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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080323/oral-adenosine-5-triphosphate-atp-administration-increases-postexercise-atp-levels-muscle-excitability-and-athletic-performance-following-a-repeated-sprint-bout
#1
Eduardo O De Souza, John A Rathmacher, Matthew H Sharp, Ryan P Lowery, Kevin A Shields, Jeremy M Partl, Jacob M Wilson, Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura
OBJECTIVE: Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration has failed to increase plasma ATP levels; however, chronic supplementation with ATP has shown to increase power, strength, lean body mass, and blood flow in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ATP supplementation on postexercise ATP levels and on muscle activation and excitability and power following a repeated sprint bout. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design, 42 healthy male individuals were given either 400 mg of ATP as disodium salt or placebo for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069324/differences-in-therapeutic-effects-of-topically-applied-corticosteroid-and-tacrolimus-on-atopic-dermatitis-like-symptoms-in-nc-nga-mice
#2
Atsushi Noguchi, Mitsutoshi Tominaga, Nobuaki Takahashi, Hironori Matsuda, Yayoi Kamata, Yoshie Umehara, Kyi Chan Ko, Yasushi Suga, Hideoki Ogawa, Kenji Takamori
BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor have similar therapeutic benefits in atopic dermatitis (AD), but the differences in therapeutic mechanisms of action of these agents against AD symptoms are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to examine the different effects of topical betamethasone valerate (BMV), clobetasol propionate (CBP), and tacrolimus (TAC) on itch-related behavior and dermatitis in NC/Nga mice with AD-like symptoms...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051943/previous-repeated-exposure-to-food-limitation-enables-rats-to-spare-lipid-stores-during-prolonged-starvation
#3
Marshall D McCue, Audrey Albach, Giovanni Salazar
The risk of food limitation and, ultimately, starvation dates back to the dawn of heterotrophy in animals, yet starvation remains a major factor in the regulation of modern animal populations. Researchers studying starvation more than a century ago suggested that animals subjected to sublethal periods of food limitation are somehow more tolerant of subsequent starvation events. This possibility has received little attention over the past decades, yet it is highly relevant to modern science for two reasons. First, animals in natural populations are likely to be exposed to bouts of food limitation once or more before they face prolonged starvation, during which the risk of mortality becomes imminent...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051939/ecologically-relevant-cooling-early-in-life-alters-prefledging-adrenocortical-response-in-free-living-songbirds
#4
Sharon E Lynn, Michael D Kern
In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044282/are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#5
REVIEW
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well acknowledged that prepubertal children have smaller body dimensions and a poorer mechanical (movement) efficiency, and thus a lower work capacity than adults. However, the scientific evidence indicates that prepubertal children have a greater net contribution of energy derived from aerobic metabolism in exercising muscle and reduced susceptibility to muscular fatigue, which makes them metabolically comparable to well-trained adult endurance athletes. For example, the relative energy contribution from oxidative and non-oxidative (i...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033657/neuromuscular-responses-of-the-plantar-flexors-to-whole-body-vibration
#6
B Harwood, J Scherer, R E Brown, K M D Cornett, K A Kenno, J M Jakobi
Enhanced physical performance following whole-body vibration (WBV) has been attributed to increased muscle activity; however, few studies have measured the mechanisms underlying these changes. The objective of this study was to measure the responsiveness of the Ia pathway as well as contractile properties in 16 young adults (24±2 years, eight men, eight women) following repeated bouts of acute WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). Hoffman reflexes (H-reflex), compound muscle action potentials (M-wave), and twitch contractile properties were measured prior to and immediately following five 1-minute WBV exposures, and at 3, 5, 10, and 20 minute post-WBV...
December 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028601/voluntary-inhalation-of-methamphetamine-a-novel-strategy-for-studying-intake-non-invasively
#7
C Juarez-Portilla, R D Kim, M Robotham, M Tariq, M Pitter, J LeSauter, R Silver
RATIONALE: The abuse of the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA) is associated with substantial costs and limited treatment options. To understand the mechanisms that lead to abuse, animal models of voluntary drug intake are crucial. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a protocol to study long-term non-invasive voluntary intake of MA in mice. METHODS: Mice were maintained in their home cages and allowed daily 1 h access to an attached tunnel leading to a test chamber in which nebulized MA was available...
December 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012910/a-single-bout-of-arm-crank-exercise-promotes-positive-emotions-and-post-exercise-hypotension-in-patients-with-symptomatic-peripheral-artery%C3%A2-disease
#8
B R Cavalcante, R M Ritti-Dias, A H G Soares, A H Lima, M A Correia, L D De Matos, F Gobbi, A S Leicht, N Wolosker, G G Cucato
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The objective was to analyze the acute effects of a single bout of arm cranking exercise on affective and cardiovascular parameters in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: This was a prospective, controlled, crossover study. Eleven men with symptomatic PAD underwent two experimental sessions in a random order: control or arm crank exercise (15 × 2 minutes bouts of arm crank exercise interrupted by 2 minutes rest intervals)...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012037/differentiating-swelling-and-hypertrophy-through-indirect-assessment-of-muscle-damage-in-untrained-men-following-repeated-bouts-of-resistance-exercise
#9
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
PURPOSE: To examine the swelling response and other markers of muscle damage throughout the early portions of a training program (Experiment 1). We also determined if a "swollen" muscle could swell further following additional exercise (Experiment 2). METHODS: Nine males performed four sets of biceps curls (or time-matched rest on control arm) at 70% of their one-repetition maximum three times over 8 days. Muscle thickness and torque were measured before and after exercise as well as on the days in between...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002177/selected-physiological-perceptual-and-physical-performance-changes-during-two-bouts-of-prolonged-high-intensity-intermittent-running-separated-by-72-hours
#10
Nicholas Dobbin, Kevin Lamb, Craig Twist
This study investigated the effects of performing a second 90-minute intermittent running protocol 72 hours after an initial trial on selected physiological, perceptual and sprint running measures. Eight sub-elite soccer players provided measures of isokinetic muscle function, counter-movement jump (CMJ), 10 m sprinting, and muscle soreness before, and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a 90-minute intermittent high intensity running bout (IHIR 1). A second 90-minute intermittent high intensity running bout (IHIR 2) was performed 72 h after the first...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001481/vertical-finger-displacement-is-reduced-in-index-finger-tapping-during-repeated-bout-rate-enhancement
#11
Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine, Ernst Albin Hansen
The present study tested 1) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e. a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated, and 2) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and by changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n=24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10 min rest...
December 21, 2016: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996694/no-effect-of-acute-and-chronic-supramaximal-exercise-on-circulating-levels-of-the-myokine-sparc
#12
Preeyaphorn Songsorn, José Ruffino, Niels B J Vollaard
Myokines may play a role in the health benefits of regular physical activity. Secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a pleiotropic myokine that has been shown to be released into the bloodstream by skeletal muscle in response to aerobic exercise. As there is evidence suggesting that SPARC release may be linked to glycogen breakdown and activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, we hypothesised that brief supramaximal exercise may also be associated with increased serum SPARC levels...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981782/neuromuscular-changes-and-the-rapid-adaptation-following-a-bout-of-damaging-eccentric-exercise
#13
Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Martin Barwood, Karen Keane, Javier T Gonzalez, Alan St Clair Gibson, Glyn Howatson
To determine if neuromuscular disturbances are modulated following a repeated bout of eccentric exercise METHODS: Following eccentric exercise performed with the elbow-flexors, we measured maximal voluntary force, resting twitch force, muscle soreness, creatine kinase and voluntary activation using motor point and motor cortex stimulation at baseline, immediately post and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days post-exercise on two occasions, separated by 3 weeks RESULTS: Significant muscle damage and fatigue was evident following the first exercise bout; maximal voluntary contraction was reduced immediately by 32% and remained depressed at 7 days post-exercise...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981183/sex-differences-in-sleep-anhedonia-and-hpa-axis-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-social-defeat
#14
Gayle G Page, Mark R Opp, Sharon L Kozachik
Repeated bouts of a major stressor such as social defeat are well known to induce a depression phenotype in male rats. Despite strong evidence and acknowledgement that women have a two-fold lifetime greater risk of developing major depression compared to men, the inclusion of female rats in studies employing social defeat are very rare; their absence is attributed to less aggressive interactions. This study sought to compare in male and female rats the impact of repeated social defeat, three times per week for four weeks, on the development of changes in sleep architecture and continuity, sucrose preference as a measure of anhedonia, changes in body weight, and basal plasma corticosterone levels...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959277/endothelial-dysfunction-may-play-a-key-role-in-keloid-and-hypertrophic-scar-pathogenesis-keloids-and-hypertrophic-scars-may-be-vascular-disorders
#15
Rei Ogawa, Satoshi Akaishi
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders (FPDs) of the skin that result from abnormal healing of injured or irritated skin. They can be called pathological or inflammatory scars. Common causes are trauma, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, folliculitis, acne, and herpes zoster infection. The pathogenesis of these scars clearly involves local conditions such as delayed wound healing, wound depth, and the tension of the skin around the scars. Scar severity is also shaped by interactions between these local factors and genetic and systemic factors such as hypertension and sex hormones...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941490/excess-blood-flow-response-to-acute-resistance-exercise-in-obese-and-non-obese-individuals
#16
Grayson F Lipford, Ronald K Evans, Edmund O Acevedo, Luke G Wolfe, R Lee Franco
Resistance exercise (RE) is a commonly recommended treatment option for obese individuals. However, little is known regarding alterations in vasodilatory responses to RE, which could impair exercise tolerance. No studies to date have compared microvascular vasodilatory capacity, assessed by excess blood flow (EBF), responses in obese and non-obese individuals following acute RE. The purpose of the study was to evaluate EBF before and up to 24-hours after a single RE bout in obese (n=18, 38.1±7.64 %bodyfat) and non-obese (n=10, 23...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941489/the-reproducibility-of-the-internal-load-and-performance-based-responses-to-simulated-amateur-boxing
#17
Edward Thomson, Kevin Lamb
The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to repeated bouts of a three-round amateur boxing simulation protocol (BOXFIT). Twenty-eight amateur boxers completed two familiarisation trials before performing two complete trials of the BOXFIT, separated by 4-7 days. To characterise the internal load, mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (V˙O2), aerobic energy expenditure (EEaer), excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout each round and blood lactate determined post-BOXFIT...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928216/low-frequency-fatigue-assessed-as-double-to-single-twitch-ratio-after-two-bouts-of-eccentric-exercise-of-the-elbow-flexors
#18
Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski
The aim of this study was to assess low-frequency fatigue as a double to single twitch ratio after repeated eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 16 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917075/management-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Layth S Al-Jashaami, Herbert L DuPont
Since the discovery of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the 1970s, there has been an increase in the incidence, severity, and recurrence rate of the disease. We reviewed the recent CDI literature in PubMed published before February 28, 2016 that focused on advances in therapy. Despite a large number of studies describing methods for diagnosing the disease, there is currently no definitive test that identifies this infection with certainty, which complicates therapy. Recommended therapy for CDI includes oral metronidazole for mild cases and oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for moderate to severe cases, each given for 10 to 14 days...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#20
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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