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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421687/contemporary-data-and-trends-in-the-economic-costs-of-mental-disabilities
#1
Timothy M Shaughnessy, Frederick R Parker, Jean H Hollenshead, Emmanuel N Clottey, Harvey W Rubin
This article addresses the economic effects of mental disabilities by analyzing contemporary data in the context of micro- and macroeconomic thought and relevant statistical literature. Within the parameters of these conceptual and statistical reference points, the authors seek to discern current trends in the direct, indirect, and opportunity costs posed by mental disabilities, not only to the individuals who suffer from them, but also to their families, to employers, and to society as a whole. The authors also discuss uncertainties that inhere in available data concerning both the prevalence of these conditions and the related costs of treatment, as well as the complexity of drawing correlations among variables with respect to these costs and the difficulty of identifying a meaningful measure of the economic consequences that attend mental disabilities...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415864/-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-infected-patients
#2
Krisztina Hagymási, Anna Egresi, Gabriella Lengyel
The importance of chronic hepatitis C infection is significant. 3% of the World's population is infected. There is at least one extrahepatic manifestation in 50% of HCV patients, which makes the prognosis and mortality worse. The pathomechanisms included are cryoglobulin production, immunmechanisms, and direct viral effects. The authors summarize the main extrahepatic manifestations, as well as treatment possibilities. The aim is to draw attention to this colourful infection in order to improve the recognition in the era of the new effective direct antiviral agents...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413264/climate-variability-and-inter-provincial-migration-in-south-america-1970-2011
#3
Brian Thiede, Clark Gray, Valerie Mueller
We examine the effect of climate variability on human migration in South America. Our analyses draw on over 21 million observations of adults aged 15-40 from 25 censuses conducted in eight South American countries. Addressing limitations associated with methodological diversity among prior studies, we apply a common analytic approach and uniform definitions of migration and climate across all countries. We estimate the effects of climate variability on migration overall and also investigate heterogeneity across sex, age, and socioeconomic groups, across countries, and across historical climate conditions...
November 2016: Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412049/more-than-a-destination-contraceptive-decision-making-as-a-journey
#4
Margaret Mary Downey, Stephanie Arteaga, Elodia Villaseñor, Anu Manchikanti Gomez
BACKGROUND: Contraceptive use is widely recognized as a means of reducing adverse health-related outcomes. However, dominant paradigms of contraceptive counseling may rely on a narrow definition of "evidence" (i.e., scientifically accurate but exclusive of individual women's experiences). Given increased enthusiasm for long-acting, reversible contraceptive methods, such paradigms may reinforce counseling that overprivileges effectiveness, particularly for groups considered at high risk of unintended pregnancy...
April 12, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411739/qualitative-ergonomics-human-factors-research-in-health-care-current-state-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Rupa Sheth Valdez, Kerry Margaret McGuire, A Joy Rivera
The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410876/the-treatment-of-fatigue-by-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Moussa A Chalah, Alaa Mhalla, Ulrich Palm, Samar S Ayache, Veit Mylius
The use of non-invasive brain neurostimulation (NIBS) techniques to treat neurological or psychiatric diseases is currently under development. Fatigue is a commonly observed symptom in the field of potentially treatable pathologies by NIBS, yet very little data has been published regarding its treatment. We conducted a review of the literature until the end of February 2017 to analyze all the studies that reported a clinical assessment of the effects of NIBS techniques on fatigue. We have limited our analysis to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
April 11, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407035/icytree-rapid-browser-based-visualization-for-phylogenetic-trees-and-networks
#7
Timothy G Vaughan
Summary: IcyTree is an easy-to-use application which can be used to visualize a wide variety of phylogenetic trees and networks. While numerous phylogenetic tree viewers exist already, IcyTree distinguishes itself by being a purely online tool, having a responsive user interface, supporting phylogenetic networks (ancestral recombination graphs in particular), and efficiently drawing trees that include information such as ancestral locations or trait values. IcyTree also provides intuitive panning and zooming utilities that make exploring large phylogenetic trees of many thousands of taxa feasible...
April 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405907/bayesian-data-analysis-for-newcomers
#8
John K Kruschke, Torrin M Liddell
This article explains the foundational concepts of Bayesian data analysis using virtually no mathematical notation. Bayesian ideas already match your intuitions from everyday reasoning and from traditional data analysis. Simple examples of Bayesian data analysis are presented that illustrate how the information delivered by a Bayesian analysis can be directly interpreted. Bayesian approaches to null-value assessment are discussed. The article clarifies misconceptions about Bayesian methods that newcomers might have acquired elsewhere...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405176/discrimination-internalized-racism-and-depression-a-comparative-study-of-african-american-and-afro-caribbean-adults-in-the-us
#9
Kristine M Molina, Drexler James
Emerging research suggests that both perceptions of discrimination and internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one's racial group) are associated with poor mental health. Yet, no studies to date have examined their effects on mental health with racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a single study. The present study examined: (a) the direct effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of DSM-IV criteria of past-year major depressive disorder (MDD); (b) the interactive effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of past-year MDD; and (c) the indirect effect of everyday discrimination on risk of past-year MDD via internalized racism...
July 2016: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations: GPIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398071/raman-spectroscopy-of-blood-and-blood-components
#10
Chad G Atkins, Kevin Buckley, Michael W Blades, Robin F B Turner
Blood is a bodily fluid that is vital for a number of life functions in animals. To a first approximation, blood is a mildly alkaline aqueous fluid (plasma) in which a large number of free-floating red cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leucocytes), and platelets are suspended. The primary function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body and move carbon dioxide in the return direction after it is produced by the cells' metabolism. Blood also carries nutrients to the cells and brings waste products to the liver and kidneys...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395166/semi-local-tractography-strategies-using-neighborhood-information
#11
Helen Schomburg, Thorsten Hohage
Fiber tractography based on Diffusion MRI measurements is a valuable tool for the detection and visual representation of neural pathways in vivo. We present a novel fiber orientation distribution function (ODF) based streamline tractography approach which incorporates information of neighboring regions derived from a Bayesian model. In each iteration step, the proposed algorithm defines a set of candidate fiber fragments continuing the already tracked path and assigns an a-posteriori probability. We compute the posterior as the normalized product of a likelihood function based on the given ODF-field and a prior distribution representing anatomical plausibility of a candidate fiber fragment with respect to tract curvature derived from the previously tracked fiber path by an extrapolation strategy...
March 24, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394084/personalised-asthma-action-plans-for-adults-with-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Timothy L Gatheral, Alison Rushton, David Jw Evans, Caroline A Mulvaney, Nathan R Halcovitch, Gemma Whiteley, Fiona Jr Eccles, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: A key aim of asthma care is to empower each person to take control of his or her own condition. A personalised asthma action plan (PAAP), also known as a written action plan, an individualised action plan, or a self-management action plan, contributes to this endeavour. A PAAP includes individualised self-management instructions devised collaboratively with the patient to help maintain asthma control and regain control in the event of an exacerbation. A PAAP includes baseline characteristics (such as lung function), maintenance medication and instructions on how to respond to increasing symptoms and when to seek medical help...
April 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392584/relating-accumulator-model-parameters-and-neural-dynamics
#13
Braden A Purcell, Thomas J Palmeri
Accumulator models explain decision-making as an accumulation of evidence to a response threshold. Specific model parameters are associated with specific model mechanisms, such as the time when accumulation begins, the average rate of evidence accumulation, and the threshold. These mechanisms determine both the within-trial dynamics of evidence accumulation and the predicted behavior. Cognitive modelers usually infer what mechanisms vary during decision-making by seeing what parameters vary when a model is fitted to observed behavior...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389551/on-shame-and-voice-hearing
#14
Angela Woods
Hearing voices in the absence of another speaker-what psychiatry terms an auditory verbal hallucination-is often associated with a wide range of negative emotions. Mainstream clinical research addressing the emotional dimensions of voice-hearing has tended to treat these as self-evident, undifferentiated and so effectively interchangeable. But what happens when a richer, more nuanced understanding of specific emotions is brought to bear on the analysis of distressing voices? This article draws findings from the 'What is it like to hear voices' study conducted as part of the interdisciplinary Hearing the Voice project into conversation with philosopher Dan Zahavi's Self and Other: Exploring Subjectivity, Empathy and Shame to consider how a focus on shame can open up new questions about the experience of hearing voices...
April 7, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388117/rapid-sampling-of-stochastic-displacements-in-brownian-dynamics-simulations
#15
Andrew M Fiore, Florencio Balboa Usabiaga, Aleksandar Donev, James W Swan
We present a new method for sampling stochastic displacements in Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations of colloidal scale particles. The method relies on a new formulation for Ewald summation of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) tensor, which guarantees that the real-space and wave-space contributions to the tensor are independently symmetric and positive-definite for all possible particle configurations. Brownian displacements are drawn from a superposition of two independent samples: a wave-space (far-field or long-ranged) contribution, computed using techniques from fluctuating hydrodynamics and non-uniform fast Fourier transforms; and a real-space (near-field or short-ranged) correction, computed using a Krylov subspace method...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387440/mental-rotation-an-examination-of-assumptions
#16
REVIEW
Jordan A Searle, Jeff P Hamm
Since first presented by Shepard and Metzler, Science 1971, 171: 701-703, mental rotation has been described as a rotary transformation of a visual stimulus allowing it to be represented in a new orientation. For a given stimulus, the transformation is thought to occur at a constant speed, though speed may vary between stimuli; three-dimensional abstract shapes made out of blocks tend to be rotated much more slowly than alphanumeric characters or line drawings of common objects. Rotation is also presumed to be performed through the shortest angle...
April 7, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378964/musculo-skeletal-and-pulmonary-effects-of-sitting-position-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Elżbieta Szczygieł, Katarzyna Zielonka, Sylwia Mętel, Joanna Golec
INTRODUCTION: Year after year, we spend an increasing amount of time in a sitting position. Often, we sit with poor posture, as indicated by numerous pain syndromes within the musculoskeletal system. Several reports confirm that body posture and the amount of time spent in a seated position have extensive implications for our health. Previous studies and a literature review suggest there is limited knowledge regarding an ergonomic sitting position. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the research relating to a proper sitting position and the consequences of incorrect sitting posture...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375373/pupil-motion-analysis-and-tracking-in-ophthalmic-systems-equipped-with-wavefront-sensing-technology
#18
Serge Meimon, Jessica Jarosz, Cyril Petit, Elena Gofas Salas, Kate Grieve, Jean-Marc Conan, Bruno Emica, Michel Paques, Kristina Irsch
Our eyes are constantly in motion, even during "steady" fixation. In ophthalmic systems equipped with wavefront technology, both eye and head motion potentially degrade its performance and/or increase the cost and complexity, as they induce a movement of the entrance optical pupil of the system. Here, we characterize the pupil motion in an aberrometry setting, using a custom, high-speed pupil tracker (478 Hz), and draw conclusions on design considerations of future ophthalmic systems. We also demonstrate the feasibility of tracking such motion directly with a custom-built Hartmann-Shack sensor (236 Hz) using a method that offers certain benefits over previously suggested approaches, thereby paving the way to an efficient and cost-effective approach...
March 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374743/extracellular-vesicles-for-liquid-biopsy-in-prostate-cancer-where-are-we-and-where-are-we-headed
#19
REVIEW
V R Minciacchi, A Zijlstra, M A Rubin, D Di Vizio
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous class of lipid bound particles shed by any cell in the body in physiological and pathological conditions. EVs play critical functions in intercellular communication. EVs can actively travel in intercellular matrices and eventually reach the circulation. They can also be released directly in biological fluids where they appear to be stable. Because the molecular content of EVs reflects the composition of the cell of origin, they have recently emerged as a promising source of biomarkers in a number of diseases...
April 4, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372379/estimation-of-plasma-ion-saturation-current-and-reduced-tip-arcing-using-langmuir-probe-harmonics
#20
J A Boedo, D L Rudakov
We present a method to calculate the ion saturation current, Isat, for Langmuir probes at high frequency (>100 kHz) using the harmonics technique and we compare that to a direct measurement of Isat. It is noted that the Isat estimation can be made directly by the ratio of harmonic amplitudes, without explicitly calculating Te. We also demonstrate that since the probe tips using the harmonic method are oscillating near the floating potential, drawing little power, this method reduces tip heating and arcing and allows plasma density measurements at a plasma power flux that would cause continuously biased tips to arc...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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