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Tomoya Takabayashi, Mutsuaki Edama, Erika Yokoyama, Chiaki Kanaya, Takuma Inai, Yuta Tokunaga, Masayoshi Kubo
BACKGROUND: Understanding the concept of kinematic coupling is essential when selecting the appropriate therapeutic strategy and grasping mechanisms for the occurrence of injuries. A previous study reported that kinematic coupling between the rearfoot and shank during running and walking were different. However, because foot mobility involves not only the rearfoot but also the midfoot or forefoot, kinematic coupling is likely to occur among the rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot segments...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Ji-Hye Do, Won-Gyu Yoo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a visual feedback-equipped reacher when performing reach-to-grasp tasks. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen healthy participants with no illnesses or physical disabilities were selected for this study. Activation of the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum muscles was assessed using electromyography. Wrist and shoulder momentums were calculated using a three-axis acceleration sensor. Participants were instructed to move 10 ears of plastic corn from right to left using a reacher with and without visual feedback...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Jae Hong Lee, Dong Ki Min, Han Seong Choe, Jin Hwan Lee, So Hong Shin
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of arm and leg posture elements on symmetrical weight bearing during Sit to Stand tasks in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were diagnosed with stroke and 22 patients (15 males and 7 females) participated in this study. All participants performed Sit to Stand tasks on three foot postures and two arm postures. Two force plates were used to measure peak of vertical ground reaction force and symmetrical ratio to peak Fz...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Emily K Prentiss, Colleen L Schneider, Zoë R Williams, Bogachan Sahin, Bradford Z Mahon
The division of labour between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways is well established. The ventral stream supports object identification, while the dorsal stream supports online processing of visual information in the service of visually guided actions. Here, we report a case of an individual with a right inferior quadrantanopia who exhibited accurate spontaneous rotation of his wrist when grasping a target object in his blind visual field. His accurate wrist orientation was observed despite the fact that he exhibited no sensitivity to the orientation of the handle in a perceptual matching task...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Jolanda van Dijke, Inge van Nistelrooij, Pien Bos, Joachim Duyndam
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a contested concept in the field of care ethics. According to its proponents, empathy is a unique way to connect with others, to understand what is at stake for them, and to help guide moral deliberation. According to its critics, empathy is biased, inaccurate or a form of projection that does not truly grasp and respect the otherness of the other, and that may be distorted by prejudices. OBJECTIVES: We aim to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of empathy in care ethics by reviewing both the functions and limitations of empathy in this field...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Dustin T Han, Mohamed Suhail, Eric D Ragan
Virtual reality often uses motion tracking to incorporate physical hand movements into interaction techniques for selection and manipulation of virtual objects. To increase realism and allow direct hand interaction, real-world physical objects can be aligned with virtual objects to provide tactile feedback and physical grasping. However, unless a physical space is custom configured to match a specific virtual reality experience, the ability to perfectly match the physical and virtual objects is limited. Our research addresses this challenge by studying methods that allow one physical object to be mapped to multiple virtual objects that can exist at different virtual locations in an egocentric reference frame...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Teenu Sanjeevan, David A Rosenbaum, Elina Mainela-Arnold
Purpose: Specific language impairment (SLI) affects many children, but its symptomatology is still being characterized. An emerging view, which challenges the notion that SLI is specific to language, is that SLI may actually reflect a domain-general deficit in procedural learning. We explored an extension of this hypothesis that a core deficit in SLI involves a domain-general problem in planning. Method: We used a dowel-transport task to study the extent to which 13 children with SLI and 14 typically developing (TD) controls (ages over both groups between 8;10 [years;months] and 12;11) would adopt initially awkward grasps that ensured comfortable final grasps when reaching out to move a dowel from 1 position to another (the end-state comfort effect)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, that seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mary E Orczykowski, Kevin R Arndt, Lauren E Palitz, Brian C Kramer, Monica A Pessina, Adrian L Oblak, Seth P Finklestein, Farzad Mortazavi, Douglas L Rosene, Tara L Moore
Stroke results in enduring damage to the brain which is accompanied by innate neurorestorative processes, such as reorganization of surviving circuits. Nevertheless, patients are often left with permanent residual impairments. Cell based therapy is an emerging therapeutic that may function to enhance the innate neurorestorative capacity of the brain. We previously evaluated human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in our non-human primate model of cortical injury limited to the hand area of primary motor cortex...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
John Russell, Emily Lodge, Cynthia Andoniadou
<br>As a central regulator of major physiological processes, the pituitary gland is a highly dynamic organ, capable of responding to hormonal demand and hypothalamic influence, through adapting secretion as well as remodelling cell numbers among its seven populations of differentiated cells. Stem cells of the pituitary have been shown to actively generate new cells during postnatal development but remain mostly quiescent during adulthood, where they persist as a long-lived population. Despite a significant body of research characterising attributes of anterior pituitary stem cells, the regulation of this population is poorly understood...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Filipe Prazeres, Luiz Santiago
Background: The presence of multimorbidity in the family practice setting is as evident as it is hard to measure. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the differences in the prevalence of multimorbidity in a single primary care population, through the use of the only two available lists of chronic conditions based on the International Classification for Primary Care coding system. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, analytical study...
March 10, 2018: Family Practice
Jian-Wen Li, Feng Ye, Da-Wei Bi, Xiao-Dong Zheng, Jian-Liang Chen
OBJECTIVE: To discusses the clinical effects of arthroscopy combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis(MIPPO) technology in treating Schatzker IV tibial plateau fractures. METHODS: From January 2012 to January 2016, 19 patients with Schatzker type IV tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopy combined with minimally invasive technique including 12 males and 7 females with an average age of 46.5 years old ranging from 19 to 78 years old...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
Islets of Langerhans are islands of endocrine cells scattered throughout the pancreas. A number of new studies have pointed to the potential for conversion of non-β islet cells in to insulin-producing β-cells to replenish β-cell mass as a means to treat diabetes. Understanding normal islet cell mass and function is important to help advance such treatment modalities: what should be the target islet/β-cell mass, does islet architecture matter to energy homeostasis, and what may happen if we lose a particular population of islet cells in favour of β-cells? These are all questions to which we will need answers for islet replacement therapy by transdifferentiation of non-β islet cells to be a reality in humans...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Giuseppe Placidi, Luigi Cinque, Matteo Polsinelli, Matteo Spezialetti
Hand rehabilitation is fundamental after stroke or surgery. Traditional rehabilitation requires a therapist and implies high costs, stress for the patient, and subjective evaluation of the therapy effectiveness. Alternative approaches, based on mechanical and tracking-based gloves, can be really effective when used in virtual reality (VR) environments. Mechanical devices are often expensive, cumbersome, patient specific and hand specific, while tracking-based devices are not affected by these limitations but, especially if based on a single tracking sensor, could suffer from occlusions...
March 10, 2018: Sensors
Patrick D Ganzer, Michael J Darrow, Eric C Meyers, Bleyda R Solorzano, Andrea D Ruiz, Nicole M Robertson, Katherine S Adcock, Justin T James, Han S Jeong, April M Becker, Mark P Goldberg, David T Pruitt, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker
Recovery from serious neurological injury requires substantial rewiring of neural circuits. Precisely-timed electrical stimulation could be used to restore corrective feedback mechanisms and promote adaptive plasticity after neurological insult, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke. This study provides the first evidence that closed-loop vagus nerve stimulation (CLV) based on the synaptic eligibility trace leads to dramatic recovery from the most common forms of SCI. The addition of CLV to rehabilitation promoted substantially more recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitation alone following chronic unilateral or bilateral cervical SCI in a rat model...
March 13, 2018: ELife
D Crivelli, M D Sabogal Rueda, M Balconi
The present work aimed at exploring functional correlates of motor and linguistic representations of everyday actions, with a specific interest in potential sensorimotor activation effects induced by the use of related action sentences. While it is indeed known that observing simple motor acts (e.g., precision grasping) and listening to the sound of specific actions (e.g., walking) activate sensorimotor structures, less is known when we move to more complex behaviors and more abstract linguistic representations (e...
March 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
John Haldon, Lee Mordechai, Timothy P Newfield, Arlen F Chase, Adam Izdebski, Piotr Guzowski, Inga Labuhn, Neil Roberts
History and archaeology have a well-established engagement with issues of premodern societal development and the interaction between physical and cultural environments; together, they offer a holistic view that can generate insights into the nature of cultural resilience and adaptation, as well as responses to catastrophe. Grasping the challenges that climate change presents and evolving appropriate policies that promote and support mitigation and adaptation requires not only an understanding of the science and the contemporary politics, but also an understanding of the history of the societies affected and in particular of their cultural logic...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, David Gonzalez, Mina Nouredanesh, James Tung
Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position...
2018: PloS One
Olena Vasylenko, Marta M Gorecka, Claudia Rodríguez-Aranda
This study aimed to better characterize age-related differences in dexterity by using an integrative approach where movement times and kinematics were measured for both hands. Forty-five young (age 19-31) and 55 healthy older adults (age 60-88) were evaluated during unimanual and bimanual performance of the Purdue Pegboard Test. Gender effects were also assessed. From video-recorded data, movement times and kinematics were obtained for reaching, grasping, transport, and inserting. Results showed that older adults had longer movement times for grasping and inserting with the right hand, and across all movements with the left hand...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Olivier White, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Humans have a remarkable ability to adjust the way they manipulate tools through a genuine regulation of grip force according to the task. However, rapid changes in the dynamical context may challenge this skill, as shown in many experimental approaches. Most experiments adopt perturbation paradigms that affect only one sensory modality. We hypothesize that very fast adaptation can occur if coherent information from multiple sensory modalities is provided to the central nervous system. Here, we test whether participants can switch between different and never experienced dynamical environments induced by centrifugation of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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