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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810157/propagating-the-haze-community-and-professional-perceptions-of-cannabis-cultivation-and-the-impacts-of-prohibition
#1
Helen Beckett Wilson, Stuart Taylor, Giles Barrett, Janet Jamieson, Lauren Grindrod
BACKGROUND: Recent decades have seen substantial changes in the UK cannabis landscape, including increased domestic production, the ascendancy of stronger strains (namely 'skunk') and the drug's reclassification under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. Resultantly, cannabis retains significance in the consciousness, priorities and policy agendas of communities, drug services and criminal justice agencies. METHODS: This paper presents an empirical study, which examined both perceptions and impacts of cannabis cultivation and its control within a North-West English borough...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809833/application-of-granger-causality-analysis-of-the-directed-functional-connection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Mei Wang, Zhengluan Liao, Dewang Mao, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Enyan Yu, Zhongxiang Ding
Impaired functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN) may be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) is a potential imaging marker for monitoring the progression of AD. Previous studies did not focus on the functional connectivity between the PCC and nodes in regions outside the DMN, but our study is an effort to explore these overlooked functional connections. For collecting data, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808932/visual-attention-and-action-how-cueing-direct-mapping-and-social-interactions-drive-orienting
#3
REVIEW
Mark A Atkinson, Andrew A Simpson, Geoff G Cole
Despite considerable interest in both action perception and social attention over the last 2 decades, there has been surprisingly little investigation concerning how the manual actions of other humans orient visual attention. The present review draws together studies that have measured the orienting of attention, following observation of another's goal-directed action. Our review proposes that, in line with the literature on eye gaze, action is a particularly strong orienting cue for the visual system. However, we additionally suggest that action may orient visual attention using mechanisms, which gaze direction does not (i...
August 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807890/vulnerable-youth-as-prosumers-in-hiv-prevention-studies-using-participatory-action-research
#4
Cath Conn, Shoba Nayar, Dinar Lubis, Carol Maibvisira, Kristel Modderman
BACKGROUND: Stigma, voicelessness, and legislative and rights barriers, coupled with top-down decision making, are the common experiences of vulnerable youth populations that limit their opportunities to participate in vital health promotion efforts such as HIV prevention. OBJECTIVE: To consider new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. METHODS: Drawing on research with vulnerable youth in Busoga, Uganda; Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Bangkok, Thailand; and Bali, Indonesia, we explore current youth participation, in theory and practice, while considering new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention...
August 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804390/relations-between-views-on-ageing-and-perceived-age-discrimination-a-domain-specific-perspective
#5
Peggy Voss, Julia K Wolff, Klaus Rothermund
This study investigates the relation between age stereotypes and perceived age discrimination. Existing evidence for such a relation is notoriously ambiguous with regard to its direction-age stereotypes can predict (perceived) discrimination, but experiencing discrimination may also change views on ageing-which is why we used a dataset with two waves to disentangle the direction of the associations. Considering research on the multi-dimensionality of views on ageing and perceived age discrimination, we addressed this question from a domain- and age group-specific perspective...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803677/indole-fused-azepines-and-analogues-as-anticancer-lead-molecules-privileged-findings-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Sudipta Saha
The search for new lead compounds of simple structure, displaying highest quality anti-tumor potency with new mechanisms of action and least adverse effects is the major intention of cancer drug discovery now a days. For the time being, indole-fused azepines emerged as a simple class of compounds prolifically designed with strong pharmacological significances in particular of cancer protecting ability. In the recent years from the efforts of our research group, indole-fused heteroazepines, a simple structural class achieved by fusion of indole with oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen containing heteroazepine rings, have known for its superior outcomes in cancer treatment...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801417/optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-sonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#7
Alex Koziarz, Niv Sne, Fraser Kegel, Waleed Alhazzani, Siddharth Nath, Jetan H Badhiwala, Timothy Rice, Paul Engels, Faidi Samir, Andrew Healey, Kamyar Kahnamoui, Laura Banfield, Sunjay Sharma, Kesava Reddy, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Saleh A Almenawer
INTRODUCTION: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a significant neurological issue that may lead to permanent neurological sequelae. When evaluating patients with traumatic brain injury, it is crucial to identify those with high ICP in order to expedite ICP lowering measures and maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. Several measures are used to recognise patients with increased ICP including CT scan, MRI, ICP monitor, and lumbar puncture (LP). However, these tests can be invasive, associated with radiation exposure, contraindicated, or not readily available...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800392/coarse-grained-directed-simulation
#8
Glen M Hocky, Thomas Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Gregory A Voth
Many free-energy sampling and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations on protein complexes have been performed where, by necessity, a single component is studied isolated in solution while its overall configuration is kept in the complex-like state by either rigid restraints or harmonic constraints. A drawback in these studies is that the system's native fluctuations are lost, both due to the change of environment and the imposition of the extra potential. Yet, we know that having both accurate structure and fluctuations is likely crucial to achieving correct simulation estimates for the subsystem within its native larger protein complex context...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791886/-facets-of-body-image-disorder-a-differential-analysis-of-the-tek-kj-test-for-the-detection-of-body-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-for-the-direct-measurement-of-haptic-perceptual-parts
#9
Julian Rupp, Arne Bürger, Florian Hammerle
There is presently a lack of instruments that measure the haptic-perceptive component of body-image distortion – a central criterion for the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. We present a differential analysis for the Test for Body Image Distortion in Children and Adolescents (BID-CA, German: TEK-KJ) using a large child and adolescents sample, including for the first time male participants. We analyze convergent validity with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS) as well as differences between children and adolescents from different type of schools and different BMI percentile groups...
August 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790920/effect-of-cognitive-style-on-learning-and-retrieval-of-navigational-environments
#10
Maddalena Boccia, Francesca Vecchione, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
Field independence (FI) has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called "cognitive maps," and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780049/netrin1-establishes-multiple-boundaries-for-axon-growth-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#11
Supraja G Varadarajan, Samantha J Butler
The canonical model for netrin1 function proposed that it acted as a long-range chemotropic axon guidance cue. In the developing spinal cord, floor-plate (FP)-derived netrin1 was thought to act as a diffusible attractant to draw commissural axons to the ventral midline. However, our recent studies have shown that netrin1 is dispensable in the FP for axon guidance. We have rather found that netrin1 acts locally: netrin1 is produced by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the ventricular zone (VZ), and deposited on the pial surface as a haptotactic adhesive substrate that guides Dcc(+) axon growth...
August 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777535/electrospun-nanofibers-new-concepts-materials-and-applications
#12
Jiajia Xue, Jingwei Xie, Wenying Liu, Younan Xia
Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique that relies on the electrostatic repulsion between surface charges to continuously draw nanofibers from a viscoelastic fluid. It has been applied to successfully produce nanofibers, with diameters down to tens of nanometers, from a rich variety of materials, including polymers, ceramics, small molecules, and their combinations. In addition to solid nanofibers with a smooth surface, electrospinning has also been adapted to generate nanofibers with a number of secondary structures, including those characterized by a porous, hollow, or core-sheath structure...
August 4, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773219/ion-beam-modification-of-carbon-nanotube-yarn-in-air-and-vacuum
#13
Jonathan G Gigax, Philip D Bradford, Lin Shao
We studied the effects ion beam irradiation on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. CNT yarn was fabricated by drawing and spinning CNT sheets from a vertically aligned CNT forest. The yarn was irradiated by 2.5 MeV protons in either vacuum or air. Irradiation in air was achieved by directing the proton beam through a 0.025 mm thick Ti window. Irradiation in vacuum occurred at a pressure of <10(-6) torr at room temperature and at an elevated temperature of 600 °C. Tensile testing revealed that CNT yarn irradiated in air increased in tensile strength with increasing proton fluence...
July 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772769/tortuosity-of-aligned-channels-in-alumina-membranes-produced-by-vacuum-induced-surface-directional-freezing
#14
Sandra Großberger, Tobias Fey, Geoffrey Lee
Vacuum-induced surface freezing of colloidal alumina was used to produce membranes that have elongated, aligned channels and, hence, are tortuous in the direction perpendicular to ice crystal growth. The effective tortuosity of the membranes was measured by steady-state diffusion of a solute, methylene blue. The resulting diffusion profiles show an initial step-increase in amount of dye reaching the acceptor that is caused by capillarity drawing the donor solution through any non-wetted channels in the membrane...
April 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766861/overexpression-of-nrf2-is-correlated-with-prognoses-of-patients-with-malignancies-a-meta-analysis
#15
Yangyang Guo, Luyan Shen
BACKGROUND: Previous published research has demonstrated that NRF2 expression is a poor prognostic factor for many malignancies. However, because of the small sample enrolled in a single study, it is difficult to draw valuable conclusions. Therefore, we hypothesized that NRF2 overexpression in cancer tissues may be associated with the prognoses of patients with solid malignancies, and conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Embase, and Ovid databases for relevant studies regarding the role of NRF2 expression in solid malignancies was conducted...
August 2, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760075/meta-analysis-of-rare-binary-events-in-treatment-groups-with-unequal-variability
#16
Lie Li, Xinlei Wang
Meta-analysis has been widely used to synthesize information from related studies to achieve reliable findings. However, in studies of rare events, the event counts are often low or even zero, and so standard meta-analysis methods such as fixed-effect models with continuity correction may cause substantial bias in estimation. Recently, Bhaumik et al. developed a simple average estimator for the overall treatment effect based on a random effects model. They proved that the simple average method with the continuity correction factor 0...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755496/procedure-to-select-test-organisms-for-environmental-risk-assessment-of-genetically-modified-crops-in-aquatic-systems
#17
Angelika Hilbeck, Rebecca Bundschuh, Mirco Bundschuh, Frieder Hofmann, Bernadette Oehen, Mathias Otto, Ralf Schulz, Miluse Trtikova
For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues which may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems...
July 29, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753973/toward-the-fabrication-of-advanced-nanofiltration-membranes-by-controlling-morphologies-and-mesochannel-orientations-of-hexagonal-lyotropic-liquid-crystals
#18
REVIEW
Guang Wang, Christopher J Garvey, Han Zhao, Kang Huang, Lingxue Kong
Water scarcity has been recognized as one of the major threats to human activity, and, therefore, water purification technologies are increasingly drawing attention worldwide. Nanofiltration (NF) membrane technology has been proven to be an efficient and cost-effective way in terms of the size and continuity of the nanostructure. Using a template based on hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) and partitioning monomer units within this structure for subsequent photo-polymerisation presents a unique path for the fabrication of NF membranes, potentially producing pores of uniform size, ranging from 1 to 5 nm, and large surface areas...
July 21, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753075/self-determination-theory-and-risk-behavior-in-a-collectivistic-society-preventing-reckless-driving-in-urban-nepal
#19
Yerina S Ranjit, Leslie B Snyder, Mark A Hamilton, Rajiv N Rimal
Traffic road accidents are one of the leading causes of mortality in Nepal and around the world. Drivers in Nepal are not adequately educated about road safety rules. Road conditions are chaotic as traffic regulations are also not strictly enforced. Public safety campaigns may be able to alter drivers' attitudes and behaviors; however, little is known about which persuasive strategies may be most effective. Drawing on self-determination theory and the Health Belief Model, the current study used a post-only experimental design to test the impact of a short video message...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752857/insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#20
REVIEW
Keyoumars Ashkan, Priya Rogers, Hagai Bergman, Ismail Ughratdar
Despite long-term and widespread use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a variety of neurological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of action have been elusive. Growing evidence suggests that DBS acts through multimodal mechanisms that are not limited to inhibition and excitation of basal ganglia circuits. DBS also seems to act over variable time spans - for example, the effects on tremor are immediate, whereas the effects on dystonia emerge over several weeks - suggesting that large networks are targeted...
July 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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