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Clinical Densitometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817393/increased-expiratory-computed-tomography-density-reveals-possible-abnormalities-in-radiologically-preserved-lung-parenchyma-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Valentina Petroulia, Manuela Funke, Pascal Zumstein, Sabina Berezowska, Lukas Ebner, Thomas Geiser, Nenad Torbica, Johannes Heverhagen, Alexander Poellinger
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lethal chronic lung disease with unclear pathogenesis. Radiological hallmark is the pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia accentuated in peripheral and basal areas with otherwise preserved lung structure. One hypothesis is that alveolar collapse and consequent induration lead to fibrotic transformation of lung tissue. The aim of the study was to investigate normal-appearing tissue during expiration for signs of collapsibility and differences from other diseases or controls...
August 16, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802981/errors-in-patient-positioning-for-bone-mineral-density-assessment-by-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry-effect-of-technologist-retraining
#2
Sasivimol Promma, Chanika Sritara, Saowanee Wipuchwongsakorn, Krisanat Chuamsaamarkkee, Chirawat Utamakul, Wichana Chamroonrat, Arpakorn Kositwattanarerk, Yoch Anongpornjossakul, Kanungnij Thamnirat, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
Improper positioning is one of the factors that can lead to incorrect bone mineral density (BMD) results. This study aimed to assess the frequencies of erroneous positioning during three periods: before retraining of the technologists (BR), after retraining (AR), and at the current timepoint 8 years after retraining (C). The BMD images of the first 150 consecutive patients who underwent DXA of the lumbar spine and hip during each of the three periods were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were excluded if they had severe scoliosis, rendering proper positioning impossible...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781228/assessment-of-the-bone-mineral-content-in-the-mandible-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-to-evaluate-short-term-change
#3
Yun Sun, Min Min An, Jingmei Wang, Fan Yang, Liying He, Chad A Dudzek, Congjin Liu, Patrick C Cunniff, Xingdang Liu, Tom V Sanchez
With the objective of being able to assess response to disease or clinical treatment, the densitometry community has long sought the ability to assess short-term change in bone density. The mandible, known to have a high bone turnover, an increased vascularity, and a greater susceptibility to osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities, has long been suggested but has fallen short as a site from which to monitor an early change in the response to a treatment or a disease. The current study developed a method to assess bone density in the superimposed left and right mandibles...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777482/clinical-conformity-between-heel-ultrasound-and-densitometry-in-postmenopausal-women-a-systematic-review
#4
Elżbieta Tabor, Wojciech Pluskiewicz, Kamil Tabor
OBJECTIVES: To assess the conformity between heel ultrasound and densitometry, and the clinical application of densitometry T-score "gold standard" in quantitative ultrasound as a method of osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The study is a systematic review of studies published in the last 17 years in PubMed, NLM Gateway, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with regard to densitometry measurements in postmenopausal women...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755448/short-term-in%C3%A2-vivo-precision-of-whole-body-composition-measurements-on-the-horizon-a-densitometer
#5
Michael Nowitz, Paula Monahan
INTRODUCTION: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being used to assess abnormalities in body composition associated with a wide variety of conditions including obesity, sarcopenia, diabetes, anorexia, human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy, malabsorption and neuromuscular disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term in vivo precision and least significant change in serial body composition measurements provided by the Hologic Horizon A densitometer as there is no published, peer reviewed body composition precision data on Horizon scanners in the medical literature...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748194/recurrent-metatarsal-fractures-in-postmenopausal-woman-with-low-serum-alkaline-phosphatase-a-rare-diagnosis-not-to-miss
#6
Umair Iqbal, Hafsa Anwar, Ahmad Chaudhary, Madiha Alvi, Amy Freeth
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to a loss-of-function mutation in the gene for tissue nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that results in low levels of ALP. The clinical presentation of HPP is variable and in adults can easily be misdiagnosed as other forms of osteomalacia. We present a case of a 53-year-old Caucasian female who was evaluated for recurrent metatarsal fractures. She reported her first metatarsal fracture at age 21, and since then had at least 8 more metatarsal fractures over her lifetime, most without injury other than weight bearing...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743412/pseudoexfoliation-signs-in-the-anterior-segment-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-scheimpflug-device
#7
J I Fernández-Vigo, L de-Pablo Gómez de Liaño, I Sánchez-Guillen, A Macarro-Merino, C Fernández-Vigo, J García-Feijóo, J A Fernández-Vigo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate different anterior segment parameters in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PSX), fellow eyes, and controls using optical coherence tomography and a Scheimpflug imaging system. METHODS: Three groups were studied: 44 eyes of 44 patients with PSX, 30 clinically unaffected fellow eyes, and 148 eyes of 148 healthy controls. The anterior chamber depth and volume, corneal volume and thickness, pupil diameter and corneal densitometry were measured using a Scheimpflug imaging system (Pentacam, Oculus Inc...
July 22, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740145/validation-of-asynchronous-quantitative-bone-densitometry-of-the-spine-accuracy-short-term-reproducibility-and-a-comparison-with-conventional-quantitative-computed-tomography
#8
Ling Wang, Yongbin Su, Qianqian Wang, Yangyang Duanmu, Minghui Yang, Chen Yi, Xiaoguang Cheng
Asynchronous calibration quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is a new tool that allows the quantification of bone mineral density (BMD) without the use of a calibration phantom during scanning; however, this tool is not fully validated for clinical use. We used the European spine phantom (ESP) with repositioning during scanning and assessed the accuracy and short-term reproducibility of asynchronous QCT. Intra-scanner and intra-observer precision were each calculated as the root mean square of the standard deviation (RMSSD) and the coefficient of variation (CV-RMSSD)...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739082/osteoporosis-risk-calculators
#9
Beatrice J Edwards
Osteoporosis is a silent disease until fractures occur, patient recognition is the greatest clinical challenge. Although more than 20 million women in the US are estimated to have established osteoporosis the majority are not appropriately identified. Bone densitometry is the current gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis; but may not be feasible or cost-effective to recommend for all postmenopausal women. Therefore, questionnaires incorporating risk factors have been developed to aid the clinician in identifying women with osteoporosis...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735723/a-rate-independent-continuum-model-for-bone-tissue-with-interaction-of-compressive-and-tensile-micro-damage
#10
Philippe K Zysset, Uwe Wolfram
Low bone strength is a major risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and is only partially determined by clinical densitometry. Accumulated micro-damage induces residual strains, degrades elastic modulus and reduces bone strength independently of bone mineral density. Histologically, overloading of bone in compression and tension leads to distinct crack size, distribution and orientation which interact during combined loading scenarios. Statistics of rheological models can describe this process and reproduce experimental stress-strain curves with an unprecedented realism, but are computationally expensive and therefore difficult to generalize to 3D...
July 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712984/quantitative-computed-tomography-current-status-and-new-developments
#11
Klaus Engelke
This review focuses on new developments and current controversies in the field of quantitative computed tomography. Recent positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry acknowledged the clinical value of quantitative computed tomography of the spine and the hip using clinical whole-body computed tomography (CT) scanners. Opportunistic screening summarizes a number of new approaches describing the dual use of clinical CT scans. For example, CT scans may have been taken for tumor diagnosis but may also be used for the prediction of high or low fracture risks as an additional benefit for the patient...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711461/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-evaluation-of-their-monitoring-in-clinical-practice-the-spanish-cohort-of-the-comora-study
#12
Alejandro Balsa, Leticia Lojo-Oliveira, Mercedes Alperi-López, María García-Manrique, Carmen Ordóñez-Cañizares, Lorena Pérez, Virginia Ruiz-Esquide, Alfonso Corrales, Javier Narváez, José Rey-Rey, Carlos Rodríguez-Lozano, Soledad Ojeda, Santiago Muñoz-Fernández, Joan M Nolla, José García-Torrón, Fernando Gamero, Rosario García-Vicuña, Blanca Hernández-Cruz, José Campos, José Rosas, José Francisco García-Llorente, Antonio Gómez-Centeno, Rafael Cáliz, Raimon Sanmartí, Alberto Bermúdez, Lydia Abasolo-Alcázar, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Marras, Miguel Ángel González-Gay, Ihsane Hmamouchi, Emilio Martín-Mola
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with RA in Spain and discuss their management and implications using data from the Spanish cohort of the multinational study on COMOrbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMORA). METHODS: This is a national sub-analysis of the COMORA study. We studied the demographics and disease characteristics of 200 adults patients diagnosed with RA (1987 ACR), and routine practices for screening and preventing the following selected comorbidities: cardiovascular, infections, cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, osteoporosis and depression...
July 12, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708200/periacetabular-bone-densitometry-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-with-highly-porous-titanium-cups-a-2-year-follow-up-prospective-study
#13
Leo Massari, Alessandro Bistolfi, Pier Paolo Grillo, Alda Borré, Gaetano Gigliofiorito, Carlotta Pari, Andrea Francescotto, Piermario Tosco, Davide Deledda, Laura Ravera, Araldo Causero
INTRODUCTION: Trabecular Titanium is an advanced cellular solid structure, composed of regular multiplanar hexagonal interconnected cells that mimic the morphology of the trabecular bone. This biomaterial demonstrated improved mechanical properties and enhanced osteoinduction and osteoconduction in several in vitro and in vivo studies. The aim of this study was to assess Trabecular Titanium osseointegration by measuring periacetabular changes in bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
July 1, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702661/clinically-approved-pegylated-nanoparticles-are-covered-by-a-protein-corona-that-boosts-the-uptake-by-cancer-cells
#14
M Papi, D Caputo, V Palmieri, R Coppola, S Palchetti, F Bugli, C Martini, L Digiacomo, D Pozzi, G Caracciolo
Today, liposomes are an advanced technology of drug carriers with a dozen drugs in clinical practice and many more in clinical trials. A bottleneck associated with the clinical translation of liposomes has long been 'opsonization', i.e. the adsorption of plasma proteins at the liposome surface resulting in their rapid clearance from circulation. For decades, the most popular way to avoid opsonization has been grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the liposome surface. Recent studies have clarified that grafting PEG onto the liposome surface reduces, but does not completely prevent protein binding...
July 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662973/assessment-of-bone-mineral-density-at-the-distal-femur-and-the-proximal-tibia-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-individualswith-spinal-cord-injury-precision-of-protocol-and-relation-to-injury-duration
#15
Stacey Lobos, Anne Cooke, Gillian Simonett, Chester Ho, Steven K Boyd, W Brent Edwards
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by marked bone loss at the knee, and there is a need for established dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocols to examine bone mineral density (BMD) at this location to track therapeutic progress and to monitor fracture risk. The purpose of this study was to quantify the precision and reliability of a DXA protocol for BMD assessment at the distal femur and the proximal tibia in individuals with SCI. The protocol was subsequently used to investigate the relationship between BMD and duration of SCI...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650253/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis-before-and-after-fracture-a-side-by-side-analysis-of-commercially-insured-and-medicare-advantage-osteoporosis-patients
#16
Jessica Weaver, Shiva Sajjan, E Michael Lewiecki, Steven T Harris
BACKGROUND: Although treatment for osteoporosis is recommended by U.S. clinical guidelines, a lack of diagnosis and treatment is common among patients with osteoporotic fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment before and after various types of fractures. METHODS: This was a retrospective claims analysis using data from the Humana Medicare Advantage claims (Medicare group) and Optum Insight Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims (Commercial group)...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643464/adiponectin-isoform-patterns-in-ethnic-specific-adipoq-mutation-carriers-the-iras-family-study
#17
Keri L Tabb, Chuan Gao, Pamela J Hicks, Gregory A Hawkins, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Xiuqing Guo, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Barry I Freedman, Donald W Bowden, Nicholette D Palmer
OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is found in human serum in three groups of multimers (high molecular weight [HMW], medium molecular weight [MMW], and low molecular weight [LMW]). Two ethnic-specific variants in ADIPOQ, G45R (Hispanic-Americans) and R55C (African-Americans), were previously reported. Although carriers of both variants had mean adiponectin levels ≤ 20% of those of noncarriers, they were not clinically different from noncarriers. To compare carriers of both variants and noncarriers, relative quantification of adiponectin isoforms to total adiponectin was performed on serum samples...
August 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634907/incidence-and-predictors-of-repeat-bone-mineral-densitometry-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
Emily C White VanGompel, Peter Franks, John A Robbins, Joshua J Fenton
BACKGROUND: Existing guidelines for repeat screening and treatment monitoring intervals regarding the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are conflicting or lacking. The Choosing Wisely campaign recommends against repeating DXA scans within 2 years of initial screening. It is unclear how frequently physicians order repeat scans and what clinical factors contribute to their use. OBJECTIVE: To estimate cumulative incidence and predictors of repeat DXA for screening or treatment monitoring in a regional health system...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630785/assessment-of-corneal-densitometry-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#19
Mustafa Alpaslan Anayol, Başak Bostancı, Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu, Mert Şimşek, Süleyman Günaydın, Pelin Yılmazbaş
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate corneal densitometry and anterior segment parameters of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare these results with those of age-matched healthy control subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anterior segment parameters and corneal densitometry of patients with RA and healthy control subjects were assessed by Scheimpflug corneal topography. For densitometry analysis, the 12-mm diameter area of the cornea was subdivided into four concentric radial zones and anterior, central, and posterior layers based on corneal depth...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629885/-prevalence-of-osteoporosis-estimation-of-probability-of-fracture-and-bone-metabolism-study-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-prostate-cancer-in-the-health-area-of-lugo
#20
Jonatan Miguel-Carrera, Carlos García-Porrua, Francisco Javier de Toro Santos, Jose Antonio Picallo-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture probability in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. DESIGN: Observational descriptive transversal study. SITE: Study performed from Primary Care of Lugo in collaboration with Rheumatology and Urology Services of our referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer without bone metastatic disease from January to December 2012. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and densitometric variables involved in osteoporosis were collected...
June 16, 2017: Atencion Primaria
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