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pediatric clinical pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030503/prophylaxis-against-venous-thromboembolism-in-pediatric-trauma-a-practice-management-guideline-from-the-eastern-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-and-the-pediatric-trauma-society
#1
Arash Mahajerin, John K Petty, Sheila J Hanson, A Jill Thompson, Sarah H OʼBrien, Christian J Streck, Toni M Petrillo, E Vincent S Faustino
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized children, the risks and benefits of VTE prophylaxis, particularly for those hospitalized after trauma, are unclear. The Pediatric Trauma Society and the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma convened a writing group to develop a practice management guideline on VTE prophylaxis for this cohort of children using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028812/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-the-management-of-pediatric-migraine
#2
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Nandini Venkatanarayanan, Lakshmi Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Migraine headaches are common in children and adolescents. Current pharmacologic treatment options are limited despite the prevalence and debilitating effects of pediatric migraine. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based practice that focuses on the development of coping strategies and cognitive restructuring to alter the pain experience. Till date, no meta-analysis has been done to examine the use of CBT in pediatric migraine. METHODS: Using the keywords (cognitive behavioral therapy OR cognitive behavior therapy OR cognitive behavioral therapy OR cognitive behavior therapy OR CBT) AND (headache OR migraine), a preliminary search on the PubMed and Ovid database yielded 3841 articles published in English between 1 Jan 1980 and 1 May 2016...
December 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000002/stress-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-detect-coronary-artery-lesions-in-children
#3
Chodchanok Vijarnsorn, Michelle Noga, Daryl Schantz, Dion Pepelassis, Edythe B Tham
BACKGROUND: Stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used widely in adult ischemic heart disease, but data in children is limited. We sought to evaluate feasibility, accuracy and prognostic value of stress CMR in children with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Stress CMR was reviewed from two pediatric centers over 5 years using a standard pharmacologic protocol. Wall motion abnormalities, perfusion deficits and late enhancement were correlated with coronary angiogram (CAG) when available, and clinical status at 1 year follow-up for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction and death due to CAD) was recorded...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978989/quantitative-systems-pharmacology-a-promising-approach-for-translational-pharmacology
#4
REVIEW
K Gadkar, D Kirouac, N Parrott, S Ramanujan
Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody...
September 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977530/a-survey-assessment-of-perceived-importance-and-methods-of-maintenance-of-critical-procedural-skills-in-pediatric-emergency-medicine
#5
Matthew R Mittiga, Michael R FitzGerald, Benjamin T Kerrey
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to delineate pediatric emergency medicine provider opinions regarding the importance of, and to ascertain existing processes by which practitioners maintain, the following critical procedural skills: oral endotracheal intubation, intraosseous line placement, pharmacologic and electrical cardioversion, tube thoracostomy, and defibrillation. METHODS: A customized survey was administered to all members of the Listserv for the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973405/chronic-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-primary-pain-disorders-in-head-abdomen-muscles-and-joints
#6
REVIEW
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, James Giordano, Kavita Desai Dakoji, Andrew Warmuth, Cyndee Daughtry, Craig A Schulz
Primary pain disorders (formerly "functional pain syndromes") are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain...
December 10, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942455/the-age-dependent-effects-of-a-single-dose-methylphenidate-challenge-on-cerebral-perfusion-in-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
A Schrantee, Hjmm Mutsaerts, C Bouziane, Hgh Tamminga, M A Bottelier, L Reneman
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant drug and an effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. Pre-clinical studies suggest that the response to stimulants is dependent on age, which may reflect the ontogeny of the dopamine (DA) system, which continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the modulating effect of age on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to MPH in stimulant treatment-naive children and adults with ADHD...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922762/nonchemotherapy-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-in-children-detected-by-a-prospective-pharmacovigilance-program
#8
Nicolás Medrano-Casique, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías, Elena Ramírez
OBJECTIVES: A prospective evaluation of nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) cases, which are infrequent in the pediatric population. We characterize agranulocytosis cases and assess lab test differences between drug- and nondrug-induced agranulocytosis. METHODS: Through our Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital we detected pediatric agranulocytosis cases from July 2007 to December 2010. This program estimates the incidence, drug causality, clinical features, outcomes of DIA pediatric cases, and assesses laboratory differences with respect to non-DIA...
October 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920229/octreotide-use-in-post-cardiac-surgery-chylothorax-a-12-year-perspective
#9
Abdulrazaq Sheikh Aljazairi, Tauhid Ahmed Bhuiyan, Abdullah Hasan Alwadai, Rayd Abdulaziz Almehizia
BACKGROUND: Chylothorax following cardiothoracic surgery is a rare condition in pediatric patients with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological management with octreotide suggests possible efficacy; however, current evidence is inadequate. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of octreotide as a therapeutic option in this clinical setting. METHODS: This was a 12-year single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients (birth to 18-years old) who received octreotide for management of post-cardiac surgery chylothorax between January 2003 to August 2015...
December 5, 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910751/recent-advances-in-pharmacotherapeutic-paradigm-of-mild-to-recalcitrant-atopic-dermatitis
#10
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901408/four-steps-to-eliminate-or-reduce-pain-in-children-caused-by-needles-part-1
#11
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
Dr Stefan Friedrichsdorf* speaks to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, MD, is medical director of the Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine at Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, USA, home to one of the largest and most comprehensive programs of its kind in the country. The interdisciplinary pain team is devoted to prevent and treat acute, procedural, neuropathic, psycho-social-spiritual, visceral, and chronic/complex pain for all inpatients and outpatients in close collaboration with all pediatric subspecialties at Children's Minnesota...
November 30, 2016: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901353/can-new-chemical-therapies-improve-the-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-children
#12
Emanuele D'Amico, Aurora Zanghì, Francesco Patti
Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) may represent up to 10% of all MS cases. Establishing the diagnosis of MS in a child is complicated by the limited diagnostic criteria and the possibility of significant overlap with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Areas covered: This review puts in perspective the potential possibilities given by new pharmacological agents in pediatric MS; focusing on the unmet needs in terms of research development in this field. Expert opinion: The treatment landscape of MS has dramatically changed in the last 5 years...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900937/post-authorization-changes-in-the-safety-and-efficacy-assessment-recommended-indications-and-drug-quality-profile-of-adalimumab-a-chronological-overview
#13
Gergely Iványi, Romána Zelkó
OBJECTIVE: The intention of the present study was to demonstrate the postauthorization changes of adalimumab (European trade name: Humira), evaluating the variations in its safety, efficacy, and quality profile. METHODS: Type-II, major variations of the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) from September 8, 2003 to November 19, 2015, were analyzed, which, according to Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1234/2008, have to reflect changes that may have a significant impact on the safety, efficacy, or quality profile of a medicinal product...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900832/bromodomain-and-extraterminal-protein-inhibitors-in-pediatrics-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Irene Jiménez, André Baruchel, François Doz, Johannes Schulte
The last few years have seen the identification of pharmacologic approaches to target bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins for cancer treatment. These proteins have an essential role in gene transcription regulation by binding acetylated lysine residues on histone tails, activating gene transcription. BET inhibitors have been tested in preclinical models including pediatric malignancies and several adult clinical trials are ongoing. Since the development of new drugs in pediatric cancer has long lagged behind programs for adults, the aim of this review is to show the importance of these therapies in pediatric malignancies to support their development in pediatric oncology/hematology...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893572/pain-management-in-pediatric-burn-patients-review-of-recent-literature-and-future-directions
#15
Omar Pardesi, Gennadiy Fuzaylov
Childhood burns are a profoundly traumatic and painful experience. Despite recognition of the prevalence of burn injuries in children and the severity of the associated pain, burn pain remains undertreated. At the same time, more evidence is emerging to suggest that undertreated pain has serious long-term medical and psychiatric consequences, many of which can be ameliorated with improved pain control. Pain in burn patients is, however, notoriously difficult to treat, perhaps because there is a chronic pain aspect underlying the acute pain that accompanies wound care and procedures...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886942/models-of-care-for-addressing-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-and-health-in-children-and-adolescents
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer Stinson, Mark Connelly, Steven J Kamper, Troels Herlin, Karine Toupin April
Chronic musculoskeletal pain among children and adolescents is common and can negatively affect quality of life. It also represents a high burden on the health system. Effective models of care for addressing the prevention and management of pediatric musculoskeletal pain are imperative. This chapter will address the following key questions: (1) Why are pediatric-specific models of pain care needed? (2) What is the burden of chronic musculoskeletal pain among children and adolescents? (3) What are the best practice approaches for early identification and prevention of chronic musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents? (4) What are the recommended strategies for clinical management of chronic pain, including pharmacological, physical, psychological and complementary, and alternative approaches? (5) What are the most effective strategies for implementing models of pain care across different care settings? (6) What are the research priorities to improve models of care for children and adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain?...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882422/predictors-of-pharmacological-therapy-of-ectopic-atrial-tachycardia-in-children
#17
Haiyan Ge, Xiaomei Li, Haiju Liu, He Jiang
Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a relatively common type of supraventricular tachycardia in the pediatric population, and it can be resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs and lead to tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) if not properly managed. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of the response to pharmacological therapy in children with EAT. From January 2009 to April 2014, 115 children were admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of EAT and placed on antiarrhythmic drugs. We examined the clinical history, response to therapy, and follow-up of the children...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859917/current-evidence-for-the-use-of-sugammadex-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Joseph D Tobias
Sugammadex is a novel pharmacologic agent, which reverses neuromuscular blockade with a mechanism that differs from the commonly used, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although sugammadex has not received approval from the United States Food & Drug administration in children, its use has already been reported to reverse neuromuscular blockade in several clinical scenarios in the pediatric population including the 'cannot intubate-cannot ventilate' scenario. To date, there remains limited data from prospective trials in the pediatric-aged patient...
November 17, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849239/importance-of-the-use-of-protocols-for-the-management-of-analgesia-and-sedation-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#19
Emiliana Motta, Michele Luglio, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
Introduction: Analgesia and sedation are essential elements in patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU), in order to promote the control of pain, anxiety and agitation, prevent the loss of devices, accidental extubation, and improve the synchrony of the patient with mechanical ventilation. However, excess of these medications leads to rise in morbidity and mortality. The ideal management will depend on the adoption of clinical and pharmacological measures, guided by scales and protocols...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819155/drugs-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-co-morbidities
#20
Ozra Tabatabaei-Malazy, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Abdollahi
The continuing global epidemic of obesity in adolescents has raised the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the wealth of information concerning T2DM in adults, rare data are available targeting treatment of T2DM in pediatric. Areas covered: This article has reviewed clinical practice guidelines, particularly the American Diabetes Association and the Pediatric Endocrine Society consensus, jointly with clinical trial data available in databases with respect to the use of available pharmacological options to treat T2DM and its complications in youth...
November 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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