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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934632/in-vivo-biomechanical-behavior-of-the-trapeziometacarpal-joint-in-healthy-and-osteoarthritic-subjects
#1
Priscilla D'Agostino, Benjamin Dourthe, Faes Kerkhof, G Harry Van Lenthe, Filip Stockmans, Evie E Vereecke
BACKGROUND: The contact biomechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint have been investigated in several studies. However, these led to conflicting results and were mostly performed in vitro. The purpose of this study was to provide further insight on the contact biomechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint by in vivo assessment of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects. METHODS: The hands of 16 healthy women and 6 women with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis were scanned in positions of maximal thumb extension, flexion, abduction and adduction during three isometric tasks (lateral key pinch, power grasp and jar twist) and in thumb rest posture (relaxed neutral)...
September 12, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934198/-koko-et-les-lunettes-magiques-an-educational-entertainment-tool-to-prevent-parasitic-worms-and-diarrheal-diseases-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#2
Clémence Essé, Véronique A Koffi, Abel Kouamé, Kouassi Dongo, Richard B Yapi, Honorine M Moro, Christiane A Kouakou, Marta S Palmeirim, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933905/grasp-representations-depend-on-knowledge-and-attention
#3
Kao-Wei Chua, Daniel N Bub, Michael E J Masson, Isabel Gauthier
Seeing pictures of objects activates the motor cortex and can have an influence on subsequent grasping actions. However, the exact nature of the motor representations evoked by these pictures is unclear. For example, action plans engaged by pictures could be most affected by direct visual input and computed online based on object shape. Alternatively, action plans could be influenced by experience seeing and grasping these objects. We provide evidence for a dual-route theory of action representations evoked by pictures of objects, suggesting that these representations are influenced by both direct visual input and stored knowledge...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931796/epidemiological-study-on-trichophyton-disseminating-from-the-feet-of-the-elderly
#4
Shusaku Suzuki, Yoko Mano, Nobuhiko Furuya, Katsumi Fujitani
OBJECTIVES: To grasp the colonization status of Trichophyton in terms of spreading rate, we investigated the intergenerational epidemiological difference in the spreading rate of Trichophyton from teenagers to the elderly aged over 65. In addition, the elderly people were divided into two groups: those living at nursing homes and those living at their homes. We compared the two groups in terms of the difference in the spreading rate of Trichophyton. METHODS: Spreading rate was investigated by identifying the fungi collected by the cotton swab sampling method...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931614/phase-dependent-deficits-during-reach-to-grasp-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
Most cervical spinal cord injuries result in asymmetrical functional impairments in hand and arm function. However, the extent to which reach-to-grasp movements are affected in humans with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) remains poorly understood. Using kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) recordings in hand and arm muscles we studied the different phases of unilateral self-paced reach-to-grasp movements (arm acceleration, hand opening and closing) to a small cylinder in the more and less affected arms of individuals with cervical SCI and age-matched controls...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926418/hemispheric-dominance-for-stereognosis-in-a-patient-with-an-infarct-of-the-left-postcentral-sensory-hand-area
#6
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The concept of left hemispheric dominance for praxis, speech, and language has been one of the pillars of neurology since the mid-19th century. In 1906, Hermann Oppenheim reported a patient with bilateral stereoagnosia (astereognosis) caused by a left parietal lobe tumor and proposed that the left hemisphere was also dominant for stereognosis. Surprisingly, few cases of bilateral stereoagnosia caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion have been documented in the literature since then. Here we report a 75-year-old right-handed man who developed bilateral stereoagnosia after suffering a small infarct in the crown of the left postcentral gyrus...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923090/mapping-occurrence-of-taenia-solium-taeniosis-cysticercosis-and-areas-at-risk-of-porcine-cysticercosis-in-central-america-and-the-caribbean-basin
#7
Uffe Christian Braae, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Fortune Sithole, Ziqi Wang, Arve Lee Willingham
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis at national level within Central America and the Caribbean basin, and to map the distribution of porcine cysticercosis at first-level administrative subdivision level (department level) and the porcine population at risk. This zoonotic parasite is believed to be widely endemic across most of Latin America. However, there is little information readily available for Central America and the Caribbean basin...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922705/from-ancient-to-avant-garde-a-review-of-traditional-and-modern-multimodal-approaches-to-surgical-anatomy-education
#8
REVIEW
Minhao Hu, David Wattchow, Dayan de Fontgalland
The landscape of surgical anatomy education is progressively changing. Traditional methods, such as cadaveric dissection and didacticism are being increasingly phased out in undergraduate courses for multimodal approaches incorporating problem-based learning, radiology and computer-based simulations. Although effective at clinically contextualizing and integrating anatomical information, these approaches may be a poor substitute for fostering a grasp of foundational 'pure' anatomy. Dissection is ideal for this purpose and hence remains the cornerstone of anatomical education...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922126/functional-contour-following-via-haptic-perception-and-reinforcement-learning
#9
Randall B Hellman, Cem Tekin, Mihaela van der Schaar, Veronica J Santos
Many tasks involve the fine manipulation of objects despite limited visual feedback. In such scenarios, tactile and proprioceptive feedback can be leveraged for task completion. We present an approach for real-time haptic perception and decision-making for a haptics-driven, functional contour-following task: the closure of a ziplock bag. This task is challenging for robots because the bag is deformable, transparent, and visually occluded by artificial fingertip sensors that are also compliant. A deep neural net classifier was trained to estimate the state of a zipper within a robot's pinch grasp...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916824/grip-force-when-reaching-with-target-uncertainty-provides-evidence-for-motor-optimization-over-averaging
#10
Joseph Y Nashed, Jonathan S Diamond, Jason P Gallivan, Daniel M Wolpert, J Randall Flanagan
When presented with competing potential reach targets and required to launch a movement before knowing which one will be cued as the target, people initially reach in the average target direction. Although this spatial averaging could arise from executing a weighted average of motor plans for the potential targets, it could also arise from planning a single, optimal movement. To test between these alternatives we used a task in which participants were required to reach to either a single target or towards two potential targets while grasping an object...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912745/emotional-empathic-responses-to-dynamic-negative-affective-stimuli-is-gender-dependent
#11
Kim P C Kuypers
Empathy entails the ability to recognize emotional states in others and feel for them. Since empathy does not take place in a static setting, paradigms utilizing more naturalistic, dynamic stimuli instead of static stimuli are perhaps more suited to grasp the origin of this highly complex social skill. The study was set up to test the effect of stimulus dynamics and gender on empathic responses. Participants were 80 healthy volunteers (N = 40 males) aged 22.5 years on average. Behavioral empathy was tested with the multifaceted empathy test, including static emotional stimuli, and the multidimensional movie empathy test (MMET), including dynamic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912392/-refracture-prevention-and-rehabilitation
#12
Hiroaki Fujita
Osteoporosis Liaison Service(OLS)is not only the fracture prevention of the onset, and the refracture prevention holds important positioning. For OLS activity in the hospitals of the fracture risk by FRAX grasp it, and it is important to evaluate the fall risk. What an interval, a motor function including the lower limbs muscular strength evaluate in a fall risk evaluation and TUG and walking speed temporarily for a fall risk evaluation for, the eye opening single leg right time to leave is desirable. It is a problem that an evaluation and treatment for osteoporosis are insufficient by recent DPC induction...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910670/mental-imagery-of-gravitational-motion
#13
Silvio Gravano, Myrka Zago, Francesco Lacquaniti
There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight...
August 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904799/clinical-significance-of-measuring-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-sepsis
#14
Toshiaki Iba, Jecko Thachil
BACKGROUND: Disseminated thrombotic process in the microcirculation is considered to be an important cause of multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis. The fundamental purpose of this prothrombotic change was believed to be in the host defense against microbial dissemination. In that process, antifibrinolytic property plays an important role. MAIN BODY: For the understanding of pathophysiology of sepsis, it is quite useful to grasp the alterations in coagulation/fibrinolytic parameters, i...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904648/metacognition-modules-a-scaffolded-series-of-online-assignments-designed-to-improve-students-study-skills
#15
Jean A Cardinale, Bethany C Johnson
Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students' lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students' inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902723/evaluation-of-transient-motion-during-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-multiphasic-liver-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-free-breathing-golden-angle-radial-sparse-parallel-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Jeong Hee Yoon, Jeong Min Lee, Mi Hye Yu, Bo Yun Hur, Robert Grimm, Kai Tobias Block, Hersh Chandarana, Berthold Kiefer, Yohan Son
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to observe the pattern of transient motion after gadoxetic acid administration including incidence, onset, and duration, and to evaluate the clinical feasibility of free-breathing gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging using golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) imaging with respiratory gating. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, 59 patients who provided informed consents were analyzed...
September 11, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901818/brachialis-muscle-transfer-for-reconstructing-digital-flexion-after-brachial-plexus-injury-or-forearm-injury
#17
Yun-Dong Shen, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Xu-Yun Hua, Yan-Qun Qiu, Ke-Jia Hu, Wen-Dong Xu
Restoration of digital flexion after brachial plexus injury or forearm injury has been a great challenge for hand surgeons. Nerve transfer and forearm donor muscle transfer surgeries are not always feasible. The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of restoring digital flexion by brachialis muscle transfer. Ten lower brachial plexus- or forearm-injured patients were enrolled. After at least 12 months following surgery, the middle-finger-to-palm distance was less than 2.5 cm in six patients...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900689/viewing-geometry-determines-the-contribution-of-binocular-vision-to-the-online-control-of-grasping
#18
Bruce D Keefe, Simon J Watt
Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900393/postural-hand-synergies-during-environmental-constraint-exploitation
#19
Cosimo Della Santina, Matteo Bianchi, Giuseppe Averta, Simone Ciotti, Visar Arapi, Simone Fani, Edoardo Battaglia, Manuel Giuseppe Catalano, Marco Santello, Antonio Bicchi
Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891465/unusual-prism-adaptation-reveals-how-grasping-is-controlled
#20
Willemijn D Schot, Eli Brenner, Jeroen Bj Smeets
There are three main theories on how human grasping movements are controlled. Two of them state that grip aperture and the movement of the hand are controlled. They differ in whether the wrist or the thumb of the hand is controlled. We have proposed a third theory, which states that grasping is a combination of two goal-directed single-digit movements, each directed at a specific position on the object. In this study, we test predictions based on each of the theories by examining the transfer of prism adaptation during single-digit pointing movements to grasping movements...
September 11, 2017: ELife
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