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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871603/prophylactic-phenylephrine-infusion-for-the-prevention-of-hypotension-after-spinal-anesthesia-in-the-elderly-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Fabrice Ferré, Philippe Marty, Laura Bruneteau, Virgine Merlet, Benoît Bataille, Anne Ferrier, Claude Gris, Matt Kurrek, Olivier Fourcade, Vincent Minville, Agnes Sommet
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Hypotension frequently occurs during spinal anesthesia (SA), especially in the elderly. Phenylephrine is effective to prevent SA-induced hypotension during cesarean delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine after SA for orthopedic surgery in the elderly. DESIGN: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study included 54 patients older than 60 years undergoing elective lower limb surgery under SA (injection of 10 mg of isobaric bupivacaine with 5 μg of sufentanyl)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844147/acute-ivabradine-treatment-reduces-heart-rate-without-increasing-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility-irrespective-of-underlying-vagal-activity-in-dogs
#2
Kazunori Uemura, Masashi Inagaki, Can Zheng, Toru Kawada, Meihua Li, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Masaru Sugimachi
Ivabradine, a bradycardic agent, has been shown to stably reduce patient's heart rate (HR) in the setting of acute cardiac care. However, an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) risk and acute ivabradine treatment remains a controversial clinical issue, and has not been thoroughly investigated. Bradycardia and abnormal atrial refractoriness induced by ivabradine treatment may enhance vulnerability to AF induction, especially when vagal nerve is concurrently activated. We aimed to experimentally investigate the effects of acute ivabradine treatment with/without concurrent vagal activation on AF inducibility...
November 14, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816306/intravenous-electrical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-prior-to-coronary-reperfusion-in-a-canine-ischemia-reperfusion-model-markedly-reduces-infarct-size-and-prevents-subsequent-heart-failure
#3
Takahiro Arimura, Keita Saku, Takamori Kakino, Takuya Nishikawa, Takeshi Tohyama, Takafumi Sakamoto, Kazuo Sakamoto, Takuya Kishi, Tomomi Ide, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Reducing myocardial damage is a prerequisite to prevent chronic heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to have potent anti-infarct effect, technical difficulties have precluded its clinical application. We developed a novel therapeutic strategy of intravenous VNS (iVNS) and examined whether iVNS administered prior to coronary reperfusion in a canine AMI model reduces infarct size and prevents heart failure...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794538/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-function-in-cholinergic-neurons-mediates-cardiac-arrhythmogenesis
#4
José A Herrera, Christopher S Ward, Xander H T Wehrens, Jeffrey L Neul
Sudden unexpected death occurs in one quarter of deaths in Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). People with RTT show a variety of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities and mouse models show similar problems including QTc interval prolongation and hypothermia. To explore the role of cardiac problems in sudden death in RTT, we characterized cardiac rhythm in mice lacking Mecp2 function. Male and female mutant mice exhibited spontaneous cardiac rhythm abnormalities including bradycardic events, sinus pauses, atrioventricular block, premature ventricular contractions, non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and increased heart rate variability...
October 18, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776979/chronic-kidney-disease-impairs-renal-nerve-and-haemodynamic-reflex-responses-to-vagal-afferent-input-through-a-central-mechanism
#5
Ibrahim M Salman, Cara M Hildreth, Jacqueline K Phillips
We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation...
October 11, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763697/changes-in-cardiovascular-responses-to-chemoreflex-activation-of-rats-recovered-from-protein-restriction-are-not-related-to-at1-receptors
#6
Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to AT1 receptors activation. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not supported increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702859/antiarrhythmic-effect-of-vernakalant-in-an-experimental-model-of-long-qt-syndrome
#7
Gerrit Frommeyer, Catharina Clauss, Christian Ellermann, Harilaos Bogossian, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Florian Reinke, Christian Pott, Lars Eckardt
AIMS: The antiarrhythmic drug vernakalant exerts antiarrhythmic effects in atrial fibrillation. Recent experimental data suggest interactions with the late sodium current and antiarrhythmic effects in ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed at investigating whether treatment with vernakalant reduces polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in an experimental model of Long-QT-syndrome (LQTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-nine isolated rabbit hearts were assigned to two groups and treated with erythromycin (300 µM, n = 15) or veratridine (0...
October 4, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694213/effects-of-various-types-of-anesthesia-on-hemodynamics-cardiac-function-and-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#8
Yusuke Sano, Shogo Ito, Mamoru Yoneda, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Ayako Uchinaka, Yasuko K Bando, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Anesthesia can affect respiratory, circulatory, and endocrine systems but is necessary for certain experimental procedures such as echocardiography and blood sampling in small animals. We have now investigated the effects of four types of anesthesia [pentobarbital sodium (PENT), ketamine-xylazine (K/X), and low- or high-dose isoflurane (ISO)] on hemodynamics, cardiac function, and glucose and lipid metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aortic pressure, heart rate, and echocardiographic parameters were measured at various time points up to 45 min after the induction of anesthesia, and blood was then collected for measurement of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693394/central-mechanism-of-the-cardiovascular-responses-caused-by-l-proline-microinjected-into-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-unanesthetized-rats
#9
Silvana Lopes-Azevedo, Cristiane Busnardo, Fernando Morgan Aguiar Corrêa
Previously, we reported that microinjection of l-proline (l-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of l-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of l-Pro (3-100 nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer d-Proline (d-Pro) or Mannitol...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676327/chronic-sarpogrelate-treatment-reveals-5-ht7-receptor-in-the-serotonergic-inhibition-of-the-rat-vagal-bradycardia
#10
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg/kg.day; p.o.) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh; 1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667485/functional-pharmacological-characterisation-of-ser100-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#11
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618277/relative-bradycardia-in-patients-with-septic-shock-requiring-vasopressor-therapy
#12
Sarah J Beesley, Emily L Wilson, Michael J Lanspa, Colin K Grissom, Sajid Shahul, Daniel Talmor, Samuel M Brown
OBJECTIVES: Tachycardia is common in septic shock, but many patients with septic shock are relatively bradycardic. The prevalence, determinants, and implications of relative bradycardia (heart rate, < 80 beats/min) in septic shock are unknown. To determine mortality associated with patients who are relatively bradycardic while in septic shock. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients admitted for septic shock to study ICUs during 2005-2013. SETTING: One large academic referral hospital and two community hospitals...
September 9, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607083/adherence-to-the-current-guidelines-for-bradycardic-pacing-in-the-octogenarian-and-nonagenarian-populations
#13
Vivienne Kim, James Pemberton, Fiona Riddell, Khang-Li Looi
AIM: A significant proportion of single-chamber ventricular pacemakers are implanted in octogenarian and nonagenarian patients. We aimed to assess whether the current pacing guideline is adhered for these populations. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients ≥80 years of age, who received their first pacemaker from July 2010 to June 2013. RESULTS: A total of 356 patients were identified. Mean age was 86.1 years and 82.6 years for single and dual-chamber pacemakers respectively (p<0...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581812/carotid-baroreflex-function-at-the-onset-of-cycling-in-men
#14
Thales C Barbosa, Lauro C Vianna, Takeshi Hashimoto, Lonnie Grove Petersen, Niels D Olesen, Hayato Tsukamoto, Henrik Sørensen, Shigehiko Ogoh, Antonio Claudio L Nóbrega, Niels H Secher
Arterial baroreflex function is important for blood pressure control during exercise, but its contribution to cardiovascular adjustments at the onset of cycling exercise remains unclear. Fifteen healthy male subjects (24 ± 1 years) performed 45-s trials of low- and moderate-intensity cycling, with carotid baroreceptor stimulation by neck suction at -60 Torr applied 0-5, 10-15, and 30-35 s after the onset of exercise. Cardiovascular responses to neck suction during cycling were compared to those obtained at rest...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566285/1-imidazolidin-2-yl-imino-1h-indoles-as-new-hypotensive-agents-synthesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biological-studies
#15
Anita Kornicka, Aleksandra Wasilewska, Jarosław Sączewski, Alan L Hudson, Konrad Boblewski, Artur Lehmann, Karol Gzella, Mariusz Belka, Franciszek Sączewski, Maria Gdaniec, Apolonia Rybczyńska, Tomasz Bączek
A series of 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-1H-indole analogues of hypotensive α2 -AR agonists 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-1H-indazoles, was synthesized and tested in vitro for their activities at α1 - and α2 -adrenoceptors as well as imidazoline I1 and I2 receptors. The most active 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-1H-indoles displayed high or moderate affinities for α1 - and α2 -adrenoceptors and substantial selectivity for α2 -adrenoceptors over imidazoline-I1 binding sites. The in vivo cardiovascular properties of indole derivatives 3 revealed that substitution at C-7 position of the indole ring may result in compounds with high cardiovascular activity...
August 27, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475878/the-room-where-it-happens-a-skeptic-s-analysis-of-the-new-heart-failure-guidelines
#16
Milton Packer
New heart failure guidelines have been issued during the past several months, both in the United States and in Europe, in response to recent advances in and the approval of new drugs for the treatment of heart failure. Although guidelines documents are often viewed as authoritative and purely evidence-based, there are replete with meaningful (and inexplicable) inconsistencies, which derive from a review of the same body of scientific data by different groups. This satirical review highlights several examples of the entertaining foolishness of recent guideline documents in the good-natured hope that physicians will understand what the guidelines are, and more importantly, what they are not...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439367/analysis-of-variants-in-the-hcn4-gene-and-in-three-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-cyp3a4-gene-for-association-with-ivabradine-reduction-in-heart-rate-a-preliminary-report
#17
Lucía Núñez, María G Crespo-Leiro, Grecia M Marrón-Liñares, Natalia Suarez-Fuentetaja, Eduardo Barge-Caballero, María Jesús Paniagua-Martín, Raquel Marzoa-Rivas, Zulaika Grille-Cancela, Javier Muñiz-García, Jose Manuel Vazquez-Rodriguez, Manuel Hermida-Prieto
BACKGROUND: Ivabradine, a selective bradycardic drug, inhibits the If. In patients with heart failure (HF), ivabradine reduces the risk of rehospitalization and mortality. The average heart rate (HR) reduction is 8-10 beats, although clinical trials reveal interindividual variability. The aim of the study is to identify variants associated with HR reduction produced by ivabradine in genes involved in the drug metabolism (CYP3A4) or related to the drug target (HCN4). METHODS: In an exploratory cohort (n = 11), patients started on ivabradine were genotyped and the HR reduction was studied...
July 21, 2016: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436213/asystole-during-onyx-embolization-of-a-pediatric-arteriovenous-malformation-a-severe-case-of-the-trigeminocardiac-reflex
#18
Kasra Khatibi, Omar Choudhri, Ian D Connolly, Ryan A McTaggart, Huy M Do
Trigeminal-cardiac reflex (TCR) from stimulation of sensory branches of trigeminal nerve can lead to hemodynamic instability. This phenomenon has been described during ophthalmologic, craniofacial, and skull base surgeries. TCR has been rarely reported with endovascular onyx embolization of dural Arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF). We report a case of TCR during endovascular Onyx embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 16-year-old boy presented with a large cerebellar AVM with arterial feeders from external carotid artery and posterior cerebral artery branches...
July 16, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405774/severe-proarrhythmic-potential-of-risperidone-compared-to-quetiapine-in-an-experimental-whole-heart-model-of-proarrhythmia
#19
Gerrit Frommeyer, Henning von der Ahe, Benedict Brücher, Dirk G Dechering, Philipp S Lange, Florian Reinke, Kristina Wasmer, Julia Köbe, Christian Pott, Gerold Mönnig, Lars Eckardt
In several case reports, proarrhythmic effects of antipsychotic drugs have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate if application of risperidone or quetiapine has the potential to provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive model of proarrhythmia. In 24 isolated rabbit hearts, risperidone (5 and 10 μM, n = 12) or quetiapine (5 and 10 μM, n = 12) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Eight endocardial and epicardial monophasic action potentials and a simultaneously recorded 12-lead ECG showed a significant QT prolongation after application of risperidone as compared with baseline (5 μM: +29 ms, 10 μM: +35 ms, p < 0...
October 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380540/safety-and-efficacy-of-siponimod-baf312-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-dose-blinded-randomized-extension-of-the-phase-2-bold-study
#20
Ludwig Kappos, David K B Li, Olaf Stüve, Hans-Peter Hartung, Mark S Freedman, Bernhard Hemmer, Peter Rieckmann, Xavier Montalban, Tjalf Ziemssen, Brian Hunter, Sophie Arnould, Erik Wallström, Krzysztof Selmaj
IMPORTANCE: This dose-blinded extension of the phase 2 BOLD (BAF312 on MRI Lesion Given Once Daily) Study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis provides evidence on disease activity and safety of a range of siponimod doses for up to 24 months. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of siponimod for up to 24 months during the dose-blinded extension of the BOLD Study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: At extension baseline in a randomized clinical trial, patients taking siponimod continued at the originally assigned dose and patients taking placebo were rerandomized to the 5 siponimod doses...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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