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Clinical Densitometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511512/evaluation-of-correlation-between-salivary-calcium-alkaline-phosphatase-and-osteoporosis-a-prospective-comparative-and-observational-study
#1
Mainak Kanti Saha, Prerna Agrawal, Suparna Ganguly Saha, Vinod Vishwanathan, Vandana Pathak, Sakuru Venkata Saiprasad, Purvi Dhariwal, Mahendra Dave
INTRODUCTION: Fixed and/or removable prosthodontics caters to the restorative needs of the largest count of geriatric patients whose rehabilitative procedures depend on the quality and quantity of available bone. The common diagnostic parameters for quantifying bone may involve an invasive blood examination, an expensive bone densitometry procedure or a urine analysis. Sialometry involving the basic biochemistry of saliva analysis may be proposed as an alternative to the conventional investigative protocol and its usefulness may be attributed owing to its non invasive and simpler procedure...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509822/fracture-prevention-in-the-orthopaedic-environment-outcomes-of-a-coordinator-based-fracture-liaison-service
#2
Earl R Bogoch, Victoria Elliot-Gibson, Dorcas Beaton, Joanna Sale, Robert G Josse
BACKGROUND: Fracture liaison services focus on secondary fracture prevention by identifying patients at risk for future fracture and initiating appropriate evaluation, risk assessment, education, and therapeutic intervention. This study describes key clinical outcomes including bone mineral densitometry, physician assessment, and pharmacotherapy initiation in pharmacotherapy-naïve patients undergoing treatment for fragility fracture in a Canadian fracture liaison service. METHODS: We determined rates of post-fracture investigation and treatment for inpatients and outpatients with a fragility fracture seen in a coordinator-based fracture liaison service at an urban university trauma hospital...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481807/maximum-arterial-contrast-concentrations-with-computed-tomography-and-left-ventriculography-implications-for-contrast-nephrotoxicity-risk
#3
Nicholas M Gutierrez, Jeffrey H Newhouse
PURPOSE: Contrast nephropathy occurs more frequently after cardiac angiography, which usually includes left ventriculography via direct left ventricular injection, than after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), despite the usually higher intravenous contrast dose used for CT. To determine whether maximum renal arterial contrast concentration is higher after left ventriculography, we assessed this parameter for both procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast concentration in abdominal aortic blood during contrast-enhanced CT was measured by performing CT densitometry of aortic blood before contrast, and in the arterial phase, in 100 adults undergoing abdominal CT...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462788/effect-of-hand-positioning-on-dxa-total-and-regional-bone-and-body-composition-parameters-precision-error-and-least-significant-change
#4
Shane Thurlow, Brian Oldroyd, Karen Hind
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measurements are performed in both clinical and research settings for estimations of total and regional fat mass, lean tissue mass, and bone mineral content. Subject positioning influences precision and positioning instructions vary between manufacturers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of hand position and scan mode on regional and total body bone and body composition parameters and determine protocol-specific body composition precision errors...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440509/modulation-of-mmp-2-and-9-secretion-by-cytokines-inducers-and-inhibitors-in-human-melanoma-a-2058-cells
#5
M Waheed Roomi, Tatiana Kalinovsky, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Melanoma, an extremely aggressive cancer, causes the most skin cancer-related deaths, due to metastasis to other areas of the body, such as lymph nodes, lungs, liver, brain or bone. It is characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretions that degrade the extracellular matrix and basement membrane, allowing cancer cells to spread to distal organs. Various cytokines, mitogens, growth factors, inducers and inhibitors control MMP activities. We investigated the roles of these in regulation of MMP-2 and -9 in human melanoma A-2058 cells...
April 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416363/-adequacy-of-treatment-for-osteoporosis-in-primary-prevention-quantitative-and-qualitative-study
#6
Cristina Vedia Urgell, Mireia Massot Mesquida, Roser Valles Fernandez, Juan Antonio Garcia Vicente, Alicia Franzi Siso, Laura Muñoz Ortiz, Laia Vilaró Jaques, Maite Bosch Peligero
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative study: To assess the prevalence of inadequacy of treatment for osteoporosis in primary prevention (OPP) in women aged 60-74years. Qualitative study: To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment criteria of the OPP and it's variability in primary care physicians (PC) and specialists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quantitative study: observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study. POPULATION: women aged 60-74years with active treatment for OPP (n=424) in May 2012...
April 14, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376262/the-effects-of-iterative-reconstruction-and-kernel-selection-on-quantitative-computed-tomography-measures-of-lung-density
#7
Alfonso Rodriguez, Frank N Ranallo, Philip F Judy, Sean B Fain
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of iterative reconstruction (IR) and high frequency kernels on quantitative computed tomography (qCT) density measures at reduced X-ray dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COPDGene 2 Phantom (CTP 698, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) with four embedded lung mimicking foam densities (12lb, 20lb, and 4lb), as well as water, air, and acrylic reference inserts was imaged using a GE 64 slice CT750 HD scanner in helical mode with four current-time products ranging from 12-100 mAs...
April 4, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356099/corneal-densitometry-changes-in-a-patient-with-interface-fluid-syndrome-after-small-incision-lenticule-extraction
#8
Ke Zheng, Tian Han, Meiyan Li, Yinan Han, Ye Xu, Rupal Shah, Xingtao Zhou
BACKGROUND: To report a case of interface fluid syndrome (IFS) following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) evaluated with corneal densitometry and optical coherence tomography (OCT). CASE PRESENTATION: An 18-year-old man reported sudden vision loss 24 days after SMILE procedure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 36.3 mmHg (OD) and 36.7 mmHg (OS) by noncontact tonometry. Moderate corneal edema, interface fluid pocket and haze were observed by OCT and confirmed by corneal densitometry values...
March 29, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345842/bone-mineral-density-in-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Farzaneh Rohani, Khadijeh Arjmandi Rafsanjani, Gholamreza Bahoush, Mansoureh Sabzehparvar, Mohammad Ahmadi
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) after completion of treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 103 survivors of ALL aged 13.5 ± 0.45 who completed their treatment at least one year earlier were enrolled. Among these, 49.5% and 51.5% received chemotherapy alone and chemotherapy plus cranial radiotherapy, respectively. Bone mineral content, BMD, and bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and forearm were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345441/prevalence-and-cost-of-subsequent-fractures-among-u-s-patients-with-an-incident-fracture
#10
Jessica Weaver, Shiva Sajjan, E Michael Lewiecki, Steven T Harris, Panagiotis Marvos
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and cost of subsequent fractures among patients with an incident fracture are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of, and costs associated with, subsequent fractures in the year after an incident fracture. METHODS: This was a retrospective claims database analysis using data from Humana Medicare Advantage claims (Medicare group) and Optum Insight Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims (commercial group)...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340823/evaluation-of-bone-disease-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
G Alis, M Alis, T Erturk, A H Karayagiz, I Berber, U Cakir
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients are known to have bone disease, specifically osteoporosis. In this descriptive clinical study we aimed to evaluate the incidence of osteoporosis and to determine the risk factors among our transplant recipients. METHODS: A total of 109 patients (82 males and 27 females) aged from 19 to 70 years, who had undergone kidney transplantation 12 to 69 months previously, were included in the study. Bone mineral densitometry was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328530/imaging-methods-for-bone-mass-evaluation-during-childhood-and-adolescence-an-update
#12
Isabela Leite Pezzuti, Adriana Maria Kakehasi, Maria Tereza Filgueiras, Juliana Albano de Guimarães, Isabela Alves Campos de Lacerda, Ivani Novato Silva
The objective of the work was to prepare an update on imaging methods for bone evaluation during childhood and adolescence. The text was based on original and review articles on imaging methods for clinical evaluation of bone mass in children and adolescents up to 20 years old. They were selected from BIREME and PUBMED by means of the following keywords: bone density; osteoporosis/diagnosis; densitometry; tomography; ultrasonography; magnetic resonance imaging; and radiogrammetry and published in Portuguese or English, in the last 10 years (2006-2016)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291401/pelvic-insufficiency-fracture-pif-incidence-in-patients-treated-with-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt-for-gynaecological-or-anal-cancer-single-institution-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Louis Bazire, Haoping Xu, Jean-Philippe Foy, Malika Amessis, Caroline Malhaire, Kim Cao, Anne De La Rochefordiere, Youlia M Kirova
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the results of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) incidence in patients with anal or gynaecological cancer treated by pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: The clinical and morphological (CT and/or pelvic MRI) characteristics of patients treated by IMRT at our institution between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. The global incidence of PIF after external beam radiotherapy and the impact of tumour site (gynaecological or anal cancer) were determined...
May 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271302/pediatric-osteoporosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Edoardo Marrani, Teresa Giani, Gabriele Simonini, Rolando Cimaz
Osteoporosis is now increasingly recognized in children due to the increased prevalence of disorders associated with bone loss. Fragility fractures represent the cardinal clinical features of pediatric osteoporosis and children presenting with fragility fractures deserve an accurate assessment to rule out a secondary cause. Indeed, in the pediatric population, a low bone mass is often a consequence of a chronic disease or its treatment; genetic bone disorders represent the cause of only a small fraction of cases...
April 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259363/androgen-deprivation-in-prostate-cancer-and-the-long-term-risk-of-fracture
#15
S Ojeda, M Lloret, A Naranjo, F Déniz, N Chesa, C Domínguez, P C Lara
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of bone mass loss and the risk of fracture induced by androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study in 2 phases. In the first phase, demographic variables, FRAX(®), bone mineral density and clinical fractures were collected, before starting the therapy and up to 1 year after ending the therapy. In the second phase, we conducted a telephone interview a mean of 8.5 years after the start of the study to assess new fractures...
March 1, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249955/clinical-and-biochemical-characteristics-and-bone-mineral-density-of-homozygous-compound-heterozygous-and-heterozygous-carriers-of-three-novel-igfals-mutations
#16
Emregül Işık, Belma Haliloglu, Jaap van Doorn, Hüseyin Demirbilek, Sitha A Scheltinga, Monique Losekoot, Jan M Wit
OBJECTIVE: Acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency (ACLSD), caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous IGFALS mutations, is associated with moderate short stature, delayed puberty, low serum IGF-I and ALS and extremely low serum IGFBP-3. Its effect on birth weight, head circumference, bone mineral density (BMD), serum IGF-II and IGFBP-2 is uncertain, as well as the phenotype of heterozygous carriers of IGFALS mutations (partial ACLSD). DESIGN: From all available members of five Turkish families, carrying three mutations in exon 2 of IGFALS (c...
June 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248014/-clinical-implications-of-shear-wave-ultrasound-elastography-for-evaluation-of-urinary-stones
#17
I G Kraev, V I Rudenko, A V Amosov, G E Krupinov, T M Ganzha
INTRODUCTION: Currently, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a minimally invasive treatment for patients with urolithiasis. With advancing medical technology, elastography has evolved as a method for measuring the elasticity of tissues. AIM: To investigate the elasticity of urinary stones for assessing their physical and chemical composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The elasticity of urinary stones was determined before ESWL in 30 urolithiasis patients (18 men and 12 women, aged 25-65 years) using shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE)...
November 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221141/-etiopathogenic-factors-of-the-different-types-of-urinary-litiasis
#18
Miguel Arrabal-Martín, María Carmen Cano-García, Miguel Ángel Arrabal-Polo, Alejandro Domínguez-Amillo, Nelson Canales-Casco, Javier de la Torre-Trillo, José Manuel Cózar-Olmo
In this review, we analyze the etiopathogenic principles of urinary lithiasis formation. In the kidney, calcifications that may cause renal lithiasis are produced as a consequence of processes that injury the urothelium at the papilla and Bellini's ducts. With the improvement of imaging techniques, mainly micro CT scan, it is possible to detect them and we may be able to anticipate to the formation of lithiasis. As we well know, there are different factors that influence the formation of the calculi depending on their composition...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159711/quality-in-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-scans
#19
Sarah L Morgan, Ginnie L Prater
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD), making the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and for monitoring changes in BMD over time. DXA data are also used in the determination of fracture risk. Procedural steps in DXA scanning can be broken down into scan acquisition, analysis, interpretation, and reporting. Careful attention to quality control pertaining to these procedural steps should theoretically be beneficial in patient management. Inattention to procedural steps and errors that may occur at each step has the possibility of providing information that would inform inappropriate clinical decisions, generating unnecessary healthcare expenses and ultimately causing avoidable harm to patients...
January 31, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159459/osteoporosis-in-stickler-syndrome-a-new-family-case-with-bone-histology-study
#20
P Insalaco, E Legrand, B Bouvard, M Audran
The Stickler syndrome (SS) has been described as a "hereditary progressive arthro-ophtalmopathy" by Stickler in 1965, due to mutations on the collagen genes. Currently about 40 different genes have been identified which encode for at least 27 different collagens. The majority of mutations occur in the COL2A1 gene on chromosome 12q13 (SS type I). Mutations in COL11A1 are less frequent (SS type II). More recently, mutations in COL11A2 and in the COL9A1 gene have been reported with particular phenotypes. The main features of this autosomal inherited disease are ocular, auditory with orofacial abnormalities and early-onset osteoarthritis...
January 31, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
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