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Motor neuron alga

Robert O'Hagan, Maureen M Barr
Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) is driven by molecular motors that travel upon microtubule-based ciliary axonemes. In the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, movement of a single anterograde IFT motor, heterotrimeric kinesin-II, is required to generate two identical motile flagella. The function of this canonical anterograde IFT motor is conserved among all eukaryotes, yet multicellular organisms can generate cilia of diverse structures and functions, ranging from simple threadlike non-motile primary cilia to the elaborate cilia that make up rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
N N Besednova, L M Somova, S A Guliaev, T S Zaporozhets
Currently, neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) occupy a significant place in the structure of disease of the elderly, which dictates the need to find new and effective treatment and prevention of this pathology. At the heart of NDD development is a violation of the metabolism and the conformational change of cellular proteins with subsequent accumulation and aggregation of their in certain groups of neurons. The immediate cause of the death of the affected neurons in NDD is initiated by intracellular proteins apoptosis, during which a large number ofneurotransmitter glutamate is released...
2013: Vestnik Rossiń≠skoń≠ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Jeong Hwan Kim, Nam Seob Lee, Yeong Gil Jeong, Je-Hun Lee, Eun Ji Kim, Seung Yun Han
Phlorotannins (marine algal polyphenols) have been reported to exhibit beneficial biological activities, serving as both antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. Among marine algae, Ecklonia cava, a member of the Laminariaceae, is a very popular food regarded as healthy in Korea and Japan. Recently, benefits afforded by phlorotannins in the treatment of various clinical conditions have been reported, but any therapeutic effects of such materials in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke remain unclear...
June 2012: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Georg Nagel, Martin Brauner, Jana F Liewald, Nona Adeishvili, Ernst Bamberg, Alexander Gottschalk
For studying the function of specific neurons in their native circuitry, it is desired to precisely control their activity. This often requires dissection to allow accurate electrical stimulation or neurotransmitter application , and it is thus inherently difficult in live animals, especially in small model organisms. Here, we employed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), a directly light-gated cation channel from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in excitable cells of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to trigger specific behaviors, simply by illumination...
December 20, 2005: Current Biology: CB
Xiang Li, Davina V Gutierrez, M Gartz Hanson, Jing Han, Melanie D Mark, Hillel Chiel, Peter Hegemann, Lynn T Landmesser, Stefan Herlitze
Techniques for fast noninvasive control of neuronal excitability will be of major importance for analyzing and understanding neuronal networks and animal behavior. To develop these tools we demonstrated that two light-activated signaling proteins, vertebrate rat rhodopsin 4 (RO4) and the green algae channelrhodospin 2 (ChR2), could be used to control neuronal excitability and modulate synaptic transmission. Vertebrate rhodopsin couples to the Gi/o, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway to allow modulation of G protein-gated inward rectifying potassium channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels...
December 6, 2005: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Danwei Huangfu, Aimin Liu, Andrew S Rakeman, Noel S Murcia, Lee Niswander, Kathryn V Anderson
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins were first identified as essential factors for the growth and maintenance of flagella in the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In a screen for embryonic patterning mutations induced by ethylnitrosourea, here we identify two mouse mutants, wimple (wim) and flexo (fxo), that lack ventral neural cell types and show other phenotypes characteristic of defects in Sonic hedgehog signalling. Both mutations disrupt IFT proteins: the wim mutation is an allele of the previously uncharacterized mouse homologue of IFT172; and fxo is a new hypomorphic allele of polaris, the mouse homologue of IFT88...
November 6, 2003: Nature
Young-Goo Han, Benjamin H Kwok, Maurice J Kernan
BACKGROUND: Intraflagellar transport (IFT) uses kinesin II to carry a multiprotein particle to the tips of eukaryotic cilia and flagella and a nonaxonemal dynein to return it to the cell body. IFT particle proteins and motors are conserved in ciliated eukaryotes, and IFT-deficient mutants in algae, nematodes, and mammals fail to extend or maintain cilia and flagella, including sensory cilia. In Drosophila, the only ciliated cells are sensory neurons and sperm. no mechanoreceptor potential (nomp) mutations have been isolated that affect the differentiation and function of ciliated sense organs...
September 30, 2003: Current Biology: CB
J Prince, T G Nolen, L Coelho
The marine snail Aplysia californica obtains its defensive ink exclusively from a diet of red seaweed. It stores the pigment (phycoerythrobilin, the red algal photosynthetic pigment, r-phycoerythrin, minus its protein) in muscular ink-release vesicles within the ink gland. Snails fed a diet of green seaweed or romaine lettuce do not secrete ink and their ink-release vesicles are largely devoid of ink. Successive activation of individual ink-release vesicles by ink motor neurons causes them to secrete approximately 55 % of their remaining ink (similar to the percentage of ink reserves released from the intact gland)...
May 1998: Journal of Experimental Biology
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