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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092388/exploration-and-analysis-of-drug-modes-of-action-through-feature-integration
#1
Mingyuan Xin, Jun Fan, Mingyao Liu, Zhenran Jiang
Identifying drug modes of action (MoA) is of paramount importance for having a good grasp of drug indications in clinical tests. Anticipating MoA can help to discover new uses for approved drugs. Here we first used a drug-set enrichment analysis method to discover significant biological activities in every mode of action category. Then, we proposed a new computational model, a probability ensemble approach based on Bayesian network theory, which integrated chemical, therapeutic, genomic and phenotypic properties of over a thousand of FDA approved drugs to assist with the prediction of MoA...
January 16, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087121/upper-extremity-outcome-measures-for-collagen-vi-related-myopathy-and-lama2-related-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Roxanna M Bendixen, Jocelyn Butrum, Mina S Jain, Rebecca Parks, Bonnie Hodsdon, Carmel Nichols, Michelle Hsia, Leslie Nelson, Katherine C Keller, Michelle McGuire, Jeffrey S Elliott, Melody M Linton, Irene C Arveson, Fatou Tounkara, Ruhi Vasavada, Elizabeth Harnett, Monal Punjabi, Sandra Donkervoort, Jahannaz Dastgir, Meganne E Leach, Anne Rutkowski, Melissa Waite, James Collins, Carsten G Bönnemann, Katherine G Meilleur
Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) comprises a rare group of genetic muscle diseases that present at birth or early during infancy. Two common subtypes of CMD are collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). Traditional outcome measures in CMD include gross motor and mobility assessments, yet significant motor declines underscore the need for valid upper extremity motor assessments as a clinical endpoint. This study validated a battery of upper extremity measures in these two CMD subtypes for future clinical trials...
December 5, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078196/prosthetic-jamming-terminal-device-a-case-study-of-untethered-soft-robotics
#3
Nadia Cheng, John Amend, Todd Farrell, Debra Latour, Carlos Martinez, Jen Johansson, Anthony McNicoll, Marek Wartenberg, Samuel Naseef, William Hanson, William Culley
This article illuminates the major and often overlooked challenge of untethering soft robotic systems through the context of recent work, in which soft robotic gripper technology enabled by jamming of granular media was applied to a prosthetic jamming terminal device (PJTD). The PJTD's technical and market feasibility was evaluated in a pilot study with two upper-limb amputees. A PJTD prototype was tested against a commercial device (Motion Control electric terminal service with a one degree-of-freedom pinching mechanism) using two existing hand function tests: the first quantified the device's speed in picking and placing small blocks and the second evaluated a person's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs)...
December 1, 2016: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077725/encoding-of-both-reaching-and-grasping-kinematics-in-dorsal-and-ventral-premotor-cortices
#4
Kazutaka Takahashi, Matthew D Best, Noah Huh, Kevin A Brown, Adil A Tobaa, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
: Classically, it has been hypothesized that reach-to-grasp movements arise from two discrete parieto-frontal cortical networks. As part of these networks, the dorsal premotor cortex has been implicated in the control of reaching movements of the arm, while the ventral premotor cortex has been associated with the control of grasping movements of the hand. Recent studies have shown that such a strict delineation of function along anatomical boundaries is unlikely partly because reaching to different locations can alter distal hand kinematics and grasping different objects can affect kinematics of the proximal arm; Here, we used chronically implanted multi-electrode arrays to record unit spiking activity in both PMd and PMv simultaneously while rhesus macaques engaged in a reach-to-grasp task...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070622/haptic-feedback-attenuates-illusory-bias-in-pantomime-grasping-evidence-for-a-visuo-haptic-calibration
#5
Jillian Chan, Matthew Heath
Relative visual information has been shown to mediate grasping responses directed to an area previously occupied by a target object (i.e., pantomime-grasping) and is an information type functionally distinct from the absolute visual information supporting naturalistic grasping (i.e., grasping a physical target). Pantomime- and naturalistic grasps differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former lacks physical interaction with a target object (i.e., no-haptic feedback). The absence of haptic feedback may represent a reason why pantomime- and naturalistic grasps differ...
January 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067851/detection-location-and-grasping-objects-using-a-stereo-sensor-on-uav-in-outdoor-environments
#6
Pablo Ramon Soria, Begoña C Arrue, Anibal Ollero
The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position...
January 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067262/sec16a-is-critical-for-both-conventional-and-unconventional-secretion-of-cftr
#7
He Piao, Jiyoon Kim, Shin Hye Noh, Hee-Seok Kweon, Joo Young Kim, Min Goo Lee
CFTR is a transmembrane protein that reaches the cell surface via the conventional Golgi mediated secretion pathway. Interestingly, ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces alternative GRASP-mediated, Golgi-bypassing unconventional trafficking of wild-type CFTR and the disease-causing ΔF508-CFTR, which has folding and trafficking defects. Here, we show that Sec16A, the key regulator of conventional ER-to-Golgi transport, plays a critical role in the ER exit of protein cargos during unconventional secretion...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066613/tracheal-suspension-by-using-3-dimensional-printed-personalized-scaffold-in-a-patient-with-tracheomalacia
#8
Lijun Huang, Lei Wang, Jiankang He, Jinbo Zhao, Daixing Zhong, Guanying Yang, Ting Guo, Xiaolong Yan, Lixiang Zhang, Dichen Li, Tiesheng Cao, Xiaofei Li
The major methods are used to fix or stabilize the central airways and major bronchi with either anterior suspension and/or posterior fixation for severe tracheomalacia (TM). Many support biomaterials, like mesh and sternal plate, can be used in the surgery. But there are no specialized biomaterials for TM which must be casually fabricated by the doctors in operation. Three dimensional printing (3DP) has currently untapped potential to provide custom, protean devices for challenging and life-threatening disease processes...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059514/myelography-iodinated-contrast-media-ii-conformational-versatility-of-iopamidol-in-the-solid-state
#9
Barbara Bellich, Silvia Di Fonzo, Letizia Tavagnacco, Marco Paolantoni, Claudio Masciovecchio, Federica Bertolotti, Giovanna Giannini, Rita De Zorzi, Silvano Geremia, Alessandro Maiocchi, Fulvio Uggeri, Norberto Masciocchi, Attilio Cesàro
The phenomenon of polymorphism is of great relevance in pharmaceutics, since different polymorphs have different physico-chemical properties, e.g. solubility, hence, bioavailability. Coupling diffractometric and spectroscopic experiments with thermodynamic analysis and computational work opens to a methodological approach which provides information on both structure and dynamics in the solid as well as in solution. The present work reports on the conformational changes in crystalline iopamidol, which is characterized by atropisomerism, a phenomenon that influences both the solution properties and the distinct crystal phases...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052420/a-novel-approach-to-brachycephalic-syndrome-3-isolated-laser-assisted-turbinectomy-of-caudal-aberrant-turbinates-cat-late
#10
Riccarda Schuenemann, Sabine Pohl, Gerhard U Oechtering
OBJECTIVE: To describe isolated laser-assisted turbinectomy of caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT LATE) as a new minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of brachycephalic dogs with obstructing caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: Brachycephalic dogs (24 Pugs, 1 English Bulldog) with CAT but adequate air spaces between the lamellae of the nonobstructing ventral nasal concha. METHODS: A rhinoscopically guided diode laser fiber introduced from anterior was used to dissect CAT within the nasopharyngeal meatus, while leaving the intranasal turbinates intact...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050712/optimizing-the-use-of-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-for-atrial-fibrilation-in-primary-care-a-pharmacist-led-intervention
#11
Mandeep S Virdee, Derek Stewart
Background Updated evidence-based guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitate patient review, particularly with respect to oral anticoagulants, to ensure maximum health gain around stroke prophylaxis. Objective To quantify the level of anticoagulation utilisation in patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female) according to evidence-based guidelines and to assess the impact of a pharmacist-led intervention to optimise therapy. Setting Fifteen general medical practices in Liverpool, North-West England with a practice population of 99,129...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050202/sialendoscopy-training-presentation-of-a-realistic-model
#12
Gabriela Robaskewicz Pascoto, Aldo Cassol Stamm, Marcos Lyra
Introduction Several surgical training simulators have been created for residents and young surgeons to gain experience with surgical procedures. Laboratory training is fundamental for acquiring familiarity with the techniques of surgery and skill in handing instruments. Objective The aim of this study is to present a novel simulator for training sialendoscopy. Method This realistic simulator was built with a synthetic thermo-retractile, thermo-sensible rubber which, when combined with different polymers, produces more than 30 different formulas...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049900/effect-of-medical-educational-lectures-by-pharmacists-for-understanding-and-relieving-post-laryngectomy-symptoms
#13
Naomi Hyoguchi, Toshio Kubota, Daisuke Kobayashi, Takao Shimazoe
 Patients who underwent total laryngectomy (TL) are limited in their access to health information and have reduced quality of life because of difficulties in communicating with health providers. Understanding the method for coping with symptoms after TL is important to self-control. However, their understanding and relief regarding the method including medicine use are not well known. In this study, we conducted a current situation survey about symptoms after TL and held medical educational lectures (ML) by pharmacists for the patients...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049725/structural-basis-for-the-interaction-between-golgi-reassembly-stacking-protein-grasp55-and-golgin45
#14
Jianfeng Zhao, Bowen Li, Xiaochen Huang, Xavier Morelli, Ning Shi
Golgin45 is required for normal Golgi structure and the transportation of protein from the ER. It forms a specific complex with GRASP55 in vivo. Little is known regarding the molecular details of this interaction and its structural role in stacking of the Golgi complex. Here, we present the crystal structure of the GRASP domains of GRASP55 in complex with the Golgin45 C-terminal peptide, determined at 1.33 Angstrom resolution. Similar to the structure of GRASP65 bound to GM130 reported recently, this structure reveals more than one interacting site and involves both PDZ1 and PDZ2 GRASP domains simultaneously...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049463/coarse-needle-surface-potentiates-analgesic-effect-elicited-by-acupuncture-with-twirling-manipulation-in-rats-with-nociceptive-pain
#15
Sunoh Kwon, Yangseok Lee, Hi-Joon Park, Dae-Hyun Hahm
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical phenomenon called "needle grasp" through the winding of connective tissue has been proposed as an action mechanism of acupuncture manipulation. The aim of the present study is to verify whether the needle grasp force affects the pain-relieving activity of acupuncture in the tail-flick latency (TFL) and the rat paw formalin tests. METHODS: In order to make different roughness on the acupuncture needle surface, the needles with 0.2 mm-diameter were scratched using silicon carbide sandpapers with the grit numbers of 600 (mild coarse) and 200 (extra coarse)...
January 3, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040904/staphylokinase-displays-surprisingly-low-mechanical-stability
#16
Chengzhi He, Hongbin Li
Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations have revealed that the shear topology is an important structural feature for mechanically stable proteins. Proteins that belong to the -grasp fold display the typical shear topology and are generally of significant mechanical stability. In an effort to experimentally identify mechanically strong proteins using single molecule atomic force microscopy, we, however, found that staphylokinase (SAK), which shows a typical β -grasp fold and was predicted to be mechanically stable in coarse grained MD simulations, displays surprisingly low mechanical stability...
December 31, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038993/inflammaging-and-omics-in-human-longevity
#17
REVIEW
Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi
Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omic data - particularly on glycomics - collected on centenarians, supercentenarians and their offspring. Accordingly, we arrived to the following conclusions: i) inflammaging has a structure where specific combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved; ii) inflammaging is systemic and more complex than we previously thought, as many organs, tissues and cell types participate in producing pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli conceptualized as "molecular garbage"; iii) inflammaging is dynamic, can be propagated locally to neighboring cells and systemically from organ to organ by circulating products and microvesicles, and amplified by chronic age-related diseases constituting a "local fire" which in turn produces additional inflammatory stimuli and molecular garbage; iv) an integrated Systems Medicine approach is urgently needed to let emerge a robust and highly informative set/combination of omic markers able to better grasp the complex molecular core of inflammaging in elderly and centenarians...
December 27, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036184/discovering-a-first-order-phase-transition-in-li-ceo2-system
#18
Kaikai Li, Xiaoye Zhou, Anmin Nie, Sheng Sun, Yan-Bing He, Wei Ren, Baohua Li, Feiyu Kang, Jang-Kyo Kim, Tong-Yi Zhang
An in-depth understanding of (de)lithiation induced phase transition in electrode materials is crucial to grasp their structure-property relationships and provide guidance to the design of more desirable electrodes. By operando synchrotron XRD (SXRD) measurement and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations, we discover a reversible first-order phase transition for the first time during (de)lithiation of CeO2 nanoparticles. The LixCeO2 compound phase is identified to possess the same fluorite crystal structure with FM3M space group as that of the pristine CeO2 nanoparticles...
December 30, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035841/rehabilitation-robotics-for-the-upper-extremity-review-with-new-directions-for-orthopaedic-disorders
#19
Renée M Hakim, Brandon G Tunis, Michael D Ross
The focus of research using technological innovations such as robotic devices has been on interventions to improve upper extremity function in neurologic populations, particularly patients with stroke. There is a growing body of evidence describing rehabilitation programs using various types of supportive/assistive and/or resistive robotic and virtual reality-enhanced devices to improve outcomes for patients with neurologic disorders. The most promising approaches are task-oriented, based on current concepts of motor control/learning and practice-induced neuroplasticity...
December 30, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035624/processing-of-probabilistic-information-in-weight-perception-and-motor-prediction
#20
Leif Trampenau, Thilo van Eimeren, Johann Kuhtz-Buschbeck
We studied the effects of probabilistic cues, i.e., of information of limited certainty, in the context of an action task (GL: grip-lift) and of a perceptual task (WP: weight perception). Normal subjects (n = 22) saw four different probabilistic visual cues, each of which announced the likely weight of an object. In the GL task, the object was grasped and lifted with a pinch grip, and the peak force rates indicated that the grip and load forces were scaled predictively according to the probabilistic information...
December 29, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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