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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235987/gene-free-methodology-for-cell-fate-dynamics-during-development
#1
Francis Corson, Eric D Siggia
Models of cell function that assign a variable to each gene frequently lead to systems of equations with many parameters whose behavior is obscure. Geometric models reduce dynamics to intuitive pictorial elements that provide compact representations for sparse in-vivo data and transparent descriptions of developmental transitions. To illustrate, a geometric model fit to vulval development in C. elegans, implies a phase diagram where cell-fate choices are displayed in a plane defined by EGF and Notch signaling levels...
December 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234427/a-chinese-herbal-formula-gengnianchun-ameliorates-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-toxicity-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Fanhui Meng, Jun Li, Yanqiu Rao, Wenjun Wang, Yan Fu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, and the few drugs that are currently available only treat the symptoms. Traditional medicine or phytotherapy has been shown to protect against AD. In our previous studies, Gengnianchun (GNC), a traditional Chinese medicine formula with a prolongevity effect, protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12 cells) and hippocampal cells. Here, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which GNC protected against Aβ toxicity using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans CL4176...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234171/the-mutational-decay-of-male-male-and-hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite-competitive-fitness-in-the-androdioecious-nematode-c-elegans
#3
Shu-Dan Yeh, Ayush Shekhar Saxena, Timothy A Crombie, Dorian Feistel, Lindsay M Johnson, Isabel Lam, Jennifer Lam, Sayran Saber, Charles F Baer
Androdioecious Caenorhabditis have a high frequency of self-compatible hermaphrodites and a low frequency of males. The effects of mutations on male fitness are of interest for two reasons. First, when males are rare, selection on male-specific mutations is less efficient than in hermaphrodites. Second, males may present a larger mutational target than hermaphrodites because of the different ways in which fitness accrues in the two sexes. We report the first estimates of male-specific mutational effects in an androdioecious organism...
January 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231019/-simultaneous-quantitative-analysis-of-koumine-gelsemine-and-gelsenicine-in-biological-samples-by-lc-ms-ms
#4
S J Ji, W Liu
OBJECTIVES: To establish a LC-MS/MS method which is accurate and sensitive for determination of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine in biological samples and to verify the method. METHODS: Strychnine was used as internal standard. Analytes in blood, urine and liver with 1% sodium hydroxide solution were extracted by ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C₁₈ column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm), and gradient elution was performed with the buffer solution of methanol-20 mmol/L ammonium acetate (including 0...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228038/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-in-heat-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Katharina Jovic, Mark G Sterken, Jacopo Grilli, Roel P J Bevers, Miriam Rodriguez, Joost A G Riksen, Stefano Allesina, Jan E Kammenga, L Basten Snoek
There is considerable insight into pathways and genes associated with heat-stress conditions. Most genes involved in stress response have been identified using mutant screens or gene knockdowns. Yet, there is limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of global gene expression in stressful environments. Here, we studied global gene expression profiles during 12 hours of heat stress in the nematode C. elegans. Using a high-resolution time series of increasing stress exposures, we found a distinct shift in gene expression patterns between 3-4 hours into the stress response, separating an initially highly dynamic phase from a later relatively stagnant phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228003/a-mig-15-jnk-1-map-kinase-cascade-opposes-rpm-1-signaling-in-synapse-formation-and-learning
#6
Oliver Crawley, Andrew C Giles, Muriel Desbois, Sudhanva Kashyap, Rayna Birnbaum, Brock Grill
The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins are conserved intracellular signaling hubs that regulate synapse formation and axon termination. The C. elegans PHR protein, called RPM-1, acts as a ubiquitin ligase to inhibit the DLK-1 and MLK-1 MAP kinase pathways. We have identified several kinases that are likely to form a new MAP kinase pathway that suppresses synapse formation defects, but not axon termination defects, in the mechanosensory neurons of rpm-1 mutants. This pathway includes: MIG-15 (MAP4K), NSY-1 (MAP3K), JKK-1 (MAP2K) and JNK-1 (MAPK)...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225236/microfluidic-platform-for-analyzing-the-thermotaxis-of-c-elegans-in-a-linear-temperature-gradient
#7
Sunhee Yoon, Hailing Piao, Tae-Joon Jeon, Sun Min Kim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares a considerable amount of characteristics with human genes is one of the important model organisms for the study of behavioral responses. Thermotaxis is a representative behavior response of C. elegans; C. elegans stores the cultivation temperature in thermosensory neurons and moves to the cultivation temperature region in a temperature variation. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system for effective thermotaxis analysis of C. elegans. The microfluidic channel was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by soft lithography process...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224722/nrap-1-is-a-presynaptically-released-nmda-receptor-auxiliary-protein-that-modifies-synaptic-strength
#8
Ning Lei, Jerry E Mellem, Penelope J Brockie, David M Madsen, Andres V Maricq
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are a subtype of postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors that function as molecular coincidence detectors, have critical roles in models of learning, and are associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. To date, no auxiliary proteins that modify NMDARs have been identified. Here, we report the identification of NRAP-1, an auxiliary protein in C. elegans that modulates NMDAR function. NMDAR-mediated currents were eliminated in nrap-1 mutants, as was NMDA-dependent behavior...
December 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223977/growth-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-defined-media-is-dependent-on-presence-of-particulate-matter
#9
Matthew R Flavel, Adam Mechler, Mahdi Shahmiri, Elizabeth R Mathews, Ashley E Franks, Weisan Chen, Damien Zanker, Bo Xian, Shan Gao, Jing Luo, Surafel Tegegne, Christian Doneski, Markandeya Jois
Caenorhabditis elegans are typically cultured in a monoxenic medium consisting of live bacteria. However, this introduces a secondary organism to experiments and restricts the manipulation of the nutritional environment. Due to the intricate link between genes and environment, greater control and understanding of nutritional factors are required to push the C. elegans field into new areas. For decades, attempts to develop a chemically defined, axenic medium as an alternative for culturing C. elegans have been made...
December 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223862/wave-regulates-cadherin-junction-assembly-and-turnover-during-epithelial-polarization
#10
Shashikala Sasidharan, Sofya Borinskaya, Falshruti Patel, Yelena Bernadskaya, Sailaja Mandalapu, Maria Agapito, Martha Soto
Actin is an integral component of epithelial apical junctions, yet the interactions of branched actin regulators with apical junction components are still not clear. Biochemical data have shown that α-catenin inhibits Arp2/3-dependent branched actin. These results suggested that branched actin is only needed at earliest stages of apical junction development. We use live imaging in developing C. elegans embryos to test models for how WAVE-induced branched actin collaborates with other apical junction proteins during the essential process of junction formation and maturation...
December 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223747/an-automated-high-throughput-system-for-phenotypic-screening-of-chemical-libraries-on-c-elegans-and-parasitic-nematodes
#11
Frederick A Partridge, Anwen E Brown, Steven D Buckingham, Nicky J Willis, Graham M Wynne, Ruth Forman, Kathryn J Else, Alison A Morrison, Jacqueline B Matthews, Angela J Russell, David A Lomas, David B Sattelle
Parasitic nematodes infect hundreds of millions of people and farmed livestock. Further, plant parasitic nematodes result in major crop damage. The pipeline of therapeutic compounds is limited and parasite resistance to the existing anthelmintic compounds is a global threat. We have developed an INVertebrate Automated Phenotyping Platform (INVAPP) for high-throughput, plate-based chemical screening, and an algorithm (Paragon) which allows screening for compounds that have an effect on motility and development of parasitic worms...
December 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222621/lifespan-extension-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-butyricicoccus-pullicaecorum-and-megasphaera-elsdenii-with-probiotic-potential
#12
Gayeung Kwon, Jiyun Lee, Jong-Ho Koh, Young-Hee Lim
Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum and Megasphaera elsdenii inhabit the human intestine and have probiotic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of B. pullicaecorum and M. elsdenii on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. They significantly (P < 0.05) extended the lifespan of C. elegans compared with Escherichia coli OP50, a standard food for the worm. Analysis of age-related biomarkers such as lipofuscin, body size, and locomotory activity showed that they retarded aging. They all failed to extend the lifespan of daf-12 or dbl-1 loss-of-function C...
December 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222342/regulation-of-crossover-frequency-and-distribution-during-meiotic-recombination
#13
Takamune T Saito, Monica P Colaiácovo
Crossover recombination is essential for generating genetic diversity and promoting accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. The process of crossover recombination is tightly regulated and is initiated by the formation of programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The number of DSBs is around 10-fold higher than the number of crossovers in most species, because only a limited number of DSBs are repaired as crossovers during meiosis. Moreover, crossovers are not randomly distributed. Most crossovers are located on chromosomal arm regions and both centromeres and telomeres are usually devoid of crossovers...
December 8, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218454/the-extraordinary-afd-thermosensor-of-c-elegans
#14
REVIEW
Miriam B Goodman, Piali Sengupta
The nematode C. elegans exhibits complex thermal experience-dependent navigation behaviors in response to environmental temperature changes of as little as 0.01°C over a > 10°C temperature range. The remarkable thermosensory abilities of this animal are mediated primarily via the single pair of AFD sensory neurons in its head. In this review, we describe the contributions of AFD to thermosensory behaviors and temperature-dependent regulation of organismal physiology. We also discuss the mechanisms that enable this neuron type to adapt to recent temperature experience and to exhibit extraordinary thermosensitivity over a wide dynamic range...
December 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217678/hrpu-2-a-homologue-of-mammalian-hnrnp-u-regulates-synaptic-transmission-by-controlling-the-expression-of-slo-2-potassium-channel-in-c-elegans
#15
Ping Liu, Sijie Jason Wang, Zhao-Wen Wang, Bojun Chen
Slo2 channels are large-conductance potassium channels abundantly expressed in the nervous system. However, it is unclear how their expression level in neurons is regulated. Here we report that HRPU-2, an RNA-binding protein homologous to mammalian hnRNP U, plays an important role in regulating the expression of SLO-2 (a homologue of mammalian Slo2) in C. elegans Loss-of-function (lf) mutants of hrpu-2 were isolated in a genetic screen for suppressors of a sluggish phenotype caused by a hyperactive SLO-2. In hrpu-2(lf) mutants, SLO-2-mediated delayed outward currents in neurons are greatly decreased, and neuromuscular synaptic transmission is enhanced...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217120/hydric-environmental-effects-on-turtle-development-and-sex-ratio
#16
Itzel Sifuentes-Romero, Boris M Tezak, Sarah L Milton, Jeanette Wyneken
Experimental and field studies of different turtle species suggest that moisture influences embryonic development and sex ratios, wetter substrates tend to produce more males, and drier substrates produce more females. In this study, we used Trachemys scripta elegans to test the effect of moisture on embryonic development and sex ratios. T. s. elegans eggs were incubated under different temperature and moisture regimes. We monitored embryonic development until stage 22 (after sex determination) and, for the first time, we estimated sex ratios using a male-specific transcriptional molecular marker, Sox9...
November 28, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216338/transcriptome-states-reflect-imaging-of-aging-states
#17
D Mark Eckley, Christopher E Coletta, Nikita V Orlov, Mark A Wilson, Wendy Iser, Paul Bastian, Elin Lehrmann, Yonqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Ilya G Goldberg
In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete sub-populations (or "age states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (C. elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset...
December 5, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211978/revamping-mitochondrial-shape-to-live-longer
#18
Lena Pernas, Luca Scorrano
Whether and how mitochondria connect reduced energy intake to healthy aging are unclear. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Weir et al. (2017) find that constitutive AMPK activation and dietary restriction promote longevity in C. elegans via remodeling of the mitochondrial network and fatty acid oxidation in peripheral tissues.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208474/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-system-for-target-identification-and-drug-screening-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Liang Ma, Yudan Zhao, Yuchen Chen, Biao Cheng, Anlin Peng, Kun Huang
Over the past decades, C. elegans has been widely used as a model system because of its small size, transparent body, short generation time and lifespan (~3 days and 3 weeks, respectively), completely sequenced genome and tractability to genetic manipulation. Protein misfolding and aggregation are key pathological features in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Animal models, including Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208057/caenorhabditis-elegans-nature-and-nurture-gift-to-nematode-parasitologists
#20
Gustavo Salinas, Gastón Risi
The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the simplest animal model organism to work with. Substantial knowledge and tools have accumulated over 50 years of C. elegans research. The use of C. elegans relating to parasitic nematodes from a basic biology standpoint or an applied perspective has increased in recent years. The wealth of information gained on the model organism, the use of the powerful approaches and technologies that have advanced C. elegans research to parasitic nematodes and the enormous success of the omics fields have contributed to bridge the divide between C...
December 6, 2017: Parasitology
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