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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803797/m-wave-normalization-of-emg-signal-to-investigate-heat-stress-and-fatigue
#1
Olivier Girard, David J Bishop, Sébastien Racinais
OBJECTIVES: We examined the extent to which peripheral changes affect EMG signal adjustments during repeated sprinting in temperate and hot conditions. DESIGN: Randomised, crossover study. METHODS: Ten males performed 10×6-s 'all-out' cycling sprints (recovery=30s) in either a temperate (24°C/30%rH) or a hot (35°C/40%rH) environment with concomitant surface EMG recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). In addition, peak-to-peak M-wave amplitudes were obtained for each muscle after each sprint (i...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796902/spatio-temporal-variation-in-lifelong-telomere-dynamics-in-a-long-term-ecological-study
#2
Lewis G Spurgin, Kat Bebbington, Eleanor A Fairfield, Martijn Hammers, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, Hannah L Dugdale, David S Richardson
Understanding individual-level variation in response to the environment is fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics. Telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, shorten in response to oxidative stress, and telomere shortening is correlated with reduced survival and lifespan. Investigating telomere dynamics may help us quantify individual variation in the costs experienced from social and ecological factors, and enhance our understanding of the dynamics of natural populations...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796240/glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-on-circulating-leukocytes-in-healthy-and-asthmatic-adolescents-in-response-to-exercise
#3
Kim D Lu, Dan Cooper, Fadia Haddad, Frank Zaldivar, Monica Kraft, Shlomit Radom-Aizik
BackgroundPoor aerobic fitness is associated with worsening of asthma symptoms, and fitness training may improve asthma control. The mechanism linking fitness with asthma is not known. We hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would lead to a downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression on circulating leukocytes, reflecting a reduced responsiveness to stress.MethodsIn a prospective exercise training intervention of healthy and asthmatic adolescents, GR expression in leukocytes was measured using flow cytometry in response to an acute exercise challenge before and after the exercise training intervention...
August 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767135/phenotypic-outcomes-in-adolescence-and-adulthood-in-the-scarcity-adversity-model-of-low-nesting-resources-outside-the-home-cage
#4
Tiffany S Doherty, Jennifer Blaze, Samantha M Keller, Tania L Roth
Early life adversity is known to disrupt behavioral trajectories and many rodent models have been developed to characterize these stress-induced outcomes. One example is the scarcity-adversity model of low nesting resources. This model employs resource scarcity (i.e., low nesting materials) to elicit adverse caregiving conditions (including maltreatment) toward rodent neonates. Our lab utilizes a version of this model wherein caregiving exposures occur outside the home cage during the first postnatal week. The aim of this study was to determine adolescent and adult phenotypic outcomes associated with this model, including assessment of depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and performance in different cognitive domains...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763620/acute-effects-of-exercise-intensity-on-subsequent-substrate-utilisation-appetite-and-energy-balance-in-men-and-women
#5
Ghalia Shamlan, Paul Bech, M Denise Robertson, Adam L Collins
Exercise is capable of influencing the regulation of energy balance by acutely modulating appetite and energy intake coupled to effects on substrate utilization. Yet, few studies have examined acute effects of exercise intensity on aspects of both energy intake and energy metabolism, independently of energy cost of exercise. Furthermore, little is known as to the gender differences of these effect. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 40 (19 female), healthy participants (BMI 23.6±3.6 kg.m-2, VO2peak 34...
August 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751932/does-regular-exercise-counter-t-cell-immunosenescence-reducing-the-risk-of-developing-cancer-and-promoting-successful-treatment-of-malignancies
#6
REVIEW
James E Turner, Patricia C Brum
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750246/healing-and-or-breaking-the-mental-health-implications-of-repeated-economic-insecurity
#7
Barry Watson, Lars Osberg
Current literature confirms the negative consequences of contemporaneous economic insecurity for mental health, but ignores possible implications of repeated insecurity. This paper asks how much a person's history of economic insecurity matters for psychological distress by contrasting the implications of two models. Consistent with the health capital literature, the Healing model suggests psychological distress is a stock variable affected by shocks from life events, with past events having less impact than more recent shocks...
July 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736511/effects-of-methylsulfonylmethane-msm-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-muscle-damage-and-pain-following-a-half-marathon-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Eric D Withee, Kimberly M Tippens, Regina Dehen, Deanne Tibbitts, Douglas Hanes, Heather Zwickey
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and muscle damage occur during exhaustive bouts of exercise, and many runners report pain and soreness as major influences on changes or breaks in training regimens, creating a barrier to training persistence. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-based nutritional supplement that is purported to have pain and inflammation-reducing effects. To investigate the effects of MSM in attenuating damage associated with physical exertion, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of MSM supplementation on exercise-induced pain, oxidative stress and muscle damage...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716317/long-term-complications-of-the-neurogenic-bladder
#9
REVIEW
Unwanaobong Nseyo, Yahir Santiago-Lastra
It is widely accepted that neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, when left untreated, has a natural history that has a potential for causing deterioration of renal function over time. However, certain patient profiles are at risk for this and other complications. This can be linked to their underlying neurologic disease process. Identifying risk profiles allows the provider to determine what surveillance strategies might be adopted. Risk factors for upper urinary tract deterioration include loss of bladder compliance, repeated bouts of pyelonephritis, and chronic indwelling catheterization...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#10
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704315/appetite-regulations-after-sprint-exercise-under-hypoxic-condition-in-female-athletes
#11
Chihiro Kojima, Nobukazu Kasai, Aya Ishibashi, Yukako Murakami, Kumiko Ebi, Kazushige Goto
The present study determined changes in appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake after high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) under hypoxic conditions in trained female athletes. Fifteen female athletes completed three trials on different days of either HIIT under hypoxic conditions (HYP), HIIT under normoxic conditions (NOR), or rest in normoxia (CON). Exercise trials consisted of two successive sets of eight repeated bouts of a 6-s maximal sprint separated by a 30-s rest. Blood samples were obtained to measure plasma acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and metabolite concentrations...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699679/one-session-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-improve-vascular-function-in-acute-normobaric-and-chronic-hypobaric-hypoxia
#12
Mathew G Rieger, Ryan L Hoiland, Joshua C Tremblay, Mike Stembridge, Anthony R Bain, Daniela Flück, Prajan Subedi, James D Anholm, Philip N Ainslie
Application of repeated short duration bouts of ischemia to the limbs, termed remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), is a novel technique that may have protective effects on vascular function during hypoxic exposures. In separate parallel-design studies, at sea-level (SL; n = 16), and after 8-12 days at high-altitude (HA; n = 12; White Mountain, 3800 m), participants underwent either a sham protocol or one session of 4 × 5 minutes of dual-thigh cuff occlusion with 5 minutes recovery. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD; ultrasound), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP; echocardiography), and internal carotid artery flow (ICA; ultrasound) were measured at SL in normoxia and isocapnic hypoxia [end-tidal PO₂ (PETO₂) maintained to 50 mmHg], and during normal breathing at HA...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694098/sleep-promoting-potential-of-low-dose-%C3%AE-asarone-in-rat-model
#13
Arathi Radhakrishnan, N Jayakumari, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
Commonly used hypnotics have undesirable side-effects, especially during continuous usage. On the other hand, some herbal products, which are used for prolonged periods, are suggested to have a sleep inducing property, though the claims have not been validated scientifically. The hypnotic potential of α-Asarone, an active principle of Acorus species, was tested in the present study by first identifying the optimal dose of α-Asarone for improving sleep, followed by studies that evaluated the effect of repeated administration of this optimal dose for five days on sleep deprived rats...
July 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692579/physical-activity-interventions-for-children-with-social-emotional-and-behavioral-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#14
Tayla Ash, April Bowling, Kirsten Davison, Jeanette Garcia
OBJECTIVE: Perform a systematic review of the available literature regarding the effectiveness of exercise interventions on children with any type of social, emotional, or behavioral disability (SEBD), with attention to a range of physiological, behavioral, and mood outcomes. METHODS: Six databases were searched using a systematic methodology. References of included studies, as well as relevant reviews, were also examined. The review was limited to studies published since 2000 reporting a quantitative analysis of the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention on at least 1 behavioral, psychological, or cognitive outcome in children aged 21 and under, diagnosed with a SEBD...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684587/potential-involvement-of-lactate-and-interleukin-6-in-the-appetite-regulatory-hormonal-response-to-an-acute-exercise-bout
#15
Hashim Islam, Logan K Townsend, Greg L McKie, Philip J Medeiros, Brendon James Gurd, Tom J Hazell
High-intensity exercise suppresses appetite partly through changes in peripheral appetite-regulating hormones. Lactate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediate the release of these hormones in animal/cell models and may provide a mechanistic link between exercise intensity and appetite regulation. The current study examined changes in appetite-regulating hormones, lactate, and IL-6 after different intensities of running. Eight males completed four experimental sessions: 1) Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 65% VO2max); 2) Vigorous-intensity continuous training (VICT; 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; repeated "all-out" sprints); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676725/inter-individual-variability-in-the-foraging-behaviour-of-traplining-bumblebees
#16
Simon Klein, Cristian Pasquaretta, Andrew B Barron, Jean-Marc Devaud, Mathieu Lihoreau
Workers of social insects, such as bees, ants and wasps, show some degree of inter-individual variability in decision-making, learning and memory. Whether these natural cognitive differences translate into distinct adaptive behavioural strategies is virtually unknown. Here we examined variability in the movement patterns of bumblebee foragers establishing routes between artificial flowers. We recorded all flower visitation sequences performed by 29 bees tested for 20 consecutive foraging bouts in three experimental arrays, each characterised by a unique spatial configuration of artificial flowers and three-dimensional landmarks...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674872/efficacy-of-wearing-compression-garments-during-post-exercise-period-after-two-repeated-bouts-of-strenuous-exercise-a-randomized-crossover-design-in-healthy-active-males
#17
Kazushige Goto, Sahiro Mizuno, Ayaka Mori
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of wearing [a] compression garment (CG) between repeated bouts of exercise within a same day has not been fully understood. The present study determined the effect of wearing a CG after strenuous exercise sessions (consisting of sprint exercise, resistance exercise, drop jump) twice a day on exercise performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory responses. METHODS: Eleven physically active males (age, 22.7 ± 0.9 years; height, 175...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674176/effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-are-mitigated-by-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonism
#18
Audrey M Wells, Elysia Ridener, Clinton A Bourbonais, Woori Kim, Harry Pantazopoulos, F Ivy Carroll, Kwang-Soo Kim, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon
Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10-day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). Electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5-day recovery period...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671892/physical-activity-interventions-for-children-with-social-emotional-and-behavioral-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#19
Tayla Ash, April Bowling, Kirsten Davison, Jeanette Garcia
OBJECTIVE: Perform a systematic review of the available literature regarding the effectiveness of exercise interventions on children with any type of social, emotional, or behavioral disability (SEBD), with attention to a range of physiological, behavioral, and mood outcomes. METHODS: Six databases were searched using a systematic methodology. References of included studies, as well as relevant reviews, were also examined. The review was limited to studies published since 2000 reporting a quantitative analysis of the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention on at least 1 behavioral, psychological, or cognitive outcome in children aged 21 and under, diagnosed with a SEBD...
July 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666805/change-in-coefficient-of-fatigability-following-rapid-repetitive-movement-training-in-post-stroke-spastic-paresis-a-prospective-open-label-observational-study
#20
Michele Vecchio, Jean-Michel Gracies, Francesco Panza, Francesca Fortunato, Giovanna Vitaliti, Giulia Malaguarnera, Nicoletta Cinone, Raffaele Beatrice, Maurizio Ranieri, Andrea Santamato
BACKGROUND: In post-stroke patients, the possibility of performing an active ankle dorsiflexion movement is favorable for the recovery of gait. Moreover, the fatigue due to repetitive active ankle dorsiflexion could reduce the speed gait. We assessed the change in coefficient of fatigability of active ankle dorsiflexion after a home-based self-rehabilitative procedure in post-stroke patients. METHODS: In a prospective open-label observational study conducted in 2 university hospitals, a home-based self-rehabilitation treatment comprising two 12-minute sessions per day (3 times per week for 3 months) was performed by 10 outpatients with post-stroke lower limb impairment...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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