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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786658/melatonin-as-a-therapy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-published-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Emily McGreevy, Lan Pham, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL's documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783933/enablers-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women-an-analysis-informed-by-the-theoretical-domains-framework-and-com-b-model
#2
C Flannery, S McHugh, A E Anaba, E Clifford, M O'Riordan, L C Kenny, F M McAuliffe, P M Kearney, M Byrne
BACKGROUND: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development...
May 21, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783871/eclerize-a-customized-force-directed-graph-drawing-algorithm-for-biological-graphs-with-ec-attributes
#3
Hasan Fehmi Danaci, Rengul Cetin-Atalay, Volkan Atalay
Visualizing large-scale data produced by the high throughput experiments as a biological graph leads to better understanding and analysis. This study describes a customized force-directed layout algorithm, EClerize, for biological graphs that represent pathways in which the nodes are associated with Enzyme Commission (EC) attributes. The nodes with the same EC class numbers are treated as members of the same cluster. Positions of nodes are then determined based on both the biological similarity and the connection structure...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782580/magic-circle
#4
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Johan Wagemans
Full-horizon cylindrical projections of the optic array are in common use. One wonders whether the public actually profits from such pictorial information, since the space behind one's back does not exist in visual awareness. In an experiment, a test image included six persons located at the corners of an irregular hexagon centred at the camera. Two persons faced the camera, two turned their back to the camera and two others faced a direction at right angles to the camera. The distances to the camera were unequal and varied from 1 to 2 m...
May 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780340/regulating-emotional-responses-to-climate-change-a-construal-level-perspective
#5
Emma Ejelöv, André Hansla, Magnus Bergquist, Andreas Nilsson
This experimental study ( N = 139) examines the role of emotions in climate change risk communication. Drawing on Construal Level Theory, we tested how abstract vs. concrete descriptions of climate threat affect basic and self-conscious emotions and three emotion regulation strategies: changing oneself, repairing the situation and distancing oneself. In a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design, climate change consequences were described as concrete/abstract and depicted as spatially proximate/distant. Results showed that, as hypothesized, increased self-conscious emotions mediate overall positive effects of abstract description on self-change and repair attempts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778066/transport-of-trace-organic-compounds-through-novel-forward-osmosis-membranes-role-of-membrane-properties-and-the-draw-solution
#6
Marc Sauchelli, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Arnout D'Haese, Ignasi Rodríguez-Roda, Wolfgang Gernjak
Forward osmosis (FO) offers to be a very promising technology for the removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from contaminated wastewater, and with the recent developments in FO membranes, the effect of both a higher water flux and reverse salt flux on the rejection of TrOCs needs to be explored. In this study two novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with greater water permeability and selectivity than the benchmark cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane were compared at bench-scale in terms of TrOCs permeability...
May 5, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774139/line-drawn-scenes-provide-sufficient-information-for-discrimination-of-threat-and-mere-negativity
#7
Jasmine Boshyan, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Nicole Betz, Reginald B Adams, Kestutis Kveraga
Previous work using color photographic scenes has shown that human observers are keenly sensitive to different types of threatening and negative stimuli and reliably classify them by the presence, and spatial and temporal directions of threat. To test whether such distinctions can be extracted from impoverished visual information, we used 500 line drawings made by hand-tracing the original set of photographic scenes. Sixty participants rated the scenes on spatial and temporal dimensions of threat. Based on these ratings, trend analysis revealed five scene categories that were comparable to those identified for the matching color photographic scenes...
January 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768587/-access-to-prenatal-care-and-quality-of-care-in-the-family-health-strategy-infrastructure-care-and-management
#8
Wilderi Sidney Gonçalves Guimarães, Rosana Cristina Pereira Parente, Thayanne Louzada Ferreira Guimarães, Luiza Garnelo
This study focuses on access to prenatal care and quality of care in the Family Health Strategy in Brazil as a whole and in the North region, through evaluation of infrastructure characteristics in the health units, management, and supply of care provided by the teams, from the perspective of regional and state inequalities. A cross-sectional evaluative and normative study was performed, drawing on the external evaluation component of the second round of the Program for Improvement of Access and Quality of Primary Care, in 2013-2014...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765347/how-deep-is-your-snarc-interactions-between-numerical-magnitude-response-hands-and-reachability-in-peripersonal-space
#9
Johannes Lohmann, Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia, Martin V Butz
Spatial, physical, and semantic magnitude dimensions can influence action decisions in human cognitive processing and interact with each other. For example, in the spatial-numerical associations of response code (SNARC) effect, semantic numerical magnitude facilitates left-hand or right-hand responding dependent on the small or large magnitude of number symbols. SNARC-like interactions of numerical magnitudes with the radial spatial dimension (depth) were postulated from early on. Usually, the SNARC effect in any direction is investigated using fronto-parallel computer monitors for presentation of stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765313/can-tai-chi-and-qigong-postures-shape-our-mood-toward-an-embodied-cognition-framework-for-mind-body-research
#10
Kamila Osypiuk, Evan Thompson, Peter M Wayne
Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764300/integrating-implicit-leadership-theories-leader-member-exchange-self-efficacy-and-attachment-theory-to-predict-job-performance
#11
Alireza Khorakian, Mohammad Sadegh Sharifirad
The impact of implicit leadership theories on performance and the mechanism linking them have received insufficient theoretical and research attention. Drawing on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the present study contributes theory through examining the assertion that higher congruence between followers' implicit leadership theory and the characteristics of supervisors enhance job performance through higher quality of leader-member exchange and self-efficacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, attachment insecurity was considered as the antecedent of the congruence and leader-member exchange in addition to the moderator of the relationship between them...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764178/compassionate-communities-in-canada-it-is-everyone-s-responsibility
#12
Bonnie Tompkins
Prof. Allan Kellehear first developed a contemporary public health approach to palliative and end-of-life care. Countries around the world have since adopted the theory of practice that mobilizes palliative care as a public health issue-particularly the Compassionate Communities (CC) model. In the wake of Canada's Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) legislation and its growing senior population, quality palliative care has enjoyed a renewed focus. Pallium Canada is helping communities across the country understand and adopt the CC model, through education, knowledge mobilization, project facilitation, and leadership...
April 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763711/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-adult-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#13
REVIEW
Julian Mutz, Daniel R Edgcumbe, Andre R BrunoniMD, Cynthia H Y FuMD
We examined the efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation in adult unipolar and bipolar depression. Randomised sham-controlled trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS), without co-initiation of another treatment, were included. We analysed effects on response, remission, all-cause discontinuation rates and continuous depression severity measures. Fifty-six studies met our criteria for inclusion (N  = 3,058, mean age = 44...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762648/a-new-framework-for-conceptualizing-symptoms-in-frontotemporal-dementia-from-animal-models-to-the-clinic
#14
Stephanie Wong, Bernard W Balleine, Fiona Kumfor
Behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by a number of ostensibly disparate clinical features, which have largely been considered independently. This Update proposes an integrated conceptual framework for these symptoms, by bringing together findings from animal studies, functional neuroimaging and behavioural neurology. The combined evidence indicates that many of the clinical symptoms--such as altered eating behaviour; overspending and susceptibility to scams; reduced empathy and socially inappropriate behaviour; apathy and stereotyped/ritualistic behaviour--can be conceptualized as a common underlying deficiency in goal-directed behaviour and the concomitant emergence of habits...
May 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760587/the-role-of-adipokines-in-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
Background: There is currently an unmet clinical need to develop better pharmacological treatments to improve glucose handling in Type II Diabetes patients with obesity. To this end, determining the effect of obesity-associated adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity has emerged as an important area of drug discovery research. This review draws together the data on the functional role of adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin signalling, highlights several understudied novel adipokines and provides a perspective on the direction of future research...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754895/drug-consumption-rooms-comparing-times-spaces-and-actors-in-issues-of-social-acceptability-in-french-public-debate
#16
Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Isabelle Cailbault
BACKGROUND: In October 2016, the first French drug consumption room (DCR) opened in Paris. We propose to examine the process through which this issue has been framed as a matter of public concern, after being ignored for almost 20 years. Our analysis of the controversy on DCRs investigates how public conversations on harm reduction evolve according to the time period (from the 1990s to the present), scale of discourse (local vs. national), and involved actors (politicians, professionals, local residents, and drug users)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749692/hb-adana-hba2-or-hba1-c-179g-a-and-alpha-thalassemia-genotype-phenotype-correlation
#17
Sharon A Singh, Susmita Sarangi, Abena Appiah-Kubi, Peihong Hsu, W Byron Smith, Patrick G Gallagher, Bertil Glader, David H K Chui
Alpha thalassemia due to nondeletional mutations usually leads to more severe disease than that caused by deletional mutations. Devastating outcomes such as hydrops fetalis can occur with two nondeletional mutations, therefore warranting DNA-based workup for suspected carriers with subtle hematological abnormalities for family counseling purposes. We describe three cases with hemoglobin (Hb) Adana, a nondeletional alpha chain mutation, compounded with an alpha globin gene deletion resulting in thalassemia intermedia...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748326/a-novel-method-for-rapid-bedside-measurement-of-gfr
#18
Dana V Rizk, Daniel Meier, Ruben M Sandoval, Teresa Chacana, Erinn S Reilly, Jesse C Seegmiller, Emmanuel DeNoia, James S Strickland, Joseph Muldoon, Bruce A Molitoris
Background Direct quantitative measurement of GFR (mGFR) remains a specialized task primarily performed in research settings. Multiple formulas for estimating GFR have been developed that use the readily available endogenous biomarkers creatinine and/or cystatin C. However, eGFR formulas have limitations, and an accurate mGFR is necessary in some clinical situations and for certain patient populations. We conducted a prospective, open-label study to evaluate a novel rapid technique for determining plasma volume and mGFR...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746880/development-and-validation-of-the-dietarian-identity-questionnaire-assessing-self-perceptions-of-animal-product-consumption
#19
Daniel L Rosenfeld, Anthony L Burrow
In navigating decisions about what to eat, people both construct and rely on a food-choice identity. Yet food choice is multifaceted, as people apply different dietary schemas to different types of food, engaging various domains of food-choice identity. In this paper, we focus on dietarian identity: one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors with respect to consuming or eschewing animal products (here, pertaining to red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy). First, we draw upon Rosenfeld and Burrow's (2017a) Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity in order to develop a Dietarian Identity Questionnaire (DIQ)...
May 7, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745732/tattered-textures-of-kinship-the-effects-of-torture-among-iraqi-families-in-denmark
#20
Lotte Buch Segal
Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark, primarily among Iraqi women and secondarily among Iraqi men who are either direct or indirect victims of torture, I explore how the memories of torture are distributed in the everyday lives of Danish families originating from Iraq. I argue that torture is folded into kin histories and the everyday work of bearing and resisting painful memories. Consequently, torture affects not only the mental and physical health of the singular survivor, but also the entire texture of kin relatedness around him or her, to the extent that kinship normativity may be disrupted...
May 10, 2018: Medical Anthropology
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