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directionality, drawing

Anna Jafarpour, Hugo Spiers
When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map...
October 22, 2016: Hippocampus
Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Wichai Aekplakorn, Samrit Srithamrongsawat, Chaisit Srithongchai, Orawan Prasitsiriphon, Rassamee Tansirisithikul
BACKGROUND: Although bodies of evidence on copayment effects on access to care and quality of care in general have not been conclusive, allowing copayment in the case of emergency medical conditions might pose a high risk of delayed treatment leading to avoidable disability or death. METHODS: Using mixed-methods approach to draw evidence from multiple sources (over 40,000 records of administrative dataset of Thai emergency medical services, in-depth interviews, telephone survey of users and documentary review), we are were able to shed light on the existence of copayment and its related factors in the Thai healthcare system despite the presence of universal health coverage since 2001...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Denise Laskowski, Ylva Sjunnesson, Hans Gustafsson, Patrice Humblot, Göran Andersson, Renée Båge
BACKGROUND: Insulin has been used as a stimulatory factor for in vitro cell culture since many years. Even for routine in vitro embryo production (IVP), insulin is added to the media during different steps. There is a strong difference in concentrations used in vitro compared to what is measured in vivo in follicular fluid or serum. We performed a pilot study on insulin stability to explain possible reasons for that variation. RESULTS: We measured insulin concentrations before and after bovine oocyte maturation in an experiment by using a quantitative ELISA (Mercodia bovine insulin ELISA immunoassay) and found that concentrations were stable up to 22 h of incubation...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Maria G Tosto, Kathryn Asbury, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Stephen A Petrill, Yulia Kovas
Drawing on Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model, perceived classroom environment and three intrapersonal factors (mathematics self-efficacy, maths interest and academic self-concept) were considered as predictors of test performance in two correlated mathematics assessments: a public examination (GCSE) and an on-line test, both taken by UK pupils at age 16 (n = 6689). Intrapersonal factors were significantly associated with both test scores, even when the alternative score was taken into account. Classroom environment did not correlate with mathematics achievement once intrapersonal factors and alternative test performance were included in the model, but was associated with subject interest and academic self-concept...
August 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
Maya K Gislason, Holly K Andersen
We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects...
October 18, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Markus Reinholz, Hannah Schwaiger, Julian Poetschke, Andreas Epple, Thomas Ruzicka, Tanja Von Braunmühl, Gerd G Gauglitz
BACKGROUND: Currently, different types of treatments for pathological scars are available, however, to date, there is no established method of measurement to objectively assess therapeutic outcome. Treatment success is usually evaluated clinically by the physician and patient. Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as HD-OCT (high-definition optical coherence tomography), may represent a valuable diagnostic tool to objectively measure therapeutic outcome. OBJECTIVES: To compare HD-OCT with ultrasound and subjective evaluation tools, such as questionnaires...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Laura Mecozzi, Oriella Gennari, Romina Rega, Luigi Battista, Pietro Ferraro, Simonetta Grilli
A simple and rapid process for multiscale printing of bioinks with dot widths ranging from hundreds of microns down to 0.5 μm is presented. The process makes use of spontaneous surface charges generated pyroelectrically that are able to draw little daughter droplets directly from the free meniscus of a mother drop through jetting ("p-jet"), thus avoiding time-consuming and expensive fabrication of microstructured nozzles. Multiscale can be easily achieved by modulating the parameters of the p-jet process. Here, it is shown that the p-jet allows us to print well-defined adhesion islands where NIH-3T3 fibroblasts are constrained to live into cluster configurations ranging from 20 down to single cell level...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Helen R Sofaer, Susan K Skagen, Joseph J Barsugli, Benjamin S Rashford, Gordon C Reese, Jennifer A Hoeting, Andrew W Wood, Barry R Noon
Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species' vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jinho Shin
Since the introduction of visit to visit blood pressure variability (VVBPV) for cardiovascular outcome, it has long been awaited for prospective intervention trial to reduce VVBPV for evidence based medicine. But because of several hurdles, most importantly, pending measure to reduce VVBPV, such trial may not be available in the near future. It means that current understanding on the VVBPV is not casual but related to the cardiovascular outcome.Waiting for more sound evidence, which can be remained in a clinician's mind struggling not to be indifferent for potential benefit? Firstly, the most important potential confounder in spite of the strict statistical analyses to be published may be the mean blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wanyue Wang, Natalia Dounskaia
How gravity influences neural control of arm movements remains under debate. We tested three alternative interpretations suggested by previous research: (1) that muscular control includes two components, tonic which compensates for gravity and phasic which produces the movement; (2) that there is a tendency to exploit gravity to reduce muscle effort; and (3) that there is a tendency to use a trailing pattern of joint control during which either the shoulder or elbow is rotated actively and the other joint rotates predominantly passively, and to exploit gravity for control of the passively rotated joint...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Daniel C Danila, Aliaksandra Samoila, Chintan Patel, Nicole Schreiber, Amrita Herkal, Aseem Anand, Diogo Bastos, Glenn Heller, Martin Fleisher, Howard I Scher
Circulating tumor cell (CTC) number measured with the CellSearch assay is prognostic for survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer before and after therapy. Using a standard operating protocol for sample collection, processing, and analysis, we compared detection rates of CellSearch performed using US Food and Drug Administration-cleared methodology with a second positive selection assay, AdnaTest, and a nonselection polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based (direct detection PCR [DDPCR]) assay in 55 blood samples from 47 men with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Guy M Holt, Lauren J Owen, Sophie Till, Yanying Cheng, Vicky A Grant, Charlotte J Harden, Bernard M Corfe
Ratings of appetite are commonly used to assess appetite modification following an intervention. Subjectively rated appetite is a widely employed proxy measure for energy intake (EI), measurement of which requires greater time and resources. However, the validity of appetite as a reliable predictor of EI has not yet been reviewed systematically. This literature search identified studies that quantified both appetite ratings and EI. Outcomes were pre-defined as: 1) agreement between self-reported appetite scores and EI; 2) no agreement between self-reported appetite scores and EI...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
C R Macchi, Rodger Kessler, Andrea Auxier, Juvena R Hitt, Daniel Mullin, Constance van Eeghen, Benjamin Littenberg
Insufficient knowledge exists regarding how to measure the presence and degree of integrated care. Prior estimates of integration levels are neither grounded in theory nor psychometrically validated. They provide scant guidance to inform improvement activities, compare integration efforts, discriminate among practices by degree of integration, measure the effect of integration on quadruple aim outcomes, or address the needs of clinicians, regulators, and policymakers seeking new models of health care delivery and funding...
October 13, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Benjamin P Partlow, Mehran Bagheri, James L Harden, David L Kaplan
Native silk fibers exhibit strength and toughness that rival those of the best synthetic fibers. Importantly, the silkworm is able to spin these fibers using only water as a solvent with fine control of applied shear, drawing, pH and salt concentrations to efficiently convert the spinning dope into a fiber. This is in contrast to synthetic polymers that often require organic solvents and extreme processing conditions. Further insight is still needed into the mechanisms by which silkworms are capable of spinning such tough fibers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Nicole Barbaro, Todd K Shackelford
Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Tasleem J Padamsee
The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
François Simon, Charlotte Celerier, Erea-Noël Garabedian, Françoise Denoyelle
OBJECTIVE: Cryptotia is one of the most common malformations of the upper auricle with aesthetic and functional consequences, however there is no standard treatment. We present the surgical technique and results of a kite flap procedure which can be used in the different cryptotia subtypes. METHODS: We reviewed all patients treated in our department from 2010 to 2015, using a mastoid fascia kite flap technique. The incision of this local flap follows the retro-auricular sulcus along the rim of the helix superiorly and drawing a skin paddle inferiorly...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Julia Hilscher, Hermann Bürstmayr, Eva Stoger
The development of gene targeting and gene editing techniques based on programmable site-directed nucleases (SDNs) has increased the precision of genome modification and made the outcomes more predictable and controllable. These approaches have achieved rapid advances in plant biotechnology, particularly the development of improved crop varieties. Here, we review the range of alterations which have already been implemented in plant genomes, and summarize the reported efficiencies of precise genome modification...
October 11, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Françoise Vernier, Odile Leccia-Phelpin, Jean-Marie Lescot, Sébastien Minette, André Miralles, Delphine Barberis, Charlotte Scordia, Vanessa Kuentz-Simonet, Jean-Philippe Tonneau
Non-point source pollution is a cause of major concern within the European Union. This is reflected in increasing public and political focus on a more sustainable use of pesticides, as well as a reduction in diffuse pollution. Climate change will likely to lead to an even more intensive use of pesticides in the future, affecting agriculture in many ways. At the same time, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated EU policies called for a "good" ecological and chemical status to be achieved for water bodies by the end of 2015, currently delayed to 2021-2027 due to a lack of efficiency in policies and timescale of resilience for hydrosystems, especially groundwater systems...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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