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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342589/energy-consumption-by-forward-osmosis-treatment-of-landfill-leachate-for-water-recovery
#1
Syeed Md Iskander, Shiqiang Zou, Brian Brazil, John T Novak, Zhen He
Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills...
March 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340189/the-relationship-between-pain-severity-and-alcohol-use-among-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-the-moderating-role-of-drinking-motives
#2
Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Zina Trost, Anne Hublet, Sylvie Mrug, Joris Van Damme, Tine Vervoort
Objective. : Evidence from adult samples suggests a co-occurrence between pain and alcohol abuse. However, studies in adolescents are scarce and results are inconsistent, with some studies observing heightened and others observing reduced alcohol consumption in adolescents suffering from pain. We hypothesized that in adolescents the association between pain and alcohol use will be moderated by drinking motives. Methods. : Data from a large representative sample of Flemish school children and adolescents (N = 10,650, 50...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333493/bayesian-approaches-to-autism-towards-volatility-action-and-behavior
#3
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Jakob Hohwy
Autism spectrum disorder currently lacks an explanation that bridges cognitive, computational, and neural domains. In the past 5 years, progress has been sought in this area by drawing on Bayesian probability theory to describe both social and nonsocial aspects of autism in terms of systematic differences in the processing of sensory information in the brain. The present article begins by synthesizing the existing literature in this regard, including an introduction to the topic for unfamiliar readers. The key proposal is that autism is characterized by a greater weighting of sensory information in updating probabilistic representations of the environment...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331463/a-gibbs-sampler-for-learning-dags
#4
Robert J B Goudie, Sach Mukherjee
We propose a Gibbs sampler for structure learning in directed acyclic graph (DAG) models. The standard Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms used for learning DAGs are random-walk Metropolis-Hastings samplers. These samplers are guaranteed to converge asymptotically but often mix slowly when exploring the large graph spaces that arise in structure learning. In each step, the sampler we propose draws entire sets of parents for multiple nodes from the appropriate conditional distribution. This provides an efficient way to make large moves in graph space, permitting faster mixing whilst retaining asymptotic guarantees of convergence...
April 2016: Journal of Machine Learning Research: JMLR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329853/early-origins-of-later-life-psychological-well-being-a-novel-application-of-causal-mediation-analysis-to-life-course-research
#5
Tirth R Bhatta, Jeffrey M Albert, Eva Kahana, Nirmala Lekhak
Objectives: This study employs a novel approach to mediation analysis to clarify the influence of interrelated indicators of life course socioeconomic status (SES) on later life psychological well-being in India. Contrary to traditional approaches (i.e., use of product and difference-in-coefficients), we recognize the role of confounders in the estimation of total, direct, and indirect effects of parental education on respondents' psychological well-being. Method: Drawing from the first wave (2007-2010) of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and adopting a counterfactual approach, we estimate both natural direct and indirect effects of parental education through individual educational attainment (secondarily, through household assets as an additional mediator) on respondents' life-satisfaction and quality of life (QOL)...
March 14, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328999/what-the-electrical-impedance-can-tell-about-the-intrinsic-properties-of-an-electrodynamic-shaker
#6
Bernd Lütkenhöner
Small electrodynamic shakers are becoming increasingly popular for diagnostic investigations of the human vestibular system. More specifically, they are used as mechanical stimulators for eliciting a vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). However, it is largely unknown how shakers perform under typical measurement conditions, which considerably differ from the normal use of a shaker. Here, it is shown how the basic properties of a shaker can be determined without requiring special sensors such as accelerometers or force gauges...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328248/-a8344g-mitochondrial-dna-mutation-observed-in-two-generations
#7
Anett Fekete, Kinga Hadzsiev, Judit Bene, Antónia Nászai, Petra Mátyás, Ágnes Till, Béla Melegh
This article presents the case of a 62-year-old mother and her 41-year-old daughter, who have had severe neurological symptoms for a few decades. After a long investigation period the definite diagnosis of MERRF syndrome was confirmed. After DNA isolation from our patient's blood sample we examined the mitochondrial DNA with direct sequencing. An adenine-guanine substitution was detected in the tRNA gene at position 8344, based on the sequence ferogram the heteroplasmy was over 90%. The clinical phenotype was not clearly characteristic for MERRF syndrome, adult-onset and lipomas are not typical in this disease...
March 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319688/attenuated-dhea-and-dhea-s-response-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-individuals-with-depressive-disorders
#8
Xiaoling Jiang, Wen Zhong, Haiyan An, Mingyu Fu, Yuanyuan Chen, Zhenggang Zhang, Zhongju Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a relationship between depression and basal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels has frequently been suggested, but responses of these adrenal steroids to psychosocial stress have not been examined in individuals with depressive disorders. In this study, we examined salivary DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in individuals with depressive disorders and in healthy controls to discover whether the responses of DHEA and DHEA-S to acute psychosocial stress could be a more sensitive marker of HPA dysfunction in depressive disorders...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316348/new-skills-new-jobs-return-migration-skill-transfers-and-business-formation-in-mexico
#9
Jacqueline Maria Hagan, Joshua Wassink
Numerous studies have documented a high propensity for self-employment and business formation among return migrants relative to non-migrants. The literature points to the importance of remitted savings, migration duration, and number and types of jobs abroad for business formation upon return. Implicit in this scholarship is the assumption that migrants acquire not only financial capital, but also human capital, which expands their opportunities upon return. Empirical work has demonstrated how the transfer of formal human capital, such as language skills and professional credentials, influences the mobility pathways of professional return migrants...
November 2016: Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306168/sub-micrometer-surface-patterned-ribbon-fibers-and-textiles
#10
Tural Khudiyev, Chong Hou, Alexander M Stolyarov, Yoel Fink
The worldwide annual production volume of textiles is nearly one hundred million metric tons. Most of these undergo treatments to achieve specific properties, such as color, hydrophobicity, antimicrobial, or UV protection, using chemicals that lead to collateral environmental consequences. There is great interest in developing alternative and sustainable strategies to achieve textile functionality that do not involve chemical treatment. Here we present a thermal drawing approach to achieve fiber surface gratings on a rectangular cross-section...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302950/pcsk9-and-atherosclerosis-lipids-and-beyond
#11
Michael D Shapiro, Sergio Fazio
Even though it is only a little over a decade from the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a plasma protein that associates with both high and low cholesterol syndromes, a rich body of knowledge has developed, and drugs inhibiting this target have been approved in many markets. While the majority of research in recent years has focused on the impact of therapeutic antagonism of this molecule, important lines of investigation have emerged characterizing its unique physiology as it relates to cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299815/effects-of-substituting-nurse-practitioners-physician-assistants-or-nurses-for-physicians-concerning-healthcare-for-the-aging-population-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Marleen H Lovink, Anke Persoon, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Anneke J A H Van Vught, Lisette Schoonhoven, Miranda G H Laurant
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of substituting nurse practitioners, physician assistants or nurses for physicians in long-term care facilities and primary healthcare for the aging population (primary aim) and to describe what influences the implementation (secondary aim). BACKGROUND: Healthcare for the aging population is undergoing major changes and physicians face heavy workloads. A solution to guarantee quality and contain costs might be to substitute nurse practitioners, physician assistants or nurses for physicians...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296386/direct-drawing-method-of-graphite-onto-paper-for-high-performance-flexible-electrochemical-sensors
#13
Murilo Santhiago, Mathias Strauss, Mariane P Pereira, Andréia S Chagas, Carlos C B Bufon
A simple and fast fabrication method to create high-performance pencil-drawn electrochemical sensors is reported for the first time. The sluggish electron transfer observed on bare pencil-drawn surfaces was enhanced using two electrochemical steps: first oxidizing the surface and then reducing it in a subsequent step. The heterogeneous rate constant was found to be 5.1 × 10(-3) cm s(-1), which is the highest value reported so far for pencil-drawn surfaces. We mapped the origin of such performance by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296208/arterial-access-port-a-shunt-less-vascular-access-using-a-blind-ending-artificial-graft-anastomosed-to-the-brachial-artery
#14
Hiroaki Matsuda, Yoshinari Oka, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yuki Katsura, Hidemi Takeuchi, Takanori Oyama, Shigeko Takatsu, Masashi Miyazaki
We retrospectively investigated the usability of arterial access ports (AAPs), which are blind-ending short prosthetic grafts anastomosed to the brachial artery (BA) and implanted subcutaneously, via which cannulation and blood-drawing from the BA was performed. Nineteen AAPs in 16 patients were evaluated. The AAP cumulative functional usage rate tended to drop within a year after its implantation because of infection and inappropriate positioning; however, its usability was extended for a maximum of 97 months after re-implantation...
March 13, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295416/validating-harmful-alcohol-use-as-a-phenotype-for-genetic-discovery-using-phosphatidylethanol-and-a-polymorphism-in-adh1b
#15
Amy C Justice, Kathleen A McGinnis, Jan Tate, Ke Xu, William C Becker, Hongyu Zhao, Joel Gelernter, Henry R Kranzler
BACKGROUND: Although alcohol risk is heritable, few genetic risk variants have been identified. Longitudinal (EHR) data offer a largely untapped source of phenotypic information for genetic studies, but EHR-derived phenotypes for harmful alcohol exposure have yet to be validated. Using a variant of known effect, we used electronic health record (EHR) data to develop and validate a phenotype for harmful alcohol exposure that can be used to identify unknown genetic variants in large samples...
March 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290110/dealing-with-reflection-invariance-in-bayesian-factor-analysis
#16
Elena A Erosheva, S McKay Curtis
This paper considers the reflection unidentifiability problem in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the associated implications for Bayesian estimation. We note a direct analogy between the multimodality in CFA models that is due to all possible column sign changes in the matrix of loadings and the multimodality in finite mixture models that is due to all possible relabelings of the mixture components. Drawing on this analogy, we derive and present a simple approach for dealing with reflection in variance in Bayesian factor analysis...
March 13, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283411/where-do-uncertainties-reside-within-environmental-risk-assessments-testing-unisera-a-guide-for-uncertainty-assessment
#17
Daniel J C Skinner, Sophie A Rocks, Simon J T Pollard
A means for identifying and prioritising the treatment of uncertainty (UnISERA) in environmental risk assessments (ERAs) is tested, using three risk domains where ERA is an established requirement and one in which ERA practice is emerging. UnISERA's development draws on 19 expert elicitations across genetically modified higher plants, particulate matter, and agricultural pesticide release and is stress tested here for engineered nanomaterials (ENM). We are concerned with the severity of uncertainty; its nature; and its location across four accepted stages of ERAs...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283101/sex-differences-in-outcomes-of-disease-modifying-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Rui Li, Xiaobo Sun, Yaqing Shu, Zhifeng Mao, Li Xiao, Wei Qiu, Zhengqi Lu, Xueqiang Hu
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that exhibits sexual dimorphism and may benefit from sex-specific treatment. To investigate a potential influence of sex on immunomodulatory therapeutic effects in patients with MS, we performed a comprehensive analysis of published studies examining sex differences in the effects of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for MS. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical studies involving patients with MS who were undergoing DMTs...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282858/the-impact-of-shiftwork-on-skeletal-muscle-health
#19
REVIEW
Brad Aisbett, Dominique Condo, Evelyn Zacharewicz, Séverine Lamon
(1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.-6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers' exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers are at a greater risk of developing metabolic impairments over time. One fundamental component of metabolic health is skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the body. However, cause-and-effect relationships between shiftwork and skeletal muscle health have not been established; (2) Methods: A critical review of the literature was completed using online databases and reference lists; (3) Results: We propose a conceptual model drawing relationships between typical shiftwork consequences; altered light exposure, sleep patterns, and food and beverage consumption, and drivers of skeletal muscle health-protein intake, resistance training, and hormone release...
March 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281328/implementation-of-evidence-based-practice-from-a-learning-perspective
#20
Per Nilsen, Margit Neher, Per-Erik Ellström, Benjamin Gardner
INTRODUCTION: For many nurses and other health care practitioners, implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) presents two interlinked challenges: acquisition of EBP skills and adoption of evidence-based interventions and abandonment of ingrained non-evidence-based practices. AIMS: The purpose of this study to describe two modes of learning and use these as lenses for analyzing the challenges of implementing EBP in health care. METHODS: The article is theoretical, drawing on learning and habit theory...
March 9, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
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