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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912051/what-we-talk-about-when-we-talk-about-emotions
#1
(no author information available yet)
Emotions are a fundamental part of our living experience, yet our grasp on what they are and how to study them is still tenuous. Cell editor Mirna Kvajo talked with Joe LeDoux, Cristina Alberini, and Liz Phelps about the challenges in researching emotions and whether studies in animals can teach us about them. An excerpt of the conversation appears below, and the full conversation is available with the article online.
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910461/a-novel-microgripper-hybrid-driven-by-a-piezoelectric-stack-actuator-and-piezoelectric-cantilever-actuators
#2
Weilin Chen, Xianmin Zhang, Sergej Fatikow
For the piezo-driven microgripper, one issue is to enlarge the grasping stroke and realize parallel grasping movement in the compact design. Piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA) and piezoelectric cantilever actuator (PCA) are two kinds of typical piezoelectric actuators. In this study, a novel microgripper hybrid driven by a PSA and two PCAs is proposed, which can be a better solution for the issue, compared with the previous microgripper using PSA-driven multi-stages displacement amplification mechanism (DAM) or using longer and narrower PCAs...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909024/toward-high-school-biology-helping-middle-school-students-understand-chemical-reactions-and-conservation-of-mass-in-nonliving-and-living-systems
#3
Cari F Herrmann-Abell, Mary Koppal, Jo Ellen Roseman
Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905056/principal-covariates-clusterwise-regression-pccr-accounting-for-multicollinearity-and-population-heterogeneity-in-hierarchically-organized-data
#4
Tom Frans Wilderjans, Eva Vande Gaer, Henk A L Kiers, Iven Van Mechelen, Eva Ceulemans
In the behavioral sciences, many research questions pertain to a regression problem in that one wants to predict a criterion on the basis of a number of predictors. Although in many cases, ordinary least squares regression will suffice, sometimes the prediction problem is more challenging, for three reasons: first, multiple highly collinear predictors can be available, making it difficult to grasp their mutual relations as well as their relations to the criterion. In that case, it may be very useful to reduce the predictors to a few summary variables, on which one regresses the criterion and which at the same time yields insight into the predictor structure...
November 30, 2016: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904657/negative-campaigning-and-the-logic-of-retaliation-in-multiparty-competition
#5
Martin Dolezal, Laurenz Ennser-Jedenastik, Wolfgang C Müller
The extant literature has demonstrated that the logic of retaliation is a core feature of negative campaigning. Attacks by one side induce counterattacks by the other. Yet most research on the interactive nature of negative campaigning is limited to two-party competition and provides little theoretical justification for why political actors should respond to attacks with counterattacks. The present paper addresses these research gaps. We argue that the negativity bias in human information processing and the zero-sum nature of elections make retaliation a rational strategy...
April 2016: Int J Press Polit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904472/clearing-the-corpses-regulatory-mechanisms-novel-tools-and-therapeutic-potential-of-harnessing-microglial-phagocytosis-in-the-diseased-brain
#6
REVIEW
Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Sol Beccari, Oihane Abiega, Amanda Sierra
Apoptosis is a widespread phenomenon that occurs in the brain in both physiological and pathological conditions. Dead cells must be quickly removed to avoid the further toxic effects they exert in the parenchyma, a process executed by microglia, the brain professional phagocytes. Although phagocytosis is critical to maintain tissue homeostasis, it has long been either overlooked or indirectly assessed based on microglial morphology, expression of classical activation markers, or engulfment of artificial phagocytic targets in vitro...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903951/a-management-algorithm-for-retained-rectal-foreign-bodies
#7
Shamir O Cawich, Dexter A Thomas, Fawwaz Mohammed, Nahmorah J Bobb, Dorothy Williams, Vijay Naraynsingh
Few authors have proposed therapeutic protocols to manage retained rectal foreign bodies (RFBs). All patients with retained RFBs in hospitals across Trinidad and Tobago over 5 years were identified. Hospital records were retrieved and manually reviewed to extract the following data: demographics, history, foreign body retrieved, clinical signs at presentation, management strategy, duration of hospitalization, and morbidity and mortality. There were 10 patients with RFBs over the study period. The annual incidence of this phenomenon was 0...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900947/continuous-decoding-of-human-grasp-kinematics-using-epidural-and-subdural-signals
#8
Robert D Flint, Joshua M Rosenow, Matthew C Tate, Marc W Slutzky
OBJECTIVE: Restoring or replacing function in paralyzed individuals will one day be achieved through the use of brain-machine interfaces. Regaining hand function is a major goal for paralyzed patients. Two competing prerequisites for the widespread adoption of any hand neuroprosthesis are accurate control over the fine details of movement, and minimized invasiveness. Here, we explore the interplay between these two goals by comparing our ability to decode hand movements with subdural and epidural field potentials (EFPs)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900716/corr-insights-%C3%A2-reduction-in-cylindrical-grasp-strength-is-associated-with-early-thumb-carpometacarpal-osteoarthritis
#9
Nash H Naam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896631/selective-weighting-of-action-related-feature-dimensions-in-visual-working-memory
#10
Anna Heuer, Anna Schubö
Planning an action primes feature dimensions that are relevant for that particular action, increasing the impact of these dimensions on perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether action planning also affects the short-term maintenance of visual information. In a combined memory and movement task, participants were to memorize items defined by size or color while preparing either a grasping or a pointing movement. Whereas size is a relevant feature dimension for grasping, color can be used to localize the goal object and guide a pointing movement...
November 28, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896018/development-and-preliminary-results-of-bimanual-smart-micro-surgical-system-using-a-ball-lens-coupled-oct-distance-sensor
#11
Dongwoo Koo, Hyun-Cheol Park, Peter L Gehlbach, Cheol Song
Bimanual surgery enhances surgical effectiveness and is required to successfully accomplish complex microsurgical tasks. The essential advantage is the ability to simultaneously grasp tissue with one hand to provide counter traction or exposure, while dissecting with the other. Towards enhancing the precision and safety of bimanual microsurgery we present a bimanual SMART micro-surgical system for a preliminary ex-vivo study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a handheld bimanual microsurgical system...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895550/closed-loop-task-difficulty-adaptation-during-virtual-reality-reach-to-grasp-training-assisted-with-an-exoskeleton-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#12
Florian Grimm, Georgios Naros, Alireza Gharabaghi
Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing "assistance-as-needed" during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge. We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894827/prehensile-and-non-prehensile-tails-among-syngnathid-fishes-what-s-the-difference
#13
Céline Neutens, Bart de Dobbelaer, Peter Claes, Dominique Adriaens
All syngnathid fishes are characterized by a tail with a vertebral column that is surrounded by dermal Plates - four per vertebra. Seahorses and pipehorses have prehensile tails, a unique characteristic among teleosts that allows them to grasp and hold onto substrates. Pipefishes, in contrast, possess a more rigid tail. Previous research (Neutens et al., 2014) showed a wide range of variation within the skeletal morphology of different members in the syngnathid family. The goal of this study is to explore whether the diversity in the three-dimensional (3D) shape of different tail types reflects grasping performance, and to what degree grasping tails occupy a different and more constrained diversity...
November 18, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894595/do-visual-illusions-affect-grasping-considerable-progress-in-a-scientific-debate-a-reply-to-whitwell-goodale-2016
#14
Karl K Kopiske, Nicola Bruno, Constanze Hesse, Thomas Schenk, Volker H Franz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891088/an-emg-interface-for-the-control-of-motion-and-compliance-of-a-supernumerary-robotic-finger
#15
Irfan Hussain, Giovanni Spagnoletti, Gionata Salvietti, Domenico Prattichizzo
In this paper, we propose a novel electromyographic (EMG) control interface to control motion and joints compliance of a supernumerary robotic finger. The supernumerary robotic fingers are a recently introduced class of wearable robotics that provides users additional robotic limbs in order to compensate or augment the existing abilities of natural limbs without substituting them. Since supernumerary robotic fingers are supposed to closely interact and perform actions in synergy with the human limbs, the control principles of extra finger should have similar behavior as human's ones including the ability of regulating the compliance...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890880/myopericarditis-in-a-case-of-anti-signal-recognition-particle-anti-srp-antibody-positive-myopathy
#16
Mariko Tanaka, Naoki Gamou, Hirohiko Shizukawa, Emiko Tsuda, Shun Shimohama
A 79 year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of high serum creatine kinase level together with proximal muscle weakness and pain on grasping. MRI revealed inflammatory changes in femoral muscles on both sides. Muscle biopsy showed size irregularity of muscle cells, and necrosis and regeneration of fibers. Study of antibodies was also consistent with the diagnostic criteria of anti-signal recognition particle (anti-SRP) antibody-positive myopathy. On admission, the patient required pericardiocentesis for the management of exudative pericarditis...
November 25, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#17
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886172/fundamental-rate-loss-trade-off-for-the-quantum-internet
#18
Koji Azuma, Akihiro Mizutani, Hoi-Kwong Lo
The quantum internet holds promise for achieving quantum communication-such as quantum teleportation and quantum key distribution (QKD)-freely between any clients all over the globe, as well as for the simulation of the evolution of quantum many-body systems. The most primitive function of the quantum internet is to provide quantum entanglement or a secret key to two points efficiently, by using intermediate nodes connected by optical channels with each other. Here we derive a fundamental rate-loss trade-off for a quantum internet protocol, by generalizing the Takeoka-Guha-Wilde bound to be applicable to any network topology...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886080/three-dimensional-object-recognition-and-registration-for-robotic-grasping-systems-using-a-modified-viewpoint-feature-histogram
#19
Chin-Sheng Chen, Po-Chun Chen, Chih-Ming Hsu
This paper presents a novel 3D feature descriptor for object recognition and to identify poses when there are six-degrees-of-freedom for mobile manipulation and grasping applications. Firstly, a Microsoft Kinect sensor is used to capture 3D point cloud data. A viewpoint feature histogram (VFH) descriptor for the 3D point cloud data then encodes the geometry and viewpoint, so an object can be simultaneously recognized and registered in a stable pose and the information is stored in a database. The VFH is robust to a large degree of surface noise and missing depth information so it is reliable for stereo data...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885163/clinically-important-difference-of-the-arm-motor-ability-test-in-stroke-survivors
#20
George Fulk, Rebecca Martin, Stephen J Page
BACKGROUND: The Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) is used to assess and quantify upper-extremity (UE) functional limitation in stroke and other conditions. However, the AMAT score change indicative of important and clinically meaningful change has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinically important difference (CID) for the AMAT for individuals with stroke exhibiting mild to moderate hemiparesis. METHODS: A total of 146 chronic stroke survivors exhibiting stable, mild to moderate UE hemiparesis were administered the AMAT before and after interventions targeting their affected UEs...
November 23, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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