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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714187/a-critique-of-utilitarian-and-instrumentalist-concepts-for-the-teaching-of-gross-anatomy-to-medical-and-dental-students-an-opinion-piece
#1
Bernard J Moxham, Diogo Pais
Medical and dental curricula, together with anatomical sciences courses, are increasingly having to change, mainly because there is a drive to being what is termed, without adequate definition, 'clinically relevant'. The concept of 'clinical anatomy' has accordingly been invented and it is expected that, at all times, the teaching of anatomy is directly focussed on clinical scenarios, meaning almost invariably the 'disease-based model of medicine and dentistry'. Furthermore, students are not expected to have a detailed knowledge of gross anatomy and the time devoted to teaching and learning the subject has decreased significantly...
July 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708307/evaluation-of-short-term-effectiveness-of-eight-targeted-agents-combined-with-chemotherapy-for-treating-esophageal-gastric-junction-adenocarcinoma-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
Yong-Ming He, Chen Yu, Wei-Bing Li, Zhi-Peng Li, Nan Xu
This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of eight targeted agents (ramucirumab, bevacizumab, rilotumumab, panitumumab, cetuximab, trebananib, trastuzumab, matuzumab) plus chemotherapy in esophageal-gastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA) by a network meta-analysis (NMA). PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically retrieved for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) concerning targeted agents plus chemotherapy in the treatment of EGJA. This NMA combined both direct and indirect evidence to evaluate odds ratio (OR) and to draw the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703313/mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-new-platform-for-targeting-suicide-genes-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Rana Moradian Tehrani, Javad Verdi, Mahdi Noureddini, Rasoul Salehi, Reza Salarinia, Meysam Mosalaei, Miganosh Simonian, Behrang Alani, Moosa Rahimi Ghiasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hamed Mirzaie
One of the important strategies for the treatment of cancer is gene therapy which has the potential to exclusively eradicate malignant cells, without any damage to the normal tissues. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a two-step gene therapy approach, where a suicide gene is directed to tumor cells. The gene encodes an enzyme that expressed intracellularly where it is able to convert a prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites. Various delivery systems have been developed to achieve the appropriate levels of tumor restricted expression of chemotherapeutic drugs...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701514/talin-the-master-of-integrin-adhesions
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin Klapholz, Nicholas H Brown
Talin has emerged as the key cytoplasmic protein that mediates integrin adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In this Review, we draw on experiments performed in mammalian cells in culture and Drosophila to present evidence that talin is the most important component of integrin adhesion complexes. We describe how the properties of this adaptor protein enable it to orchestrate integrin adhesions. Talin forms the core of integrin adhesion complexes by linking integrins directly to actin, increasing the affinity of integrin for ligands (integrin activation) and recruiting numerous proteins...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700248/comparative-benefits-and-harms-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-therapies-for-initial-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Gary N Asher, Gerald Gartlehner, Bradley N Gaynes, Halle R Amick, Catherine Forneris, Laura C Morgan, Emmanuel Coker-Schwimmer, Erin Boland, Linda J Lux, Susan Gaylord, Carla Bann, Christiane Barbara Pierl, Kathleen N Lohr
OBJECTIVES: To report the comparative benefits and harms of exercise and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with second-generation antidepressants (SGA) for major depressive disorder (MDD). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTINGS: Outpatient clinics. SUBJECTS: Adults, aged 18 years and older, with MDD receiving an initial treatment attempt with SGA. INTERVENTIONS: Any CAM or exercise intervention compared with an SGA...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696712/bridging-zirconia-nodes-within-a-metal-organic-framework-via-catalytic-ni-hydroxo-clusters-to-form-hetero-bimetallic-nanowires
#6
Ana E Platero-Prats, Aaron B League, Varinia Bernales, Jingyun Ye, Leighanne C Gallington, Aleksei Vjunov, Neil M Schweitzer, Zhanyong Li, Jian Zheng, B Layla Mehdi, Andrew J Stevens, Alice Dohnalkova, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Omar K Farha, Joseph T Hupp, Nigel D Browning, John L Fulton, Donald M Camaioni, Johannes A Lercher, Donald G Truhlar, Laura Gagliardi, Christopher J Cramer, Karena W Chapman
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with their well-ordered pore networks and tunable surface chemistries, offer a versatile platform for preparing well-defined nanostructures wherein functionality such as catalysis can be incorporated. Notably, atomic layer deposition (ALD) in MOFs has recently emerged as a versatile approach to functionalize MOF surfaces with a wide variety of catalytic metal-oxo species. Understanding the structure of newly deposited species and how they are tethered within the MOF is critical to understanding how these components couple to govern the active material properties...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694786/joint-rhythmic-movement-increases-4-year-old-children-s-prosocial-sharing-and-fairness-toward-peers
#7
Tal-Chen Rabinowitch, Andrew N Meltzoff
The allocation of resources to a peer partner is a prosocial act that is of fundamental importance. Joint rhythmic movement, such as occurs during musical interaction, can induce positive social experiences, which may play a role in developing and enhancing young children's prosocial skills. Here, we investigated whether joint rhythmic movement, free of musical context, increases 4-year-olds' sharing and sense of fairness in a resource allocation task involving peers. We developed a precise procedure for administering joint synchronous experience, joint asynchronous experience, and a baseline control involving no treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694512/pet-directed-speech-draws-adult-dogs-attention-more-efficiently-than-adult-directed-speech
#8
Sarah Jeannin, Caroline Gilbert, Mathieu Amy, Gérard Leboucher
Humans speak to dogs using a special speech register called Pet-Directed Speech (PDS) which is very similar to Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) used by parents when talking to young infants. These two type of speech share prosodic features that are distinct from the typical Adult-Directed Speech (ADS): a high pitched voice and an increased pitch variation. So far, only one study has investigated the effect of PDS on dogs' attention. We video recorded 44 adult pet dogs and 19 puppies when listening to the same phrase enounced either in ADS or in PDS or in IDS...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689133/the-european-politics-of-animal-experimentation-from-victorian-britain-to-stop-vivisection
#9
Pierre-Luc Germain, Luca Chiapperino, Giuseppe Testa
This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation...
July 6, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685947/drawing-on-antiracist-approaches-toward-a-critical-antidiscriminatory-pedagogy-for-nursing
#10
Amélie Blanchet Garneau, Annette J Browne, Colleen Varcoe
Although nursing has a unique contribution to advancing social justice in health care practices and education, and although social justice has been claimed as a core value of nursing, there is little guidance regarding how to enact social justice in nursing practice and education. In this paper, we propose a critical antidiscriminatory pedagogy (CADP) for nursing as a promising path in this direction. We argue that because discrimination is inherent to the production and maintenance of inequities and injustices, adopting a CADP offers opportunities for students and practicing nurses to develop their capacity to counteract racism and other forms of individual and systemic discrimination in health care, and thus promote social justice...
July 7, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684081/self-reported-adherence-to-diet-and-preferences-towards-type-of-meal-plan-in-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
V Ponzo, R Rosato, E Tarsia, I Goitre, F De Michieli, M Fadda, T Monge, A Pezzana, F Broglio, S Bo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have evaluated the attitudes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) towards the given dietary plans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate: i) the self-reported adherence of T2DM patients to the prescribed diets; ii) the use of other types of diet schemes; iii) the patients' preferences towards the type of meal plans. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 16 multiple-choice items questionnaire was administered to 500 T2DM patients; 71.2% (356/500) of them had the perception of having received a dietary plan; only 163/356 declared to be fully adherent...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682784/the-theoretical-underpinnings-of-internet-addiction-and-its-association-with-psychopathology-in-adolescence
#12
Shawn Taylor, Sirirada Pattara-Angkoon, Schwanagorn Sirirat, Damith Woods
This paper reviews the psychological and theoretical underpinnings that might help to explain the reported relationship between Internet addiction (IA) and psychopathology in both children and adolescents. Drawing on cognitive-behavioural models and social-skills theory, IA shows a strong relationship with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and time spent using the Internet use. Mixed findings are reported for social anxiety. Loneliness and hostility were also found to be associated with IA...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682092/social-norm-perception-in-groups-with-outliers
#13
Jennifer E Dannals, Dale T Miller
Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681936/toxicity-of-chemotherapy-regimens-in-advanced-and-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-therapy-a-network-meta-analysis
#14
Xiao-Fang Wang, Wen-Feng Huang, Jian Nie, Yong Zhou, Ding-Wu Tan, Ji-Hao Jiang
This network meta-analysis is adopted in order to compare the toxicity of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about different chemotherapy regimens for advanced/metastatic PC were included in this network meta-analysis using Cochrane Library and PubMed electronic databases. The network meta-analysis was performed to combine direct and indirect evidence in order to calculate the odd ratios (OR) and draw a surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680959/dna-mutations-may-not-be-the-cause-of-cancer
#15
EDITORIAL
Adouda Adjiri
Cancer is the most challenging disease of our time with increasing numbers of new cases each year, worldwide. Great achievements have been reached in cancer research through deep sequencing which helped define druggable targets. However, the still-evolving targeted therapy suffers resistance suggesting that DNA mutations considered as drivers may not have a role in tumor initiation. The present work discusses the role of DNA mutations as drivers and passengers in cancer initiation and development. First, it is important to discern the role of these DNA mutations as initiating events causing cancer or as contributors crucial for the development of a tumor once it has initiated...
2017: Oncology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679398/the-centrality-of-social-ties-to-climate-migration-and-mental-health
#16
Jacqueline M Torres, Joan A Casey
Climate change-related hazards and disasters, known to adversely impact physical and mental health outcomes, are also expected to result in human migration above current levels. Environmentally-motivated migration and displacement may lead to the disruption of existing social ties, with potentially adverse consequences for mobile populations as well as their family members who remain in places of origin. We propose that the disruption of social ties is a key mechanism by which climate-related migration may negatively impact mental health, in particular...
July 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676780/prolonged-interruption-of-cognitive-control-of-conflict-processing-over-human-faces-by-task-irrelevant-emotion-expression
#17
Jinyoung Kim, Min-Suk Kang, Yang Seok Cho, Sang-Hun Lee
As documented by Darwin 150 years ago, emotion expressed in human faces readily draws our attention and promotes sympathetic emotional reactions. How do such reactions to the expression of emotion affect our goal-directed actions? Despite the substantial advance made in the neural mechanisms of both cognitive control and emotional processing, it is not yet known well how these two systems interact. Here, we studied how emotion expressed in human faces influences cognitive control of conflict processing, spatial selective attention and inhibitory control in particular, using the Eriksen flanker paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675610/vitamin-d-a-modulator-of-musculoskeletal-health-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Pablo Molina, Juan J Carrero, Jordi Bover, Philippe Chauveau, Sandro Mazzaferro, Pablo Ureña Torres
The spectrum of activity of vitamin D goes beyond calcium and bone homeostasis, and growing evidence suggests that vitamin D contributes to maintain musculoskeletal health in healthy subjects as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who display the combination of bone metabolism disorder, muscle wasting, and weakness. Here, we review how vitamin D represents a pathway in which bone and muscle may interact. In vitro studies have confirmed that the vitamin D receptor is present on muscle, describing the mechanisms whereby vitamin D directly affects skeletal muscle...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673129/how-social-policy-contributes-to-the-distribution-of-population-health-the-case-of-gender-health-equity
#19
Jason Beckfield, Katherine Ann Morris, Clare Bambra
AIMS: In this study we aimed to analyze gender health equity as a case of how social policy contributes to population health. We analyzed three sets of social-investment policies implemented in Europe and previously hypothesized to reduce gender inequity in labor market outcomes: childcare; active labor market programs; and long-term care. METHODS: We use 12 indicators of social-investment policies from the OECD Social Expenditure Database, the OECD Family Database, and the Social Policy Indicators' Parental Leave Benefit Dataset...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665327/green-mind-theory-how-brain-body-behaviour-links-into-natural-and-social-environments-for-healthy-habits
#20
Jules Pretty, Mike Rogerson, Jo Barton
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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