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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922122/semi-automatic-generation-of-stream-surfaces-via-sketching
#1
Jun Tao, Chaoli Wang
We present a semi-automatic approach for stream surface generation. Our approach is based on the conjecture that good seeding curves can be inferred from a set of streamlines. Given a set of densely traced streamlines over the flow field, we design a sketch-based interface that allows users to describe their perceived flow patterns through drawing simple strokes directly on top of the streamline visualization results. Based on the 2D stroke, we identify a 3D seeding curve and generate a stream surface that captures the flow pattern of streamlines at the outermost layer...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918712/anger-promotes-economic-conservatism
#2
Keri L Kettle, Anthony Salerno
Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing...
October 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915266/evaluation-of-a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-navigation-performance-in-virtual-reality
#3
Jascha Grübel, Tyler Thrash, Christoph Hölscher, Victor R Schinazi
Previous research in spatial cognition has often relied on simple spatial tasks in static environments in order to draw inferences regarding navigation performance. These tasks are typically divided into categories (e.g., egocentric or allocentric) that reflect different two-systems theories. Unfortunately, this two-systems approach has been insufficient for reliably predicting navigation performance in virtual reality (VR). In the present experiment, participants were asked to learn and navigate towards goal locations in a virtual city and then perform eight simple spatial tasks in a separate environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914138/the-role-of-conscious-attention-in-how-weight-serves-as-an-embodiment-of-importance
#4
Colin A Zestcott, Jeff Stone, Mark J Landau
Inconsistency among findings in the embodied cognition literature suggests a need for theoretical boundary conditions. The current research proposes that conscious attention of a bodily state can moderate its influence on social judgment. Three studies tested this possibility in the case of the demonstrated effect of weight sensations on judgments of an abstract idea's importance. Studies 1 and 2 showed that participants rated a topic as more important when holding a moderately heavy, compared with light, clipboard...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913785/evolution-of-patient-reported-outcomes-and-their-role-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Cindy J Nowinski, Deborah M Miller, David Cella
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are playing an increasing role in multiple sclerosis (MS) research and practice, and are essential for understanding the effects that MS and MS treatments have on patients' lives. PROs are captured directly from patients and include symptoms, function, health status, and health-related quality of life. In this article, we review different categories (e.g., generic, targeted, preference-based) of PRO measures and considerations in selecting a measure. The PROs included in MS clinical research have evolved over time, as have the measures used to assess them...
September 14, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912156/neutrophils-are-critical-for-myelin-removal-in-a-peripheral-nerve-injury-model-of-wallerian-degeneration
#6
Jane A Lindborg, Matthias Mack, Richard E Zigmond
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages that utilize the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our lab has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2(-/-) mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2(-/-) mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911320/practicing-governance-towards-equity-in-health-systems-lmic-perspectives-and-experience
#7
EDITORIAL
Lucy Gilson, Uta Lehmann, Helen Schneider
The unifying theme of the papers in this series is a concern for understanding the everyday practice of governance in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems. Rather than seeing governance as a normative health system goal addressed through the architecture and design of accountability and regulatory frameworks, these papers provide insights into the real-world decision-making of health policy and system actors. Their multiple, routine decisions translate policy intentions into practice - and are filtered through relationships, underpinned by values and norms, influenced by organizational structures and resources, and embedded in historical and socio-political contexts...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905266/septin-structure-and-filament-assembly
#8
REVIEW
Napoleão Fonseca Valadares, Humberto d' Muniz Pereira, Ana Paula Ulian Araujo, Richard Charles Garratt
Septins are able to polymerize into long apolar filaments and have long been considered to be a component of the cytoskeleton alongside intermediate filaments (which are also apolar in nature), microtubules and actin filaments (which are not). Their central guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain, which is essential for stabilizing the filament itself, is flanked by N- and C-terminal domains for which no direct structural information is yet available. In most cases, physiological filaments are built from a number of different septin monomers, and in the case of mammalian septins this is most commonly either three or four...
September 13, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888563/bilirubin-uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase-polymorphism-as-a-risk-factor-for-prolonged-hyperbilirubinemia-in-japanese-preterm-infants
#9
Takahide Yanagi, Sayuri Nakahara, Yoshihiro Maruo
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a variant of the bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1*6) is a risk factor for prolonged hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: UGT1A1 genotypes in 46 Japanese preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation) were compared with UGT1A1 genotypes in 38 control infants, using polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing. Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia was defined as serum total bilirubin concentration of >150 µmol/L (8...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888225/towards-evidence-based-computational-statistics-lessons-from-clinical-research-on-the-role-and-design-of-real-data-benchmark-studies
#10
Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Rory Wilson, Alexander Hapfelmeier
BACKGROUND: The goal of medical research is to develop interventions that are in some sense superior, with respect to patient outcome, to interventions currently in use. Similarly, the goal of research in methodological computational statistics is to develop data analysis tools that are themselves superior to the existing tools. The methodology of the evaluation of medical interventions continues to be discussed extensively in the literature and it is now well accepted that medicine should be at least partly "evidence-based"...
September 9, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884714/-therapeutic-monitoring-and-prediction-of-the-efficacy-of-neurotrophic-treatment-in-patients-with-amnestic-type-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
S I Gavrilova, O M Volpina, I V Kolykhalov, Ya B Fedorova, N D Selezneva, E V Ponomareva, D O Koroev, A V Kamynina
AIM: To perform therapeutic monitoring and prediction of the neurotrophic therapy efficacy in patients with amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a model of course cerebrolysin therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved a group of 19 elderly patients who met the diagnostic criteria of aMCI. All patients received a course of neurotrophic therapy consisting of 20 intravenous infusions of cerebrolysin (30 ml of cerebrolysin in 100 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884634/the-context-and-quality-of-evidence-used-by-tobacco-interests-to-oppose-anvisa-s-2012-regulations-in-brazil
#12
Raphael Lencucha, Clelio de Lima Pontes
Evidence is an important resource for policy makers. Alongside its practical utility, evidence is a persuasive strategic and rhetorical tool. This study scrutinises the information used by tobacco interests in opposition to Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency's (ANVISA) 2012 regulations. We analysed one prominent document widely cited in the policy discourse, produced by Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) in 2010 when ANVISA initiated public consultations. The FGV document formed the basis of opposition to the regulations...
September 8, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882320/judges-delivery-of-ground-rules-to-child-witnesses-in-australian-courts
#13
Becky Earhart, Sonja P Brubacher, Martine B Powell, Nina J Westera, Jane Goodman-Delahunty
Ground rules directions are given to children in forensic interviews to explain what is expected of them, and to reduce their tendency to acquiesce to erroneous or incomprehensible questions. Ground rules may also be necessary when children provide testimony in court. Drawing on research conducted for the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, the present study examined the use of ground rules directions delivered in court in 52 trials by 24 presiding judges in three jurisdictions to 57 child complainants (aged 7-17...
September 4, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881221/social-anxiety-in-pre-adolescent-children-what-do-we-know-about-maintenance
#14
Brynjar Halldorsson, Cathy Creswell
The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited...
September 1, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880698/cost-effectiveness-of-a-chronic-pain-intervention-for-people-living-with-hiv-plwh
#15
Jessica S Merlin, Andrew O Westfall, Mallory O Johnson, Robert D Kerns, Matthew J Bair, Stefan Kertesz, Janet M Turan, Olivio J Clay, Joanna L Starrels, Meredith Kilgore
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common, disabling, and costly comorbidity, particularly in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study developed and pilot tested a pain self-management intervention for chronic pain tailored to PLWH called Skills TO Manage Pain (STOMP). OBJECTIVES: Given the additional resources needed to deliver STOMP in HIV clinical settings, an important objective of the pilot study was to assess not only STOMP's preliminary efficacy, but also its cost-effectiveness...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877617/workforce-flexibility-in-defence-of-professional-healthcare-work
#16
Sarah Wise, Christine Duffield, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche
Purpose The desirability of having a more flexible workforce is emphasised across many health systems yet this goal is as ambiguous as it is ubiquitous. In the absence of empirical studies in healthcare that have defined flexibility as an outcome, the purpose of this paper is to draw on classic management and sociological theory to reduce this ambiguity. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses the Weberian tool of "ideal types". Key workforce reforms are held against Atkinson's model of functional flexibility which aims to increase responsiveness and adaptability through multiskilling, autonomy and teams; and Taylorism which seeks stability and reduced costs through specialisation, fragmentation and management control...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877364/are-great-apes-able-to-reason-from-multi-item-samples-to-populations-of-food-items
#17
Johanna Eckert, Hannes Rakoczy, Josep Call
Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871420/weber-s-law-in-2d-and-3d-grasping
#18
Aviad Ozana, Tzvi Ganel
Visually guided grasping movements directed to real, 3D objects are characterized by a distinguishable trajectory pattern that evades the influence of Weber's law, a basic principle of perception. Conversely, grasping trajectories directed to 2D line drawings of objects adhere to Weber's law. It can be argued, therefore, that during 2D grasping, the visuomotor system fails at operating in analytic mode and is intruded by irrelevant perceptual information. Here, we explored the visual and tactile cues that enable such analytic processing during grasping...
September 4, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866578/bring-it-to-the-pitch-combining-video-and-movement-data-to-enhance-team-sport-analysis
#19
Manuel Stein, Halldor Janetzko, Andreas Lamprecht, Thorsten Breitkreutz, Philipp Zimmermann, Bastian Goldlucke, Tobias Schreck, Gennady Andrienko, Michael Grossniklaus, Daniel A Keim
Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865644/ace-place-race-and-poverty-building-hope-for-children
#20
Charles Bruner
Adverse childhood experiences research has focused attention on the importance of family safety, stability, and nurturing in ensuring healthy development. This safety, stability, and nurturing can be compromised by family poverty, discrimination and marginalization, and geographic location. Drawing upon census data, this report shows that place, race, and poverty are intertwined concepts with particular implications for young children. Examining census tracts according to their levels of poverty shows that the poorest census tracts also: 1) are the "richest" in the proportion of young children, 2) have the least realized social, physical, and educational, as well as economic capital, and 3) are highly racially segregated and separated from many sources of economic opportunity...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
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