatically changed in the last 5 years...
November 30, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900937/post-authorization-changes-in-the-safety-and-efficacy-assessment-recommended-indications-and-drug-quality-profile-of-adalimumab-a-chronological-overview
#4
Gergely Iványi, Romána Zelkó
OBJECTIVE: The intention of the present study was to demonstrate the postauthorization changes of adalimumab (European trade name: Humira), evaluating the variations in its safety, efficacy, and quality profile. METHODS: Type-II, major variations of the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) from September 8, 2003 to November 19, 2015, were analyzed, which, according to Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2008, have to reflect changes that may have a significant impact on the safety, efficacy, or quality profile of a medicinal product...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900832/bromodomain-and-extraterminal-protein-inhibitors-in-pediatrics-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Irene Jiménez, André Baruchel, François Doz, Johannes Schulte
The last few years have seen the identification of pharmacologic approaches to target bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins for cancer treatment. These proteins have an essential role in gene transcription regulation by binding acetylated lysine residues on histone tails, activating gene transcription. BET inhibitors have been tested in preclinical models including pediatric malignancies and several adult clinical trials are ongoing. Since the development of new drugs in pediatric cancer has long lagged behind programs for adults, the aim of this review is to show the importance of these therapies in pediatric malignancies to support their development in pediatric oncology/hematology...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893572/pain-management-in-pediatric-burn-patients-review-of-recent-literature-and-future-directions
#6
Omar Pardesi, Gennadiy Fuzaylov
Childhood burns are a profoundly traumatic and painful experience. Despite recognition of the prevalence of burn injuries in children and the severity of the associated pain, burn pain remains undertreated. At the same time, more evidence is emerging to suggest that undertreated pain has serious long-term medical and psychiatric consequences, many of which can be ameliorated with improved pain control. Pain in burn patients is, however, notoriously difficult to treat, perhaps because there is a chronic pain aspect underlying the acute pain that accompanies wound care and procedures...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886942/models-of-care-for-addressing-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-and-health-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer Stinson, Mark Connelly, Steven J Kamper, Troels Herlin, Karine Toupin April
Chronic musculoskeletal pain among children and adolescents is common and can negatively affect quality of life. It also represents a high burden on the health system. Effective models of care for addressing the prevention and management of pediatric musculoskeletal pain are imperative. This chapter will address the following key questions: (1) Why are pediatric-specific models of pain care needed? (2) What is the burden of chronic musculoskeletal pain among children and adolescents? (3) What are the best practice approaches for early identification and prevention of chronic musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents? (4) What are the recommended strategies for clinical management of chronic pain, including pharmacological, physical, psychological and complementary, and alternative approaches? (5) What are the most effective strategies for implementing models of pain care across different care settings? (6) What are the research priorities to improve models of care for children and adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain?...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882422/predictors-of-pharmacological-therapy-of-ectopic-atrial-tachycardia-in-children
#8
Haiyan Ge, Xiaomei Li, Haiju Liu, He Jiang
Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a relatively common type of supraventricular tachycardia in the pediatric population, and it can be resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs and lead to tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) if not properly managed. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of the response to pharmacological therapy in children with EAT. From January 2009 to April 2014, 115 children were admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of EAT and placed on antiarrhythmic drugs. We examined the clinical history, response to therapy, and follow-up of the children...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859917/current-evidence-for-the-use-of-sugammadex-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Joseph D Tobias
Sugammadex is a novel pharmacologic agent, which reverses neuromuscular blockade with a mechanism that differs from the commonly used, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although sugammadex has not received approval from the United States Food & Drug administration in children, its use has already been reported to reverse neuromuscular blockade in several clinical scenarios in the pediatric population including the 'cannot intubate-cannot ventilate' scenario. To date, there remains limited data from prospective trials in the pediatric-aged patient...
November 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849239/importance-of-the-use-of-protocols-for-the-management-of-analgesia-and-sedation-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#10
Emiliana Motta, Michele Luglio, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
Introduction: Analgesia and sedation are essential elements in patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU), in order to promote the control of pain, anxiety and agitation, prevent the loss of devices, accidental extubation, and improve the synchrony of the patient with mechanical ventilation. However, excess of these medications leads to rise in morbidity and mortality. The ideal management will depend on the adoption of clinical and pharmacological measures, guided by scales and protocols...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819155/drugs-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-co-morbidities
#11
Ozra Tabatabaei-Malazy, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Abdollahi
The continuing global epidemic of obesity in adolescents has raised the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the wealth of information concerning T2DM in adults, rare data are available targeting treatment of T2DM in pediatric. Areas covered: This article has reviewed clinical practice guidelines, particularly the American Diabetes Association and the Pediatric Endocrine Society consensus, jointly with clinical trial data available in databases with respect to the use of available pharmacological options to treat T2DM and its complications in youth...
November 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814325/fatal-cardiac-arrest-in-2-children-possible-role-of-ondansetron
#12
Scott M Brenner, Jenny Boucher
INTRODUCTION: Ondansetron is commonly used to treat vomiting in gastroenteritis, but has a United States Food and Drug Administration black box warning for risk of Q wave to T wave time interval (QT) prolongation. We report 2 pediatric cases of fatal refractory cardiac arrest after administration of ondansetron. CASES: A 10-year-old previously healthy boy presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis symptoms. After intravenous fluids, morphine, antibiotics, and 2 doses of ondansetron, the patient became unresponsive with agonal respirations and a wide complex tachycardia consistent with ventricular tachycardia...
November 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813341/pharmacological-and-biological-therapeutic-strategies-for-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#13
Ronit Marom, Yi-Chien Lee, Ingo Grafe, Brendan Lee
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, low bone mass, and bone deformities. The majority of cases are caused by autosomal dominant pathogenic variants in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes that encode type I collagen, the major component of the bone matrix. The remaining cases are caused by autosomal recessively or dominantly inherited mutations in genes that are involved in the post-translational modification of type I collagen, act as type I collagen chaperones, or are members of the signaling pathways that regulate bone homeostasis...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810669/modafinil-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#14
Sheng-Min Wang, Changsu Han, Soo-Jung Lee, Tae-Youn Jun, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Chi-Un Pae
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and a debilitating neuro-behavior disorder in the pediatric population. Although numerous effective psychostimulants are available, more than 30% of patients still do not show adequate treatment response rendering diverse pharmacological options. We aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of modafinil in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD by conducting a meta-analysis. An extensive search of databases and clinical trial registries resulted in five published short-term randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798810/emergence-delirium-in-pediatric-anesthesia
#15
REVIEW
Arthura D Moore, Doralina L Anghelescu
Emergence delirium (ED) is a complex of perceptual disturbances and psychomotor agitation that occurs most commonly in preschool-aged children in the early postanesthetic period. The incidence of ED varies between 10 and 80% in children and is perceived as a troublesome clinical situation by 42% of pediatric anesthesiologists. Although these events are often short lived, they increase the risk of self-injury and delayed discharge, require additional nursing staff and can increase medical care costs, all of which are causes for concern...
October 31, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793881/therapeutic-innovations-for-targeting-hepatoblastoma
#16
REVIEW
Agnès Garnier, Matthias Ilmer, Roland Kappler, Michael Berger
Hepatoblastoma is the most common pediatric liver tumor. Despite recent advances in treatment with surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis in advanced stages remains poor. The neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) has recently been described to be pivotal in the development of cancer. Furthermore, overwhelming evidence now exists showing that pharmacological manipulation of NK1R can cause a robust anticancer effect. Consequently, NK1R antagonists, such as the clinical drug aprepitant, are under current investigation as future innovative anticancer agents...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782891/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-biofeedback-therapy-for-functional-constipation-in-children
#17
Dorota Jarzebicka, Joanna Sieczkowska, Maciej Dadalski, Jaroslaw Kierkus, Jozef Ryzko, Grzegorz Oracz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Defecation disorders are one of the most common problems in pediatric gastroenterology. Treatment includes changes in the diet, pharmacotherapy, and biofeedback therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of biofeedback therapy as assessed by clinical improvement as well as by changes in manometric parameters in children with constipation and pelvic floor dyssynergia (PFD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 44 children with constipation and PFD hospitalized between 2000 and 2015 were enrolled in this retrospective study...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774353/stratification-hypothesis-testing-and-clinical-trial-simulation-in-pediatric-drug-development
#18
Ann W McMahon, Kevin Watt, Jian Wang, Dionna Green, Ram Tiwari, Gilbert J Burckart
BACKGROUND: Pediatric drug development is plagued by small sample sizes, unvalidated clinical endpoints, and limited studies. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether age stratification within the pediatric population could be used to (1) assess response to a pharmacologic intervention and to (2) design future trials based upon published stratified disease data using clinical trial simulation (CTS). METHODS: Data available from the literature for Kawasaki disease (KD) was used in the model...
2016: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765353/carnosic-acid-acts-synergistically-with-gentamicin-in-killing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates
#19
Nicolás M Vázquez, Graciela Fiorilli, Paulo A Cáceres Guido, Silvia Moreno
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to different commonly used antibiotics, stressing the need for further strategies to treat this human pathogen with worldwide prevalence. The use of phytochemicals within the current pharmacology is a promising approach to enhance the antimicrobial activity of common antibiotics in the battle against these bacteria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of carnosic acid, the major constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis L...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764813/targeting-heterogeneity-of-adrenocortical-carcinoma-evaluation-and-extension-of-preclinical-tumor-models-to-improve-clinical-translation
#20
Constanze Hantel, Igor Shapiro, Giada Poli, Costanza Chiapponi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Martin Reincke, Michaela Luconi, Sara Jung, Felix Beuschlein
In recent years it has been recognized that clinical translation of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) often fails. These disappointing results indicate that the currently utilized tumor models only poorly reflect relevant pathophysiology and, thereby, do not predict clinical applicability of novel pharmacological approaches. However, also the development of new preclinical ACC models has remained a challenge with only one human cell line (NCI-H295R) and one recently established human pediatric xenograft model (SJ-ACC3) being available for this highly heterogeneous malignancy...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
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