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pediatric clinical pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430759/evaluation-of-guidelines-for-injured-children-at-high-risk-for-venous-thromboembolism-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Rachel M Landisch, Sheila J Hanson, Laura D Cassidy, Kristin Braun, Rowena C Punzalan, David M Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a widely accepted practice in adult trauma patients to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, VTE prophylaxis has not been standardized in injured pediatric patients. Our institution identified factors potentially associated with a high risk of VTE in critically injured children that led to prospective implementation of VTE prophylaxis guidelines. We hypothesize that the guidelines are accurate in predicting children at risk for VTE...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#2
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402139/long-term-open-label-safety-study-of-edivoxetine-monotherapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Emel Serap Monkul Nery, Mark Bangs, Peng Liu, Jonna Ahl, David Perahia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of edivoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, which was being developed as monotherapy in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This was an open-label study of edivoxetine once daily dosing (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) as treatment for ADHD in children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) to assess safety for up to 5 years. The safety assessments included the incidence of adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, laboratory tests, percentile changes in weight, height, and body mass index, and Tanner staging...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401674/placebo-like-response-in-absence-of-treatment-in-children-with-autism
#4
Rebecca M Jones, Caroline Carberry, Amarelle Hamo, Catherine Lord
Caregiver report is the most common measure of change in pediatric psychiatry. Yet, placebo response rates pose significant challenges to reliably detect a treatment response. The present study simulated an eight-week clinical trial protocol for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for the purpose of testing the feasibility and validity of several outcome measures. Twenty caregivers answered questions about their child's behavior on their smartphone each week and completed a battery of paper questionnaires during weeks one and eight...
April 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401060/therapeutic-targeting-of-histone-modifications-in-adult-and-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#5
REVIEW
Maria J Williams, Will G B Singleton, Stephen P Lowis, Karim Malik, Kathreena M Kurian
Recent exciting work partly through The Cancer Genome Atlas has implicated epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications in the development of both pediatric and adult high-grade glioma (HGG). Histone lysine methylation has emerged as an important player in regulating gene expression and chromatin function. Lysine (K) 27 (K27) is a critical residue in all seven histone 3 variants and the subject of posttranslational histone modifications, as it can be both methylated and acetylated. In pediatric HGG, two critical single-point mutations occur in the H3F3A gene encoding the regulatory histone variant H3...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396105/eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-case-study-of-a-12-year-old-boy
#6
Katherine Kiely
Eosinophilic esophagitis is an underrecognized chronic condition in which symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are accompanied by eosinophilia in the esophagus. This disorder affects both children and adults and is associated with a history of other atopic disorders, particularly food allergies. This case study discusses the epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis and the proper procedures for diagnosis, referral, and management using the dietary restrictions and pharmacologic treatment included in the clinical recommendations issued by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the American College of Gastroenterologists...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389455/dinutuximab-for-maintenance-therapy-in-pediatric-neuroblastoma
#7
REVIEW
Lauren McGinty, Jill Kolesar
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and role in therapy of dinutuximab for the treatment of high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma are reviewed. SUMMARY: Dinutuximab (Unituxin, United Therapeutics) is a novel monoclonal antibody recently approved for use in combination with granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for the treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373409/activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-promotes-colon-mucosal-pathogenesis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Zhiwei Liu, Fansheng Kong, Jefferson E Vallance, Eleana Harmel-Laws, Surya Amarachintha, Kris A Steinbrecher, Michael J Rosen, Sandip Bhattacharyya
The etiology and mechanisms for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are incompletely known. Determination of new, clinically important mechanisms for intestinal inflammation is imperative for developing effective therapies to treat IBD We sought to define a widespread mechanism for colon mucosal inflammation via the activation of TGF-β activated Kinase 1 (TAK1), a central regulator of cellular inflammatory actions. Activation of TAK1 and the downstream inflammatory signaling mediators was determined in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) as well as in DSS-induced and spontaneous IBD in mice...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353057/levetiracetam-clinical-pharmacokinetic-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Jason Tan, Vanessa Paquette, Marc Levine, Mary H H Ensom
Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) with a unique mechanism of action. Older AEDs can cause serious short- and long-term adverse drug reactions and complications, rendering them undesirable to use in pediatric patients. Characteristics that make levetiracetam a near-ideal AED include its broad spectrum of activity, good tolerability profile, and minimal drug-drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring (CPM) is often recommended in pediatric patients for certain AEDs due to large interindividual pharmacokinetic differences and unpredictable drug disposition...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349046/venous-thromboembolism-in-critical-illness-and-trauma-pediatric-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Ranjit S Chima, Sheila J Hanson
Critically ill children and those sustaining severe traumatic injuries are at higher risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other hospitalized children. Multiple factors including the need for central venous catheters, immobility, surgical procedures, malignancy, and dysregulated inflammatory state confer this increased risk. As well as being at higher risk of VTE, this population is frequently at an increased risk of bleeding, making the decision of prophylactic anticoagulation even more nuanced...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336302/-vasopressors-and-inotropes-use-in-pediatrics
#11
Adrián García-Canales, Rocío Alejandra Peña-Juárez, Luz de María Sandoval-Franco
The cardiovascular system is a dynamic system whose function is to ensure adequate delivery of oxygen, nutrients and hormones to the tissues, necessary for cell metabolism, also synthesizes and modifies vasoactive components to regulate vascular tone and myocardial function. These components have become critical in the management of pediatric patients in critical condition with heart failure and shock which has proven its beneficial effects, however its use and abuse brings harmful effects, increase mortality, associated with arrhythmias and increase myocardial oxygen consumption favoring the presence of ischemia, therefore is necessary to know the mechanism of action and indications of these drugs to minimize the harmful effects...
March 20, 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323645/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Sona Narula, Brenda Banwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the epidemiologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), which have been the focus of numerous studies in the last several years. We also review the clinical features (including diagnostic evaluation and differential diagnosis) of, treatment approach to, and prognosis of pediatric MS. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to 10% of patients with MS have their initial demyelinating before the age of 18 years...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319561/pediatric-enteric-neuropathies-diagnosis-and-current-management
#13
Maggie L Westfal, Allan M Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurointestinal diseases are increasingly recognized as causes of significant gastrointestinal morbidity in children. This review highlights the most common pediatric enteric neuropathies and their diagnosis and management, emphasizing insights and discoveries from the most recent literature available. RECENT FINDINGS: The embryologic and histopathologic causes of enteric neuropathies are varied. They range from congenital aganglionosis in Hirschsprung disease, to autoimmune-mediated loss of neuronal subtypes in esophageal achalasia and Chagas disease, to degenerative neuropathies in some cases of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and gastroparesis...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271302/pediatric-osteoporosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Edoardo Marrani, Teresa Giani, Gabriele Simonini, Rolando Cimaz
Osteoporosis is now increasingly recognized in children due to the increased prevalence of disorders associated with bone loss. Fragility fractures represent the cardinal clinical features of pediatric osteoporosis and children presenting with fragility fractures deserve an accurate assessment to rule out a secondary cause. Indeed, in the pediatric population, a low bone mass is often a consequence of a chronic disease or its treatment; genetic bone disorders represent the cause of only a small fraction of cases...
March 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265323/bladder-and-bowel-dysfunction-in-children-an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-a-common-but-underdiagnosed-pediatric-problem
#15
REVIEW
Joana Dos Santos, Roberto I Lopes, Martin A Koyle
Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) describes a spectrum of lower urinary symptoms (LUTS) accompanied by fecal elimination issues that manifest primarily by constipation and/or encopresis. This increasingly common entity is a potential cause of significant physical and psychosocial burden for children and families. BBD is commonly associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which at its extreme may lead to renal scarring and kidney failure. Additionally, BBD is frequently seen in children diagnosed with behavioural and neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258263/evaluation-of-the-role-of-music-as-a-nonpharmacological-technique-in-management-of-child-patients
#16
Neha Gupta, Himanshu Gupta, Prahlad Gupta, Nidhi Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Behavior management and reducing anxiety and pain are very important for success of treatment. Hence, apart from pharmacological management, such as conscious sedation, nonpharmacological interventions like music play a significant role. This study aims to evaluate the effects of music in reducing anxiety, pain, and behavior management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at the Department of Pedodontics in 2015. It consisted of 60 patients, age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who required dental treatment with local anesthesia...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257391/evaluation-of-guidelines-for-injured-children-at-high-risk-for-vte-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Rachel M Landisch, Sheila J Hanson, Laura D Cassidy, Kristin Braun, Rowena C Punzalan, David M Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a widely accepted practice in adult trauma patients to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, VTE prophylaxis has not been standardized in injured pediatric patients. Our institution identified factors potentially associated with a high risk of VTE in critically injured children that led to prospective implementation of VTE prophylaxis guidelines. We hypothesize the guidelines are accurate in predicting children at risk for VTE...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254244/a-potential-life-threatening-reaction-to-glatiramer-acetate-in-rett-syndrome
#18
Andreea Nissenkorn, Mona Kidon, Bruria Ben-Zeev
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting with severe intellectual disability in females caused by various mutations in the MECP2 gene. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the main proteins regulated by the MECP2 protein; its overexpression in the MeCP2 mouse model partially corrects the Rett phenotype. Pharmacologic manipulations that lead to increased BDNF in individuals with Rett syndrome are expected to have a positive effect on the disorder...
March 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248319/safety-dosing-and-pharmaceutical-quality-for-studies-that-evaluate-medicinal-products-including-biological-products-in-neonates
#19
Robert M Ward, Daniel Benjamin, Jeffrey S Barrett, Karel Allegaert, Ronald Portman, Jonathan M Davis, Mark A Turner
The study of medications among pediatric patients has increased worldwide since 1997 in response to new legislation and regulations, but these studies have not yet adequately addressed the therapeutic needs of neonates. Additionally, extant guidance developed by regulatory agencies worldwide does not fully address the specificities of neonatal drug development, especially among extremely premature newborns who currently survive. Consequently, an international consortium from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States was organized by the Critical Path Institute to address the content of guidance...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239752/potential-and-limitations-of-cochrane-reviews-in-pediatric-cardiology-a-systematic-analysis
#20
Martin Poryo, Sara Khosrawikatoli, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Sascha Meyer
Evidence-based medicine has contributed substantially to the quality of medical care in pediatric and adult cardiology. However, our impression from the bedside is that a substantial number of Cochrane reviews generate inconclusive data that are of limited clinical benefit. We performed a systematic synopsis of Cochrane reviews published between 2001 and 2015 in the field of pediatric cardiology. Main outcome parameters were the number and percentage of conclusive, partly conclusive, and inconclusive reviews as well as their recommendations and their development over three a priori defined intervals...
February 27, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
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