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Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to AT1 receptors activation. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not supported increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Gerrit Frommeyer, Catharina Clauss, Christian Ellermann, Harilaos Bogossian, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Florian Reinke, Christian Pott, Lars Eckardt
AIMS: The antiarrhythmic drug vernakalant exerts antiarrhythmic effects in atrial fibrillation. Recent experimental data suggest interactions with the late sodium current and antiarrhythmic effects in ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed at investigating whether treatment with vernakalant reduces polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in an experimental model of Long-QT-syndrome (LQTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-nine isolated rabbit hearts were assigned to two groups and treated with erythromycin (300 µM, n = 15) or veratridine (0...
October 4, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Yusuke Sano, Shogo Ito, Mamoru Yoneda, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Ayako Uchinaka, Yasuko K Bando, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Anesthesia can affect respiratory, circulatory, and endocrine systems but is necessary for certain experimental procedures such as echocardiography and blood sampling in small animals. We have now investigated the effects of four types of anesthesia-pentobarbital (PENT), ketamine-xylazine (K/X), and low- or high-dose isoflurane (ISO)-on hemodynamics, cardiac function, and glucose and lipid metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aortic pressure, heart rate, and echocardiographic parameters were measured at various time points up to 45 min after the induction of anesthesia, and blood was then collected for measurement of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Silvana Lopes-Azevedo, Cristiane Busnardo, Fernando Morgan Aguiar Corrêa
Previously, we reported that microinjection of l-proline (l-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of l-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of l-Pro (3-100 nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer d-Proline (d-Pro) or Mannitol...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg/; p.o.) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh; 1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sarah J Beesley, Emily L Wilson, Michael J Lanspa, Colin K Grissom, Sajid Shahul, Daniel Talmor, Samuel M Brown
OBJECTIVES: Tachycardia is common in septic shock, but many patients with septic shock are relatively bradycardic. The prevalence, determinants, and implications of relative bradycardia (heart rate, < 80 beats/min) in septic shock are unknown. To determine mortality associated with patients who are relatively bradycardic while in septic shock. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients admitted for septic shock to study ICUs during 2005-2013. SETTING: One large academic referral hospital and two community hospitals...
September 9, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Vivienne Kim, James Pemberton, Fiona Riddell, Khang-Li Looi
AIM: A significant proportion of single-chamber ventricular pacemakers are implanted in octogenarian and nonagenarian patients. We aimed to assess whether the current pacing guideline is adhered for these populations. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients ≥80 years of age, who received their first pacemaker from July 2010 to June 2013. RESULTS: A total of 356 patients were identified. Mean age was 86.1 years and 82.6 years for single and dual-chamber pacemakers respectively (p<0...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Thales C Barbosa, Lauro C Vianna, Takeshi Hashimoto, Lonnie Grove Petersen, Niels D Olesen, Hayato Tsukamoto, Henrik Sørensen, Shigehiko Ogoh, Antonio Claudio L Nóbrega, Niels H Secher
Arterial baroreflex function is important for blood pressure control during exercise, but its contribution to cardiovascular adjustments at the onset of cycling exercise remains unclear. Fifteen healthy male subjects (24 ± 1 years) performed 45-s trials of low- and moderate-intensity cycling, with carotid baroreceptor stimulation by neck suction at -60 Torr applied 0-5, 10-15, and 30-35 s after the onset of exercise. Cardiovascular responses to neck suction during cycling were compared to those obtained at rest...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Anita Kornicka, Aleksandra Wasilewska, Jarosław Sączewski, Alan L Hudson, Konrad Boblewski, Artur Lehmann, Karol Gzella, Mariusz Belka, Franciszek Sączewski, Maria Gdaniec, Apolonia Rybczyńska, Tomasz Bączek
A series of 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-1H-indole analogues of hypotensive α2 -AR agonists 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-1H-indazoles, was synthesized and tested in vitro for their activities at α1 - and α2 -adrenoceptors as well as imidazoline I1 and I2 receptors. The most active 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-1H-indoles displayed high or moderate affinities for α1 - and α2 -adrenoceptors and substantial selectivity for α2 -adrenoceptors over imidazoline-I1 binding sites. The in vivo cardiovascular properties of indole derivatives 3 revealed that substitution at C-7 position of the indole ring may result in compounds with high cardiovascular activity...
August 27, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Milton Packer
New heart failure guidelines have been issued during the past several months, both in the United States and in Europe, in response to recent advances in and the approval of new drugs for the treatment of heart failure. Although guidelines documents are often viewed as authoritative and purely evidence-based, there are replete with meaningful (and inexplicable) inconsistencies, which derive from a review of the same body of scientific data by different groups. This satirical review highlights several examples of the entertaining foolishness of recent guideline documents in the good-natured hope that physicians will understand what the guidelines are, and more importantly, what they are not...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Lucía Núñez, María G Crespo-Leiro, Grecia M Marrón-Liñares, Natalia Suarez-Fuentetaja, Eduardo Barge-Caballero, María Jesús Paniagua-Martín, Raquel Marzoa-Rivas, Zulaika Grille-Cancela, Javier Muñiz-García, Jose Manuel Vazquez-Rodriguez, Manuel Hermida-Prieto
BACKGROUND: Ivabradine, a selective bradycardic drug, inhibits the If. In patients with heart failure (HF), ivabradine reduces the risk of rehospitalization and mortality. The average heart rate (HR) reduction is 8-10 beats, although clinical trials reveal interindividual variability. The aim of the study is to identify variants associated with HR reduction produced by ivabradine in genes involved in the drug metabolism (CYP3A4) or related to the drug target (HCN4). METHODS: In an exploratory cohort (n = 11), patients started on ivabradine were genotyped and the HR reduction was studied...
July 21, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Kasra Khatibi, Omar Choudhri, Ian D Connolly, Ryan A McTaggart, Huy M Do
Trigeminal-cardiac reflex (TCR) from stimulation of sensory branches of trigeminal nerve can lead to hemodynamic instability. This phenomenon has been described during ophthalmologic, craniofacial, and skull base surgeries. TCR has been rarely reported with endovascular onyx embolization of dural Arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF). We report a case of TCR during endovascular Onyx embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 16-year-old boy presented with a large cerebellar AVM with arterial feeders from external carotid artery and posterior cerebral artery branches...
July 16, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Gerrit Frommeyer, Henning von der Ahe, Benedict Brücher, Dirk G Dechering, Philipp S Lange, Florian Reinke, Kristina Wasmer, Julia Köbe, Christian Pott, Gerold Mönnig, Lars Eckardt
In several case reports, proarrhythmic effects of antipsychotic drugs have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate if application of risperidone or quetiapine has the potential to provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive model of proarrhythmia. In 24 isolated rabbit hearts, risperidone (5 and 10 μM, n = 12) or quetiapine (5 and 10 μM, n = 12) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Eight endocardial and epicardial monophasic action potentials and a simultaneously recorded 12-lead ECG showed a significant QT prolongation after application of risperidone as compared with baseline (5 μM: +29 ms, 10 μM: +35 ms, p < 0...
October 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Ludwig Kappos, David K B Li, Olaf Stüve, Hans-Peter Hartung, Mark S Freedman, Bernhard Hemmer, Peter Rieckmann, Xavier Montalban, Tjalf Ziemssen, Brian Hunter, Sophie Arnould, Erik Wallström, Krzysztof Selmaj
IMPORTANCE: This dose-blinded extension of the phase 2 BOLD (BAF312 on MRI Lesion Given Once Daily) Study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis provides evidence on disease activity and safety of a range of siponimod doses for up to 24 months. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of siponimod for up to 24 months during the dose-blinded extension of the BOLD Study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: At extension baseline in a randomized clinical trial, patients taking siponimod continued at the originally assigned dose and patients taking placebo were rerandomized to the 5 siponimod doses...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Brunella F Klippel, Licia B Duemke, Marcos A Leal, Andreia G F Friques, Eduardo M Dantas, Rodolfo F Dalvi, Agata L Gava, Thiago M C Pereira, Tadeu U Andrade, Silvana S Meyrelles, Bianca P Campagnaro, Elisardo C Vasquez
AIMS: It has been previously shown that the probiotic kefir (a symbiotic matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts) attenuated the hypertension and the endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the effect of chronic administration of kefir on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in SHR was evaluated. METHODS: SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Günther Krumpl, Ivan Ulc, Michaela Trebs, Pavla Kadlecová, Juri Hodisch
BACKGROUND: To date, no data have been reported on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of landiolol, a fast-acting cardioselective β1-adrenergic antagonist, in non-Asian subjects. The aim of this study was to compare two landiolol formulations in healthy Caucasian subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, double-blinded, randomized study in two cross-over periods with 12 healthy subjects (7 women and 5 men) each receiving three doses (0...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Matthew R Stoyek, T Alexander Quinn, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith
The cardiac pacemaker sets the heart's primary rate, with pacemaker discharge controlled by the autonomic nervous system through intracardiac ganglia. A fundamental issue in understanding the relationship between neural activity and cardiac chronotropy is the identification of neuronal populations that control pacemaker cells. To date, most studies of neurocardiac control have been done in mammalian species, where neurons are embedded in and distributed throughout the heart, so they are largely inaccessible for whole-organ, integrative studies...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Gerrit Frommeyer, Benedict Brücher, Henning von der Ahe, Sven Kaese, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Harilaos Bogossian, Peter Milberg, Lars Eckardt
In several case reports proarrhythmic effects of citalopram and escitalopram have been reported. Systematic analyses on prorarrhythmic effects of these drugs are not yet available. The aim of the present study was to investigate if application of citalopram, escitalopram or haloperidol provokes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive model of proarrhythmia. In isolated rabbit hearts monophasic action potentials and ECG showed a significant QT-prolongation after application of citalopram (2µM: +47ms, 4µM: +56ms, P<0...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kalpashri Kesavan, Paul Frank, Daniella M Cordero, Peyman Benharash, Ronald M Harper
BACKGROUND: Apnea of Prematurity (AOP) is common, affecting the majority of infants born at <34 weeks gestational age. Apnea and periodic breathing are accompanied by intermittent hypoxia (IH). Animal and human studies demonstrate that IH exposure contributes to multiple pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities...
2016: PloS One
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